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Nacrolopha carolae Carter & Malchus, gen. et sp. nov., holotype, left valve, University of North Carolina 13497b; Carnian, Upper Triassic, Cassiano Formation, Alpe di Specie, altitude 1900–2000 m, Dolomitic Alps, northeast of Cortina d’Ampezzo, Italy; 1, interior of left valve, showing alivincular-arcuate ligament insertion area, muscle scars for posterior adductor ( PA ), anterior adductor ( AA, supported by a slight buttress), and posterior (Continued on facing page.) 

Nacrolopha carolae Carter & Malchus, gen. et sp. nov., holotype, left valve, University of North Carolina 13497b; Carnian, Upper Triassic, Cassiano Formation, Alpe di Specie, altitude 1900–2000 m, Dolomitic Alps, northeast of Cortina d’Ampezzo, Italy; 1, interior of left valve, showing alivincular-arcuate ligament insertion area, muscle scars for posterior adductor ( PA ), anterior adductor ( AA, supported by a slight buttress), and posterior (Continued on facing page.) 

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Context 1
... anterior adductor scar, but the posterior pedal retractor scar is partially confluent with the posterior adductor scar. The pallial line is unknown for the type species, but it was probably integripalliate, judging from other members of Modiomorphinae. The shell miner- alogy and microstructure resemble Modiomorpha concentrica, except that mineralized periostracal spikes are fused to the shell’s exterior anteriorly (see Carter, 1990a, p. 268). Comparisons. — Goniomorpha resembles Modiomorpha in having a crudely shaped cardinal tooth in the left valve, but Goniomorpha has a more sharply defined posterior carina, a more sharply truncate posterior, a more variable subumbonal dentition, and no posterior lateral teeth. A posterior lateral tooth is variably developed in Modiomorpha (see Carter, 1990a, p. 266). Distribution. — Goniomorpha includes most of the Lower Devonian species assigned by Maillieux (1937) to Goniophora , e.g., Goniophora bi- partita (F. Römer, 1844), G . dorlodoti Asselberghs, 1913, G. trapezoidalis Kayser, 1885, G . schwerdi Beushausen, 1895, G . stuertzi Beushausen, 1895, G. praecedens Drevermann, 1902, G . cognata Drevermann, 1902, G . rhenana Beushausen, 1895, G . stainieri Maillieux, 1937, G . kaisini Maillieux, 1937, and G . atrebatensis Leriche, 1912. It also contains most, if not all, of the New York Middle and Upper Devonian species placed by Hall (1885, p. 293–306) in Goniophora , e.g., Goniophora acuta (Hall & Whitfield, 1869), G . rugosa (Conrad, 1841), G . truncata Hall, 1883 in 1883–1884, G . glaucus (Hall & Whitfield, 1869), G . ida (Hall & Whitfield, 1869), G . carinata (Conrad, 1841), G . trigona Hall, 1885, and G . chemungensis (Vanuxem, 1842). Paleoecology. — Goniomorpha hamiltonensis occurs in the Middle Devonian Hamilton Group of central New York State in clay- rich sandstones also containing a high diversity of other marine invertebrates, especially the bivalves Ptychopteria (Pterineidae), rare pectinoids, and the gastropods Palaeozyglopleura and Bembexia . Goniomorpha hamiltonensis is not usually found in large concentra- tions. The strongly and sharply truncate, elongate posterior and lack of a distinct byssal notch suggest a shallow infaunal life habit, with the shell’s posterior end at or just above the sediment-water interface. The species is never associated with abundant nuculoids and muddy, fine grained sediments, suggesting suspension feeding habits and low tolerance of resuspended, muddy substrata. — Carter & Malchus, herein, The new genus Nacrolopha is presently proposed for the new species, Carnian, Upper Triassic Nacrolopha carolae Carter & Malchus (Fig. 4), with the holotype of the latter being a well-preserved left valve from Alpe di Specie, Cassiano Formation (alt. 1900–2000 m), Italy (UNC 13497b). The holotype was described and illustrated as an unknown genus and species by Carter (1990a, p. 217–220, fig. 32). The genus name derives from the nacreous microstructure and Lopha -like shape of the type species. The species is dedicated to Carol Elizabeth Via Carter. The holotype, which has been sectioned for microstructural analysis, is deposited in the paleontological ...
Context 2
... Figure 4 (continued from facing page). pedal retractor ( PPR ); a brachiopod ( Brach ) is cemented to shell’s interior; 2, horizontal acetate peel through aragonitic ISP inner shell layer also visible in view 3, scale bar = 100 μm; 3, anterior-posterior, vertical acetate peel showing nacreous middle shell layer (above, darker layer) and the underlying aragonitic ISP inner shell layer, scale bar = 0.5 mm; 4, SEM, vertical fracture through nacreous middle shell layer (barely visible at extreme top of figure) and the aragonitic ISP inner shell layer, scale bar = 25 μm; 5, vertical fracture through the nacreous middle shell layer and aragonitic ISP adductor myostracum, scale bar = 5 μm; calcitic outer shell layer does not appear in any of these figures ...

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