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Nicotine contents of tea samples obtained from tea-producing areas in Asia. 

Nicotine contents of tea samples obtained from tea-producing areas in Asia. 

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Endogenous nicotine was confirmed to be present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of tea samples from tea-producing regions in six Asian countries. All samples contained nicotine (0.011–0.694 μg g⁻¹ dry weight). Nicotine contents remained constant during manufacturing of green, oolong and black t...

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... contents of tea samples collected from different tea-producing districts in Asia are shown in Table 1. All samples had nicotine contents above 0.01 μg g −1 DW. ...
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... samples had nicotine contents above 0.01 μg g −1 DW. The maximum detected nicotine content, 0.694 μg g −1 DW, was in black tea from a Darjeeling organic tea estate; the minimum, 0.011 μg g −1 DW, was found in green tea from Taiwan ( Table 1). The average nicotine content of Japanese green tea, 0.019 μg g −1 DW (0.013-0.040 μg g −1 DW), was lower than that of Assam (0.331 μg g −1 DW) and Darjeeling (0.273 μg g −1 DW). ...
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... the tea samples collected from tea-producing localities in six Asian countries, we found detectable levels of nicotine in Japanese green tea (Table 1). This result reconfirms the presence of nicotine in Japanese green tea. ...
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... results suggest that nicotine contents of tea leaves differ among producing regions and cultivars. In spite of the relatively small number of samples in the pres- ent study, we also observed that nicotine contents of black tea (0.024-0.694 μg g −1 DW) were significantly higher than those of green tea (0.011-0.40 μg g −1 DW) (Table 1). This trend is in line with average nicotine contents reported by EFSA 2011 [4] of 0.130 μg g −1 DW (0-0.873 ...
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... samples of var. assamica from India, however, we detected nicotine contents as low as 0.100 μg g −1 DW, even though the highest value was also detected in an Indian tea sample (0.694 μg g −1 DW; Table 1). A wide range of nicotine contents in Indian black tea has also been observed in the above studies. ...
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... general, even in the cultivation of tea, the risk of infestation of insects and pathogenic attacks also increases in the summer season compared with the winter season. Indeed, our results represent that nicotine contents in tea differ in each region and season (Tables 1 and 3), especially their values tends to be high in summer season. In other words, environmental fac- tors related to jasmonate signaling may affect nicotine biosynthesis in tea. ...
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... these findings, the possibility of contamination of commercial tea by exogenous nicotine cannot be completely excluded. S1 Table. Type, subtype, country, sampling year and number of tea samples used to mea- sure nicotine in this study. ...

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... Nicotine in 274 tea samples from various countries has been documented by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Japanese green tea had high nicotine content than other tea samples collected from six Asian countries (China, Taiwan, India, Japan, Indonesia, and Vietnam) [21]. The amount of nicotine level found in tea leaves is considerably more than that found in Solanaceae family plants [20]. ...
Article
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... As an aqueous product extracted from C. sinensis, tea has become one of the most popular beverages due to its pleasant flavor, taste, and bioactive ingredients for health (Ikka et al., 2018;Li et al., 2015). Previous studies have reported that tea leaves contain important bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, alkaloids, caffeine, and theanine. ...
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Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Produced from Camellia sinensis leaves, tea has been widely studied for its health benefits due to the content of essential metabolites. This study aimed to investigate the catechin contents, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Indonesian tea varieties, namely green tea, black tea, and white tea. Tea infusion was prepared by extracting 1 g of each sample into 10 mL of distilled water and incubated at 80 °C for 60 min. The catechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contents of tea extracts were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant activity was measured using the free radical method with 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhidrazyl (DPPH), while antimicrobial activity was assessed using paper disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that green tea had the highest contents of catechin (646 ± 17.14 mg/L) and EGCG (997.8 ± 36.72 mg/L), and antioxidant activity with IC50 of 5.65 µg/mL. Furthermore, green tea and white tea extracts showed inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus whereas black tea had no activity against all bacterial strains tested. Generally, we concluded that white tea and green tea contributed to the higher content of catechins and exhibited strong antioxidant and antibacterial properties.
... The transformation techniques for tea plants are important for elucidating the metabolic pathways associated with these components, as well as for breeding new cultivars. For example, transformation is necessary to elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of nicotine in tea plant (Ikka et al. 2018). Although several previous studies have reported tea plant transformation using Agrobacterium-mediated methods (Mariya John et al. 2009;Matsumoto and Fukui 1998;Mondal et al. 2001;Qianru et al. 2017;Rana et al. 2016;Sandal et al. 2007;Song et al. 2014), there tends to be limited compatibility between tea genotypes and Agrobacterium strains. ...
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The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) contains various metabolic substances, including catechins and caffeine, for which genetic transformation techniques are essential for investigating the associated metabolic pathways. In this study, we sought to optimize the conditions and culture process for particle bombardment-mediated transformation of tea plant somatic embryos. We describe somatic embryo pretreatment for effective transient transformation in biolistic bombardment and the posttreatment conditions of somatic embryos for accelerating differentiation after bombardment. For the purpose of transformation, we used the somatic embryos of C. sinensis var. assamica ‘Tingamira normal,’ which were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2 mg l⁻¹ indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 4 mg l⁻¹ 6-benzyladenine (BA) at 25°C ±2°C under a 16-h photoperiod. With respect to the optimization of particle bombardment conditions for tea somatic embryos, we examined the effects of different Au colloid particle diameters and bombardment pressures, and accordingly established bombardment with 1.0-µm-diameter DNA-coated Au colloid at 1,100 psi as optimal conditions for introducing DNA for the transient expression of GUS. Additionally, we found that transplantation of tea somatic embryos from IBA/BA medium to a hormone-free medium prior to bombardment and incubation in the dark post-bombardment increased the frequency of secondary embryo production. Furthermore, osmotic treatment by culturing the somatic embryos in medium supplemented with 0.4 M mannitol improved transient transformation efficiency. After transformation, the culture of somatic embryos on filter papers or Kimwipes soaked in MS medium facilitated rapid and effective development of the somatic embryos.
... Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is the primary nicotine producing plant through its root system (Steppuhn et al., 2004;Shoji et al., 2008). It produces nicotine to as high as 4% of its leaf content compared with potato, tomato, eggplant, pepper, tea, cauliflower, and wild mushrooms (Davis et al., 1991;Siegmund et al., 1999;Moldoveanu et al., 2016;Ikka et al., 2018), which produce negligible amounts ranging from 0.00001 to 0.00000038% of their leaf contents (Siegmund et al., 1999;Moldoveanu et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Nicotine released by tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants into the rhizosphere limits proliferation of soil bacteria and availability of macronutrients such as P and K to subsequently planted crops. To understand nicotine dynamics in different agro-ecologies and soil types as released by tobacco roots, we examined the tobacco variety K326 in Sikonge (loamy sand), Tabora (sand), and Urambo (sandy loam) soils. After reaping leaves, nicotine dynamics were measured at rooting depths of 0–10 cm, 10–30 cm, and 30–50 cm. Nicotine level at Sikonge was as high as 9.55 mg kg−1 compared to Tabora and Urambo which had 6.04 mg kg−1 and 4.42 mg kg−1, respectively, implying that nicotine level in soils varies between different agro-ecologies. Twice the amount of nicotine was released into the soil from fertilized (21.60%) compared with unfertilized (10.07%) plants. However, nicotine concentration was not significantly different in the roots of fertilized (7.29 mg kg−1) compared with unfertilized (7.12 mg kg−1) plants. The dynamics of nicotine in soil was largely dependent on soil moisture and the depth at which tobacco roots can penetrate. Nicotine levels increased as soil moisture and root penetration depth increased in all sites. Therefore, since more nicotine accumulated in deeper soils, shallow rooted crops (0–20 cm) are recommended as a subsequent crop to tobacco because at that depth, nicotine concentration is low, limiting macronutrient availability and the proliferation of soil bacteria.
... However, due to its fatal toxicity following accidental ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact, the production and the use of nicotine as insecticide are decreased significantly. Currently, nicotine insecticide is totally prohibited for organic farming in Japan and the United States (Francisco García Calvo-Flores et al., 2017;Ikka et al., 2018). ...
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Nicotine, one of the more than 4700 ingredients in tobacco smoke, is a neurotoxin and once used as pesticides in agriculture. Although its use in agriculture is prohibited in many countries, nicotine intoxication is still a problem among the workers in tobacco farms, and young children as well as adults due to the accidental or suicidal ingestions of nicotine products. Understanding the mechanism of nicotine intoxication is important not only for the prevention and treatment but also for the appropriate regulatory approaches. Here, we review pharmacokinetics of nicotine and the molecular mechanisms for acute and chronic intoxication from nicotine that might be relevant to the central and the peripheral nervous system. We include green tobacco sickness, acute intoxication from popular nicotine products, circadian rhythm changes, chronic intoxication from nicotine through prenatal nicotine exposure, newborn behaviors, and sudden infant death syndrome.
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Equiseti herba has been traditionally indicated in bacterial diseases of the efferent urinary tract or bad healing wounds in many regions worldwide. Most of the plant material used for medical purposes comes from collections of wild growing plants. The European Pharmacopoeia requires that Equiseti herba should consist of a minimum of 95% Equisetum arvense and a maximum of 5% foreign ingredients. This includes Equisetum palustre, which is known for its potentially toxic alkaloid palustrine. However, both Equisetum species are quite common, look morphologically very similar, and share similar habitats, hence, are therefore often confused. Recently, several structurally related Equisetum alkaloids have been identified in E. palustre but not in E. arvense. We have established a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the detection of these E. palustre-specific Equisetum alkaloids in order to quantify the contamination of Equiseti herba (E. arvense) by E. palustre plant material. In a second, independent approach, the results of the HPLC-MS/MS analysis were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, looking for the species-specific characteristics of the stoma apparatus of E. palustre. Thirty-four Equiseti herba products obtained from different pharmacies, drug stores, supermarkets, and web stores were analyzed. The majority of the products (26 out of 34) were Equisetum alkaloid positive, with contents ranging from 0.29 – 21.7 mg of Equisetum alkaloids/kg (d. w.). In addition, the transfer of Equisetum alkaloids into tea infusions was investigated, demonstrating a 42 to 60% transfer rate for cold and hot water extraction of Equisetum alkaloid-contaminated Equiseti herba, respectively.
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Nicotine is an alkaloid and a secondary plant metabolite that has been used as an insecticide. Despite their widespread application, the EU banned the use of nicotine-containing pesticides in December 2008. However, studies in Europe have found nicotine in mushrooms. Nicotine has also been detected in wild mushrooms, so there are other causes of contamination as well as pesticide. This study reports the development of GC-MS method for quantitatively analysing nicotine in mushrooms. This method provides recoveries of 89.5–92.5%, intra-day precisions of 0.32–0.85%, and inter-day precisions of 0.73–2.36%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.38 and 1.15 μg kg-1, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty result of 2.8–4.0% complies with CODEX requirements. The method was successfully applied to eleven mushroom samples in which nicotine was detected at levels of 0.033–1.713 mg kg-1. Therefore, this method is suitable for the quantification of nicotine in dried mushrooms to ensure pre-emptive food safety.
Article
Introduction The plant family Equisetaceae (Equisetopsida, Monilophyta; common name: horsetails) is part of an ancient group of spore producing plants. Today, Equisetum is the only surviving genus comprising 15 species in two subgenera (Equisetum and Hippochaete). Several unique alkaloids are described to occur in this genus, so far there is very little data on the occurrence and the amount of those alkaloids for the different species. Objective To establish an extraction method and an analytical method to detect and quantify the relevant Equisetum‐type alkaloids and to create a quantitative data set on the alkaloid content of all Equisetum species worldwide. Methodology Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high‐performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC HPLC‐MS/MS) in electrospray ionisation (ESI) positive mode was used to analyse and quantify the alkaloid content of 68 Equisetum samples. Results The presence of nicotine in at least one sample of each Equisetum species could be demonstrated. The total nicotine amount rarely exceeded 250 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg for the subgenus Equisetum and Hippochaete, respectively. Besides nicotine, Equisetum‐type alkaloids (mainly palustrine and palustridiene) were only detected in three species, namely E. palustre, E. bogotense and E. giganteum. For E. giganteum, palustridiene was detected at levels around the limit od detection (LoD) (25 μg/kg), whereas in E. palustre and E. bogotense, both alkaloids (palustrine and palustridiene) were detected at much higher levels (20–800 mg/kg). Conclusions All Equisetum species occurring worldwide were successfully subjected to a detailed qualitative and quantitative alkaloid analysis using a newly developed HILIC‐HPLC‐ESIpos‐MS/MS approach. The data set can be used to distinguish different Equisetum‐chemotypes.