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Network example. A spoke-and-hub network example (n = 6 settlements) used to investigate dengue disease dynamics. Movement only occurs from the outer settlements (spoke) into the central settlement (hub).

Network example. A spoke-and-hub network example (n = 6 settlements) used to investigate dengue disease dynamics. Movement only occurs from the outer settlements (spoke) into the central settlement (hub).

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Dengue is a debilitating and devastating viral infection spread by mosquito vectors, and over half the world’s population currently live at risk of dengue (and other flavivirus) infections. Here, we use an integrated epidemiological and vector ecology framework to predict optimal approaches for tackling dengue. Our aim is to investigate how vector...

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... In this work, they used transmission of the disease and treatment of the infective as control and suggested that if both controls are applied simultaneously, then disease control will be easy [27]. In [28], Rawson et al. showed that combination of sterile insect techniques for the mosquito population and vaccination for the human population is beneficial to reduce the disease in population. Tang et al. considered vaccination with insecticide administration and isolation with insecticide administration as two control policies for control of the dengue disease [29]. ...
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... Such methods have been successful in informing public health strategies regarding the avian influenza pandemic (36), the Chikungunya epidemic (37), and influenza (38). Optimal control has also been used in terms of minimising the cost of vaccine programmes, for human papillomavirus (HPV) (39) and influenza (40), and sometimes in tandem with other disease prevention methods e.g., mosquito control for dengue (41). Optimal control methods are elegant, ultimately the most appropriate mathematically, and provide a level of verification unachieveable by scanning numerically for a solution. ...
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... First, it is common for there to be uncertainty around model parameters and structure [97,98]. In this case, solving optimal control problems over several model structures and sets of model parameters provides insight into the sensitivity of the control strategy [99][100][101][102]. Secondly, when performing multi-objective optimization, a trade-off is made between objectives. ...
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... These research assumed the constant implementation of vaccination and vector control. Rawson et al. [18] used the optimal control approach to study the effects of the combination of medicine/vaccination and vector controls in dengue transmission dynamics. They found that the combination of vaccination and the release of genetically modified self-limiting mosquitoes is the most beneficial strategy for reducing the number of dengue cases. ...
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... We use the quadratic terms in the control variables to represent the nonlinear cost in the implementation of the control. It is generally believed that there is no linear relationship between effects of intervention and the cost of intervention [23,11] and hence the quadratic costs have been commonly used [11,13,23,24,25,26]. This approach is rather conventional in the optimal control problems of the epidemiological modelling and this simplifies the mathematical analysis [23,26]. ...
... We use the quadratic terms in the control variables to represent the nonlinear cost in the implementation of the control. It is generally believed that there is no linear relationship between effects of intervention and the cost of intervention [23,11] and hence the quadratic costs have been commonly used [11,13,23,24,25,26]. This approach is rather conventional in the optimal control problems of the epidemiological modelling and this simplifies the mathematical analysis [23,26]. ...
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