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... the setups for a PCC and the regulatory structure can vary, we suggest a range of possible combinations to calculate the network component of a C-PPA. Table 1 lists the different approaches to define the network component either as split of costs included in the C-PPA or a fixed one-time investment negotiated. This refers to the furthest right box in Figure 2. We list different variations on how to distribute network infrastructure costs among the actors and thereby vary the amount transferred into the C-PPA. ...

Citations

... Energy research has furthermore examined competing definitions of what constitutes energy 'access' in diverse contexts (Pachauri, 2011;Groh et al., 2016;Pelz et al., 2019), connections between energy access and wider energy transitions nationally and globally (Sokona et al., 2012), descriptive and causal analysis regarding solar energy and rural development (Pachauri et al., 2012;Rahman and Ahmad, 2013;Groh, 2014), and the persistent presence of high-carbon or 'dirty' sources of energy, such as coal, in the energy mix of emerging economies (Dorband, et al., 2020;Gellert and Ciccantell, 2020). Furthermore, researchers have carried out studies of low-carbon consumer renewables, such as SHS as a poverty reduction strategy in Sri Lanka (Laufer and Schafer, 2011) and Bangladesh (Mondal et al., 2010;Hasanuzzaman et al., 2015;Chowdhury et al., 2015;Groh et al., 2016;Dumitrescu et al., 2020;Dumitrescu et al., 2022;Groh et al., 2022), along with the socio-economic impacts of renewable energy services in villages, towns and localities in the Philippines and South Africa (Azimoh et al., 2015;Macabebe et al., 2016). Recently, Amin et al. (2022) have undertaken research outlining the development of Bangladesh's energy sector while transiting from a least developed country to a lower middleincome country within five decades since independence in 1971, including bringing access to electricity from 3% in 1971 to nearly 100% today. ...
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Energy access, more specifically electricity access, is one of the prerequisites to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Around one-tenth of the global population remained without access to electricity in 2019. Bangladesh has shown substantial progress in electricity access. This paper aims at reviewing the association between electricity access and employment in the core three sectors: agriculture, industry, and service. The study finds that rural access to electricity is steeper in progress than that of urban areas; and overall access to electricity is increasing, while the urban-rural disparity in energy access is decreasing over time. The proportion of female employment in agriculture has reduced by one third during 1991-2018. Agricultural employment, in general, decreases with an increase in electricity access,
... Energy research has furthermore examined competing definitions of what constitutes energy 'access' in diverse contexts (Pachauri, 2011;Groh et al., 2016;Pelz et al., 2019), connections between energy access and wider energy transitions nationally and globally (Sokona et al., 2012), descriptive and causal analysis regarding solar energy and rural development (Pachauri et al., 2012;Rahman and Ahmad, 2013;Groh, 2014), and the persistent presence of high-carbon or 'dirty' sources of energy, such as coal, in the energy mix of emerging economies (Dorband, et al., 2020;Gellert and Ciccantell, 2020). Furthermore, researchers have carried out studies of low-carbon consumer renewables, such as SHS as a poverty reduction strategy in Sri Lanka (Laufer and Schafer, 2011) and Bangladesh (Mondal et al., 2010;Hasanuzzaman et al., 2015;Chowdhury et al., 2015;Groh et al., 2016;Dumitrescu et al., 2020;Dumitrescu et al., 2022;Groh et al., 2022), along with the socio-economic impacts of renewable energy services in villages, towns and localities in the Philippines and South Africa (Azimoh et al., 2015;Macabebe et al., 2016). Recently, Amin et al. (2022) have undertaken research outlining the development of Bangladesh's energy sector while transiting from a least developed country to a lower middleincome country within five decades since independence in 1971, including bringing access to electricity from 3% in 1971 to nearly 100% today. ...
Conference Paper
Energy access, more specifically electricity access, is one of the prerequisites to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. More than one-tenth of the global population remained without access to electricity in 2018. Bangladesh has shown substantial progress in electricity access. This research aims at analysing the association between electricity access and employment in the core three sectors: agriculture, industry, and service. It employed a quantitative method including both descriptive and inferential statistics to assess the strength of association between electricity access and employment. The study finds that rural access to electricity is steeper in progress than that of urban areas; and overall access to electricity is increasing, while the urban-rural disparity in energy access in decreasing over time. Agricultural employment decreases with an increase in electricity access, which is counterintuitive. The government should consider the issue to keep the agricultural employment stable to ensure food security and the sector’s contribution to gross domestic product.
Chapter
A persisting municipal solid waste (MSW) management plan for any city in Bangladesh has to be focused on the understanding of dynamic interactions and ionized effect of all elements of the current MSW management system. Municipalities are the responsible authority for managing the generated MSW including the food and bio-degradable waste which is the major discarded constituent all over the country in terms of weight percentage. This study utilized system dynamics (SD) approach to not only understand the MSW management system of Khulna city with numerous interconnected and independent parameters but also investigated a number of policy scenario emphasized on the collection and separate industrial scale treatment for food and bio-degradable MSW of the city. The quantity of CH4 emission potential for a certain time period has been found to increase from 6.71 Gg in year 2020 to 51.969 Gg in 2050. Three different policy scenario has been implemented in the developed SD model to reach to the dynamic conclusion that “Policy 3” is the most effective on the criteria of the illustrated sustainable development goal (SDG 12.3) with a less fluctuating composite index value of 6.05 until year 2050. To achieve the 71% composting scenario illustrated in “Policy 3” there is no alternative to industrial or commercial composting for the near future. Finally, the illustrated results represents that this developed SD model can be used as an effective simulation platform for MSW management system’s evaluation as well as to determine the methods of achieving sustainable condition in the long run.
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic has long moved beyond a global health crisis and morphing into a social and economic crisis, which combined with climate change threats, can seriously jeopardize the advancements that have been made to date towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), globally and in particular in Bangladesh. Our collective actions towards economic recovery and building resilience against future pandemics represent a chance to pave the way for a more sustainable future. At its center lies sustainable energy access as defined in SDG 7 and a key enabler for the majority of the remaining SDGs. SDG 7 is essential to build future resilience. Public energy utilities need to recover from a dramatic shortfall in revenues, households, and businesses have to overcome financing challenges to be able to tap into significant and inclusive growth opportunities. At the same time, it is important that central grid expansion, or the threat thereof, does not negatively affect or prevent decentralized and decarbonized solutions. C-19 has also unearthed several shortcomings in our existing systems. The future of energy is fueled by the 5Ds: decarbonization, decentralization, democratization, digitization, and disruption. The 4th Industrial Revolution has provided us with the right tools to start turning this future vision of the power sector into a reality today. In this paper, we are proposing an innovation policy, the Bangabandhu Tariff, for both a greener and a more inclusive recovery based on smart IoT devices enabling the interconnection of remote solar home systems and their collective feed-in to the national grid. This policy is based on Community Power Purchase Agreements an effective tool towards a resilient and sustainable recovery, the development of national utilities while empowering decentralized renewable energy prosumers with a financial incentive for electricity generation and storage usage to help power the nation starting at the base of the pyramid.