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# Moore's Law v/s Rose Law for Technology Comparison This feature enables qubits to store infinite amount of information and computational power as compared to classical computers. A general quantum processor architecture is shown below: Fig-2 shows basic Quantum Strategy i.e. how quantum architecture is designed along with the subfields of quantum computation that are considered to be a necessary element of a quantum computer. Here QEC refers to Quantum Error Correction and FT refers to Fault Tolerant. Firstly Quantum theorems including Quantum measurement rule and Quantum No-cloning theorem are the main reason of Quantum Complexity along with other quantum algorithms including algorithms for QKD and Quantum Signatures [7]. The next important element is quantum programming languages that are a major part of quantum development. Another feature is Quantum hardware architecture itself, which shows the hardware elements to be used. Moreover, it also includes features to reduce errors and overcome quantum system faults. Finally Qubit Interconnect Technologies along with qubit storage and various quantum gates are most important building blocks of quantum system architecture. On basis of work done in quantum computer architecture, here is a top to bottom list to show the depth of work done in respective areas. A survey on computational assumptions used in the crypt-analysis broken or not according to Shor's algorithm is presented by Zhu in [39]. In this research it was mentioned that quantum theorems are becoming a threat for all the existing algorithms of the day regardless of the key size used. This is majorly because, quantum enhanced parallelism, according to which the quantum theorems has a brutal capability to achieve exponential speedup factor for certain problems like error correcting codes, knapsack problem etc.

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Quantum cryptography is one of the most prominent fields in modern world of information security. Quantum cryptography is considered to be a future replica of classical cryptography along with a vital stance to break existing classical cryptography. Quantum computers innovated by a Canadian D-wave company in collaboration with Google, NSA and Marti...

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In this work, we represent the principle of quantum cryptography (QC) that is based on fundamental laws of quantum physics. QC or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) uses various protocols to exchange a secret key between two communicating parties. This research paper focuses and examines the quantum key distribution by using the protocol BB84 in the ca...

Over the past decades, quantum technology has seen consistent progress, with notable recent developments in the field of quantum computers. Traditionally, this trend has been primarily seen as a serious risk for cryptography; however, a positive aspect of quantum technology should also be stressed. In this regard, viewing this technology as a resou...

42 | P a g e w w w. c i r w o r l d. c o m ABSTRACT Quantum Cryptography is an approach to securing communications by applying the phenomena of quantum physics. Unlike traditional classical cryptography, which uses mathematical techniques to restrict eavesdroppers, quantum cryptography is focused on the physics of information. The security of these...

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## Citations

... IEEE 802.11 standard was integrated with BB84, and some security properties were analyzed by using PRISM tool in [24]. Some important quantum bit commitment approaches were proposed in [25,26] and were reviewed in [27,28]. In [29] the analysis of this protocol was done by using model checking to demonstrate its practical applicability. ...

The formal modeling and verification of aircraft takeoff is a challenge because it is a complex safety-critical operation. The task of aircraft takeoff is distributed amongst various computer-based controllers, however, with the growing malicious threats a secure communication between aircraft and controllers becomes highly important. This research serves as a starting point for integration of BB84 quantum protocol with petri nets for secure modeling and verification of takeoff procedure. The integrated model combines the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol with powerful verification tool support offered by petri nets. To model certain important properties of BB84, a new variant of petri nets coined as Quantum Nets are proposed by defining their mathematical foundations and overall system dynamics, furthermore, some important system properties are also abstractly defined. The proposed Quantum Nets are then applied for modeling of aircraft takeoff process by defining three quantum nets: namely aircraft, runway controller and gate controller. For authentication between quantum nets, the use of external places and transitions is demonstrated to describe the encryption-decryption process of qubits stream. Finally, the developed takeoff quantum network is verified through simulation offered by colored petri-net (CPN) Tools. Moreover, reachability tree (RT) analysis is also performed to have greater confidence in feasibility and correctness of the proposed aircraft takeoff model through the Quantum Nets.

... Also, the IoT devices characteristics such as resources limitations must be considered. As a future work, improvements and recommendations mentioned previously must be taken in consideration as well as evaluating other techniques [66]- [68] in securing constrained devices. ...

—Nowadays, cloud computing and IoT devices are widely used and involved in our life. However, the current cloud computing paradigm still have some limitation mainly related to the latency, location, and mobility. Thus, to overcome such limitations, Fog Computing was introduced as an intermediate layer between the IoT devices and cloud computing to providing multiple benefits such as low latency and mobility. However, the security of Fog Computing protocols is still a concern especially those related CoAP protocol. CoAP protocol is still does not have the reliable standards for securing its architecture and there is a huge lack of the main researches on how security can be managed or provided to CoAP. Hence, this paper surveys the CoAP protocol, its architecture, security and different proposed techniques to secure CoAP protocol. The paper provides a solid reference for the Fog Computing and CoAP protocol security as well as it proposed a taxonomy for the literature review to ease understanding all available techniques to secure CoAP.

... A to (1) A which is the transformation from the eigenstates ...

Quantum bit commitment (QBC) is a quantum version of the classical bit commitment security primitive. As other quantum security primitives and protocols, QBC improves on cheating detection over its classical counterpart. The implementation of the QBC protocol below relies on the use of common quantum gates: the Hadamard gate used for orthonormal bases and the CNOT gate used to swap qubits. The protocol was run and tested on IBM quantum experience (IBM QX). IBM QX offers two different quantum environments: as a simulator and as a real quantum machine. In our implementation, honest and dishonest participants were considered. Results of both the simulation and the quantum execution were compared against the theoretical expectations. The IBM QX simulator gives results that match the theoretical model. The IBM QX real computer deviates from the expected behavior by a measurable amount. Using the standard deviation and the Hamming distance, the conclusion is that the quantum computer is usable as the difference to the simulator is within an acceptable margin of error. The QBC protocol of choice is fully secure against cheating by Bob. The only way Alice can cheat is using multi-dimensional entanglement. The cost for Alice to cheat is exponential in the number of qubits used, namely O(2^(6n+3k+1)) .

... Quantum cryptography draws its security directly from quantum physics laws and quantum properties. Reviews on quantum cryptography, modern cryptosystems, and quantum computers with their pros and cons can be found in [1,2,4,11]. ...

... The following is an implementation on the IBM QX simulator of the first stage of QBC, as shown in Fig. 4. It represents the preparation and transmission of one of [1] , …, q [7]. ...

... A to (1) A which is the transformation from the eigenstates ...