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Municipal waste composition in EU [13]

Municipal waste composition in EU [13]

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A constant growth of the multimaterial waste production can be observed in the recent years. The multimaterial waste that contain aluminum are especially hard to process due to the fact that multiple layers of various materials are bonded permanently. Tetra-Pak waste contain high amounts of paper (approx. 70%) and are usually processed in papermill...

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... per capita). The countries which generate the largest amounts of municipal waste are Denmark (758kg per capita), Switzerland (730kg per capita) and Germany (618kg per capita). The average municipal waste production in European Union per capita in 2016 was 483kg, while only 141kg was recycled [12]. The waste composition in EU is presented in fig. 2. The most important short-term (by 2020) goal described in the National Waste Management Plan 2030 is to increase the amount of waste to be reused and/or recycled to at least 50%. The long-term goals (by 2030) is to increase this number to at least 65% and decrease the amount of stored waste to 10% of the total amount of the generated ...

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... Multimaterial waste is a significant group of waste that requires the application of special recycling techniques in order to reduce its negative impact on the environment [1]. In general, it is made of at least two different materials connected permanently [2]. ...
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Waste pharmaceutical blisters (WPBs) are a type of multimaterial waste that contain layers of plastic and metal connected permanently. The separation of those materials with the application of mechanical methods is impossible. One of the methods that can be used to recover metal from WPBs is pyrolysis—a thermal decomposition process performed in the absence of oxygen. The products are a solid fraction that contain char and metal, liquid fraction, and gases. The gases produced during the process can be used as a fuel, either alone or mixed with another gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The presented research was focused on the determination of the influence of the process temperature on the composition of gases produced during the pyrolysis of two types of pharmaceutical blister waste: pre- and postconsumer. The postconsumer waste contains trace amounts of pharmaceutical products. One of the goals was to determine whether those compounds influence the gas properties. The method of neutralizing these materials can be part of the circular economy, the idea of which is to strive to maximize the use of natural resources and bring them back into circulation. The presented method allows not only to recover char, oil, and metal that can be easily separated from the solid fraction, but also to reuse the process gases as a fuel and, possibly, to form HCl during the decomposition of PVC. The paper includes the analysis of the input material, as well as a detailed chemical analysis of the produced gases.