Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas.

Normal fennel seeds (a) and sugar coated and uncoated fennel seeds (b) used in mukhwas.

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Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regard...

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... It has been traditionally used for a variety of disorders affecting the digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems due to various phenolic compounds (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid, quercetin-7-O-glucoside, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin) and EOs (trans-anethole, fenchone, methylchavicol, estragole, d-limonene, fenchoneα-thujene, 1,8-cineole, limonene). Numerous pharmacological effects listed in Table 1 are mostly related to the content of EO and phenolic components (Badgujar et al., 2014). The strong antioxidant capacity and other favorable health properties have led to its use as a functional beverage in our diet (Kontogiorgis et al., 2016). ...
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The functional beverages (FBs) are an important segment of functional food products due to health benefits they provide and their appealing sensory characteristics, suitability and affordability. FBs market offers many opportunities for new product development (nutraceuticals, colorants, plant-based medicines and products) with desirable and effective composition of nutrients and bioactive molecules (BAMs) aimed to deliver health benefits and improve human well-being. Recently, the use of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the production of FBs has become increasingly popular due to specific content of nutrients (amino and fatty acids) and BAMs (volatile and non-volatile) attributed to the biological effects and health benefits. BAMs are stored in leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, barks and roots, and they mostly include phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, tanins, anthocyanins, lignans and stilbenes), essential oils (EOs), terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterols and saponins. The aromatic features of MAPs are mainly related to volatile compounds of EOs, but the presence of non-volatile compounds, such as phenolics, also contributes to the specific sensory properties. Phytochemical profiling of plant species containing specific and complex mixtures of BAMs, provides numerous opportunities for the development of new categories of FBs, but also opens new challenges in their isolation using conventional and advanced extraction techniques, as well as determination of potential biological effects. This review summarizes the categories of the most common FBs, BAMs from selected MAPs and their biological effects, extraction techniques suitable for production of plant extracts and EOs, product quality and prediction trends, and several directions towards future research on FBs development strategies.
... At the beginning of the study, literature sources concerning the use of medicinal herbs in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease were analyzed. It was found that Foeniculum vulgare (Badgujar et al. 2014), Acorus calamus, Potentilla palustris, Petroselinum crispum (Motley 1994), Urtica dioica (Rauf et al. 2021), Inula helenium, Bergenia crassifolia, Veronica officinalis (Joo 2014), Carum carvi, Levisticum officinale (Nematgorgani et al. 2020), Cichorium intybus (Lee et al. 2019), Capsella bursa-pastoris (Oguntibeju 2018), and Equisetum arvense are used both in traditional and in official medicine of Ukraine and other countries due to wide spectra of their pharmacological activity, e.g.: anti-inflammatory, regenerative, absorptive, immunomodulatory, etc (Keshavarz et al. 2013;Rizvi et al. 2014). Pharmacological activity of the mentioned herbs is mostly associated with the content of polysaccharides (inulin), phenolic compounds and polyphenols, such as flavonoids (quercetin) (Lee et al. 2019;Sato and Mukai 2020), terpene compounds -components of essential oils (anethole, apiol, carvone) (Sim et al. 2015), fatty acids (petrolselenic acid), coumarins (coumarine, umbelliferone) (Germoush et al. 2018), phenolic acids (gallic acid, ellagic acid), hydrolyzable tannins (gallotanin) (Oguntibeju 2018; Zhang et al. 2018), as well as steroid and phenolic glycosides (sitosterine, urticin) (Oguntibeju 2018;Lee et al. 2019). ...
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According to the World Journal of Gastroenterology, more than 5 million people worldwide suffer from inflammatory bowel disease. The use of phytotherapeutic remedies in treatment of chronic inflammatory processes can be an effective alternative in patient’s therapy. The advantage of herbal medicines is the ability to influence various links of pathogenesis, lack of addiction, and the absence of withdrawal syndrome with long-term use in chronic pathology. In order to develop a new combined remedy with anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of colitis, thirteen herbs, which are used in official or traditional medicine in inflammatory processes, were selected among the Ukrainian flora members. To select the most promising drugs and optimize further pharmacological research, molecular docking of the main active substances of the selected herbs to the fundamental pro-inflammatory enzymes – lipoxygenase-5 (LOX-5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) – was carried out. Native inhibitors AKBA and celecoxib, respectively, were used as the reference ligands. The selection of candidate structures for in silico research was carried out according to the bibliosemantic research and logical-structural analysis concerning anti-inflammatory effect of the substances, which are part of chemical composition of the selected herbs. Molecular docking results have shown a high affinity level for the active site of the LOX-5 inhibitor gallotannin, quercetin, inulin, sitosterine, and moderate for ellagic acid. High affinity level for the active site of the COX-2 inhibitor was found for inulin, quercetin, gallotannin, ellagic acid and urticin A, moderate one – for gallic acid. For the further pharmacological in vitro and in vivo studies for anti-inflammatory activity, medicinal herbs with the highest content of the mentioned compounds were selected: Inula helenium , Cichorium intybus , Capsella bursa-pastoris , Foeniculum vulgare , Equisetum arvense , Veronica officinalis . Besides, it is recommended to use aqueous extracts of the selected herbs for the further pharmacological studies.
... It was used for gastrointestinal disorders (poor digestion, aerophagia, stomachache, colic, gastric acidity, etc.), respiratory issues (sore throat, cold, cough, bronchitis), female ailments (galactagogue and emmenagogue action, to fight dysmenorrhea), and irritability and swelling and as an anti-pyretic, antirheumatic, and detoxifier. Similar therapeutic applications were also reported in many other countries [95,107]. ...
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Over the centuries, wild plants have constituted the main food ingredients and traditional medicine in rural communities. In the last decades, thousands of ethnobotanical studies have been conducted, with the aim of documenting the traditional knowledge on wild and cultivated plants both for food and therapeutic purposes. In the present work, 75 published papers related to Italian ethnobotanical knowledge on wild and cultivated plants traditionally used for medical purposes were analyzed and data on 1117 different species organized in the first dataset to target medicinal applications only. For each plant species, the Italian region of use, plant organs, mode of preparation, specific pathological group of application, citation index, and use index were listed. The different therapeutic applications were subdivided into nine main pathological groups according to the targeted human apparatus. Overall, the cited species with highest number of uses were related to the treatment of the digestive system and skin-ears-eyes-hair diseases, followed by diseases of the genito-urinary and respiratory systems. The 13 most relevant species were identified on the basis of their citation and use indexes. The present review on Italian medicinal flora aims to provide valuable information on wild and cultivated species, which are potential sources of plant-based therapeutic remedies, to preserve and reevaluate endangered traditional folk knowledge.
... 9 Fennel has a mild carminative action and has been reported helpful in infantile colic and flatulence. 10,11 Furthermore, Caraway has been proposed to improve digestive function, modulate intestinal flora, and alleviate flatulence and abdominal pain. 12 Prunus spinosa fruits are considered digestive and used to manage minor gastrointestinal complaints. ...
... 9. Inability of the caregiver to complete the diary, survey scales, and visit the clinical site as per appointments. 10. Those who in the opinion of the investigator, are considered to be poor clinical attendees or unlikely to comply with the trial for any reason. ...
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Infantile colic is the most frequent reason of infant and parental distress. An open-label single-group clinical study was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of 14-day colic relief remedy administration (1.25 ml orally during colic episode) on average daily crying time in infants compared to baseline. In addition, the percentage of responders, sleep pattern, frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms, tolerability of the product and percentage population with relapse of symptoms post product discontinuation were evaluated. Thirty infants aged 3 to 16 weeks with no significant clinical illness were enrolled in the study with their caregivers. Daily inconsolable crying time and flatulence were significantly reduced ( P < .05) within a week of intervention and a sustained effect was observed after discontinuation of the product. The findings of the present study indicate that this product effectively reduced abdominal distension and pain, resulting in a significant decrease in the daily crying of the infants. Trial registration: The study was registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI) ( http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php ) bearing Reg. No: CTRI/2021/03/031762, Date: March 8, 2021.
... Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species [73] . F. vulgare has numerous properties such as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemo modulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and memory enhancing property [74] . F. vulgare is also known for its essential oil and odour due to its essential oil makes it an excellent flavouring agent. ...
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Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective prevention for radiation-induced injuries and has no sunburn or suntan protection. It can be effective for genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, burn, wound healing and inflammation. It can also be used as a biological vehicle and an anti-microbial and antifungal agent and also as a candidate for photodynamic therapy of some kinds of cancer. Even though there are some promising results with the use of aloe vera for diverse dermatologic conditions, clinical effectiveness of oral and topical aloe vera is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as yet. Keywords aloe vera, varieties, economic value, by product and Pharmacological & Phytochemistry properties
... It was reported that F. vulgare showed a high percentage of inhibition value at the maximum noncytotoxic concentration with 83 percentage of inhibition against influenza virus [29]. It was also reported that the antiviral activity of the essential oil of fruit sample of F. vulgare along with 12 other Turkish medicinal plants was evaluated against the DNA virus Herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) and F. vulgare mostly displayed strong antiviral effects against HSV-1 than the other plants included in the experiment [3,30]. Figure 3 (A, B) showed the viral activities (HSV and CoxB4) on their Vero cells in the presence and absence of fennel extract corresponding to the control Vero cells. ...
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Due to the growing need for more natural medicines as a result of population growth and lifestyle improvement as well as reducing unwanted side effects of fully synthetic medicines. Plants are very important sources of many valuable bioactive compounds that benefit human and animal health. So, this study aimed to investigate Foeniculum vulgare seeds extract to estimate its antimicrobial, antitumor, antioxidant, and antiviral activities. The extraction process was performed by grinding the plant powder in ethanol (60%). A wide range of bioactivities was evaluated as antimicrobial activity against indicator bacterial, and fungal strains followed by antioxidant activity evaluation by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method and finally, MTT assay to determine antitumor activity using 5 different cell lines; the breast tumor cell line (MCF-7), cervical cancer cell line (HELA), colon cancer cell line (CACO-2), lung cancer cell line (A549), and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG-2) in corresponding to the normal cell line (Wi-38).. As well, antiviral activity was evaluated against HSV and CoxB4. Fortunately, ethyl extract exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogenic microorganisms, antioxidant activity exhibit IC50 at 28.71 µg/ml. Regarding its antitumor activity, it exhibited promising anticancer activities against all tested carcinoma cell lines and their IC50 ranged from 248.0 to 815.1 µg/ml in corresponding to 828.1 µg/ml for the normal cells reflecting a potential anticancer potential. Regarding antiviral activities of fennel extract, it showed moderate antiviral activities 21.95% and 13.14% against the HSV and CoxB4 viruses respectively. Conclusively, fennel exhibited promising results as antitumor agents with significant activity as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiviral which encourages us to recommend the administration of fennel as a drink or food to protect the body and provide it with valuable compounds.
... [77]. Foeniculum vulgare contains propanamide, D-limonene, benzene, (2-methyl-1-propenyl)-o-Isopropenyltoluene and cyclohexene, and 1-methyl-4-(1 methylethylidene) [78]. The aroma in combination with taste and physical components contribute to the unique honey flavour [79]. ...
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Green honey is exclusively available on the island of Banggi in Sabah, and its uniqueness sees the commodity being sold at a high market price. Therefore, green honey is prone to adulteration by unscrupulous individuals, possibly compromising the health of those consuming this food commodity for its curative properties. Moreover, an established standard for reducing sugar in green honey is unavailable. Ipso facto, the study aimed to profile green honey’s physical and chemical properties, such as its pH, moisture content, free acidity, ash content, electroconductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH, colour, total sugar content, total protein content, and heavy metals as well as volatile organic compounds, the data of which are profoundly valuable in safeguarding consumers’ safety while providing information for its quality certification for local consumption and export. The results revealed that the honey’s physicochemical profile is comparable to other reported kinds of honey. The honey’s naturally green colour is because of the chlorophyll from the nectar from various flowers on the island. The raw honey showed free acidity between 28 and 33 Meq/100 g, lower than the standard’s 50 Meq/100 g. The hydroxymethylfurfural content is the lowest compared to other reported honey samples, with the total phenolic content between 16 and 19 mg GAE/100 g. The honey’s reducing sugar content is lower (~37.9%) than processed ones (56.3%) because of water removal. The protein content ranged from 1 to 2 gm/kg, 4- to 6-fold and 2-fold higher than local and manuka honey, respectively. The exceptionally high content of trans-4-hydroxyproline in raw honey is its source of collagen and other healing agents. Interestingly, low levels of arsenic, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, and cobalt were detected in the honey samples, presumably due to their subterranean hives. Nevertheless, the honey is fit for general consumption as the concentrations were below the maxima in the Codex Alimentarius Commission of 2001.
... It has been used traditionally to treat a variety of diseases such as those related to the digestive, respiratory reproductive, and endocrine systems. It is also a galactagogue for nursing women (24). Badgujar et al (24) and Abou El-Soud et al (25) reported that it had antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemopreventive, antitumor, cytoprotective, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and oestrogenic actions (24,25). ...
... It is also a galactagogue for nursing women (24). Badgujar et al (24) and Abou El-Soud et al (25) reported that it had antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemopreventive, antitumor, cytoprotective, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and oestrogenic actions (24,25). Therefore, this study was designed to synthesize AgNPs using a fungus strain Aspergillus flavus and evaluate their antibacterial activities, alone or in combination with F. vulgare essential oil (EO) against various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. ...
... It is also a galactagogue for nursing women (24). Badgujar et al (24) and Abou El-Soud et al (25) reported that it had antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemopreventive, antitumor, cytoprotective, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and oestrogenic actions (24,25). Therefore, this study was designed to synthesize AgNPs using a fungus strain Aspergillus flavus and evaluate their antibacterial activities, alone or in combination with F. vulgare essential oil (EO) against various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. ...
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Introduction: A cost-effective and ecologically friendly method of generating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) includes pathways that utilize a variety of biological sources to decrease metal ions. This study was designed to synthesize AgNPs using a fungus strain Aspergillus flavus and evaluate its antibacterial activities alone or in combination with Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (EO). Methods: The antibacterial activity of different concentrations of biosynthesized AgNPs by Aspergillus flavus individually and in combination with fennel EO was investigated using disc diffusion methods and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested. Results: Formation of dark brown color, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used for the characterization of AgNPs. Obvious synergistic effects were observed between AgNPs and EO of fennel (F. vulgare) with all tested bacteria except S. aureus, through increases in fold area of inhibition (IFAs) within the range of 0.15 to 8.87. Although S. aureus had the most susceptibility toward both AgNPs and EO of fennel (24 and 17 mm, respectively), no synergistic activity was exhibited. The best synergistic capacity resulted from AgNPs and fennel EO was observed against S. epidermidis (8.87-fold in IFA). Conclusion: This study revealed that when biosynthesized AgNPs were mixed with the EO of F. vulgare, they became more bacteriostatic and might be developed to treat bacterial infections in the future
... Crude essential oils, rich in phenylpropenes, are always reported to exhibit potential health promoting benefits based on in vitro, or in vivo assays in human and animal models. Most of the reported bioactivities for crude essential oils containing phenylpropenes are attributed to the phenylpropenes being major components (Badgujar, Patel, and Bandivdekar 2014;Korinek et al. 2021). For instance, crude clove oil and eugenol demonstrated strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect at half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively and inhibition of nitric oxide production at IC 50 of 39.8 μg/mL for clove oil, versus 19.0 μg/mL for eugenol (Ulanowska and Olas 2021). ...
Article
Phenylpropenes represent a major subclass of plant volatiles, including eugenol, and (E)-anethole. They contribute to the flavor and aroma of many chief herbs and spices, to exert distinct notes in food, i.e., spicy anise- and clove-like to fruit. Asides from their culinary use, they appear to exert general health effects, whereas some effects are specific, e.g., eugenol being a natural local anesthetic. This review represents the most comprehensive overview of phenylpropenes with respect to their chemical structures, different health effects, and their food applications as flavor and food preservatives. Side effects and toxicities of these compounds represent the second main part of this review, as some were reported for certain metabolites generated inside the body. Several metabolic reactions mediating for phenylpropenes metabolism in rodents via cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes are presented being involved in their toxicities. Such effects can be lessened by influencing their pharmacokinetics through a matrix-derived combination effect via administration of herbal extracts containing SULT inhibitors, i.e., nevadensin in sweet basil. Moreover, structural modification of phenylpropanes appears to improve their effects and broaden their applications. Hence, such review capitalizing on phenylpropenes can help optimize their applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and food applications.
... In this area, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Apiaceae) is cultivated for local anise spirit production. This species originally came from the Mediterranean basin but has been naturalized in many regions around the world, and fennel is now cultivated practically worldwide (Europe, Asia and North America; Badgujar et al., 2014). This species can achieve 2.5 m in height and be annual, biennial or perennial (Piccaglia and Marotti, 2001). ...
Article
The importance of insects for global food crop production is starting to be well-known but the level of dependence on insects is less referenced, especially for some aromatic crops. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill.) is an aromatic mass-flowering crop cultivated in the south of France for its essential oil that contains anethole. This compound is of food and economical interest because of its anise flavour, which is used to elaborate anise drinks. Here, we have characterized the dependence of fennel on insect pollination. We used four controlled pollination treatments to compare the reproductive success (fruit initiation rate, fruit weight), and the fennel yield (fruit weight and amount of anethole per hectare) between insect pollinated flowers and bagged flowers. We also checked the ability of reproduction by self-pollination in this species, and the existence of a reproductive limitation linked to insect activity. We have shown that pollination without insects leads to reproductive failure in fennel. At the field level, insect pollination is fundamental to improve the fruit initiation rate, the fruit weight and the amount of anethole per hectare leading to an estimated 86 % dependence of fennel on insect pollination. Finally, we showed no reproductive limitation with the current state of insect activity. This study adds new evidence of the importance of insects in agroecosystems to sustain food production.