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Morphometric analysis of neointima formation in PZ mice. (A) Representative images of HE-stained cross sections from carotids of PZ +/+ and PZ -/- mice. (B) Quantification of neointima area, (C) neointima thickness and (D) luminal stenosis in PZ +/+ mice and PZ -/- mice after carotid artery injury using 10% ferric chloride. Data are given as box plots indicating the median with the 25 th and 75 th percentiles. Mann-Whitney rank-sum test, * P value of less than 0.05 versus PZ +/+ mice; n = 9. 

Morphometric analysis of neointima formation in PZ mice. (A) Representative images of HE-stained cross sections from carotids of PZ +/+ and PZ -/- mice. (B) Quantification of neointima area, (C) neointima thickness and (D) luminal stenosis in PZ +/+ mice and PZ -/- mice after carotid artery injury using 10% ferric chloride. Data are given as box plots indicating the median with the 25 th and 75 th percentiles. Mann-Whitney rank-sum test, * P value of less than 0.05 versus PZ +/+ mice; n = 9. 

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Background: Protein Z (PZ) is a vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor without catalytic activity. Evidence points towards PZ as an independent risk factor for the occurrence of human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PZ in vascular arterial disease. Material and methods: PZ-deficient (PZ(-/-...

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... the neointima lesion model in PZ +/+ and PZ -/-mice we morpho- metrically analyzed the developed lesions. Area of the neointima induced by ferric chloride was significantly increased in PZ -/-mice compared to their wild-type littermates ( Figure 1A, 1B), with the vascular lumen found almost occluded in PZ -/-mice. Also neointima thickness was signifi- cantly higher in PZ -/-mice with a median of 145 µm compared to 93 µm in PZ +/+ mice ( Figure 1A, 1C). ...
Context 2
... of the neointima induced by ferric chloride was significantly increased in PZ -/-mice compared to their wild-type littermates ( Figure 1A, 1B), with the vascular lumen found almost occluded in PZ -/-mice. Also neointima thickness was signifi- cantly higher in PZ -/-mice with a median of 145 µm compared to 93 µm in PZ +/+ mice ( Figure 1A, 1C). As a consequence of increased neo- intima area and thickness, PZ -/-mice showed a significantly higher degree of luminal stenosis (57% in PZ -/-mice vs. 38% in PZ +/+ mice; P < 0.05; Figure 1A, 1D). ...
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... neointima thickness was signifi- cantly higher in PZ -/-mice with a median of 145 µm compared to 93 µm in PZ +/+ mice ( Figure 1A, 1C). As a consequence of increased neo- intima area and thickness, PZ -/-mice showed a significantly higher degree of luminal stenosis (57% in PZ -/-mice vs. 38% in PZ +/+ mice; P < 0.05; Figure 1A, 1D). Five mice out of 14 PZ -/- mice died within a few days after induction of the neointima lesion, while no loss could be registered in the PZ +/+ mice group, which con- ceivably underlines the increased susceptibility proliferation. ...

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... Differential gene expression analysis revealed downregulated genes associated with tumor suppression (Endod1, S100a14, and Vsig1), interferon response (Irf7, Isg15, and Rsad2), apoptosis (Irf7), and oxidative stress (Gsta1) (Qiu et al., 2017, Bernal et al., 2020, Fan and Zhang, 2013, Honda et al., 2005 (Figures 6.10G). Differential gene expression analysis of upregulated genes highlighted genes involved in inflammatory response regulation (Rgs16, Kcnj15, Ntn1, Slc10a6, Proz, and Tnfsf9), coagulation (Proz), inhibition of apoptosis (Ntn1), and negative regulation of differentiation (Enc1) , Kosters et al., 2016, Pascual et al., 2005, Andrei et al., 2004, Patten et al., 2003, Mirakaj et al., 2010, Butschkau et al., 2014, Fong et al., 2000, Suurväli et al., 2015, Bethea et al., 1992 (Figure 6.10G). Further, Rgs16 has a putative role in maintenance of the undifferentiated state in pluripotent stem cells (Bourillot et al., 2009) ( Figure 6.10G). ...
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