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Molecular structures of Zein and CA.  

Molecular structures of Zein and CA.  

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Protein based scaffolds are preferred for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications owing to their unique properties. Zein, a hydrophobic protein, is a promising natural biodegradable polymer. However, electrospun structures prepared from Zein have poor mechanical and wetting properties. Cellulose acetate (CA) is an economical, biodegrad...

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... An ultrafine CA/chitosan scaffold has been reported in which the bulk mechanical properties were better than a single polymer scaffold without affecting biocompatibility. 22 The structures of Zein and CA are given in Figure 1. ...

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... Tablets manufactured with SCMC have a tendency to become harder over time. [55] With its outstanding disintegration and dissolving properties, croscarmellose sodium increases the bioavailability of many formulations. In oral preparations, croscarmellose sodium is employed as a disintegrant. ...
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Tablet is one of the utmost chosen dosage forms administered orally. Disintegrants are substances added to tablets and some encapsulated preparations to encourage the breaking up of both tablet and capsule "slugs" into smaller fragments in an aquatic environment. This increases the surface area that is available and speeds up the release of the drug component. They increase moisture penetration and distribution of the tablet matrix. Tablet disintegration has attracted a lot of attention as an important stage in achieving rapid drug release. The concentration on drug availability emphasizes the significance of a tablet's comparatively quick disintegration as a criterion for determining unrestricted drug-dissolving behavior. Several factors affect the disintegration replacement of tablets. The primary purpose of the disintegrants is to counteract the effectiveness of the tablet binder and the physical forces that work during compression to prepare the tablet. For the tablet to release its medication, the disintegrating agents must be more effective, and the binder must be stronger. It should ideally cause the tablet to shatter into the powder particles used for the granulation as well as the granules from which it was compressed. This review comprehensively focuses on rationalizing the recent trends in the utilization of natural or synthetic polymers, in designing oral drug delivery systems.
... The peak at 1400 cm − 1 in pure cloves attributed to symmetric vibrations of carboxyl functional group [53]. At 1240 cm − 1 , the stretching of the nitrile group C ---N of pure zein and zein /cloves coating was observed [54]. The peak of the ether group (C-O-C) bond slightly shifted to 992 cm − 1 from 1018 cm − 1 , while the intensity of this peak increased which indicated that Hbonding between zein and cloves occurred during zein/cloves coatings deposited on 316L SS substrates [49]. ...
Article
In the present study, we develop zein coatings containing cloves (flower buds of the Syzygium aromaticum tree, a well-known aromatic natural herb) on stainless steel substrates via electrophoretic deposition. The antibacterial activity, drug release, surface (morphology, roughness, and wettability), corrosion, and adhesion properties of the produced zein/cloves coatings were elucidated in detail. The coatings deposited an applied electric field of 20 V/cm with a deposition time of 5 min yielded uniform zein/cloves coatings with a thickness of ~9 μm, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of zein and cloves functional groups in the zein/cloves coatings. The results of tape tests exhibited that the adhesion between the coatings and the substrate was rated as '5B' (Excellent) according to the ASTM-D3359 standard. The zein/cloves coatings exhibited an average roughness of 0.8 ± 0.05 and a contact angle of 60 • ± 2 • , making them appropriate for orthopedic applications. The antibacterial studies exhibited that the zein/cloves coatings developed zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, confirming the strong antibacterial potential of the coatings. UV-Vis Spectroscopy elucidated that after one week of immersion in phosphate buffer saline, ~65 % of eugenol was released from the zein/cloves coatings. Furthermore , the zein/cloves coatings improved the corrosion resistance by ~3 orders of magnitude compared to bare 316L stainless steel. Antimicrobial and drug release studies confirmed that the zein/cloves coatings can provide a targeted drug delivery system with a potent antimicrobial effect.
... Thermal stability was enhanced by the incorporation of decellularized bone ECM, notably in the small porous PGS-deB scaffolds (according to Tf values; PGS-0deB-SP: 490.500, PGS-5deB-SP: 492.749, and PGS-15deB-SP: 505.517, respectively [55]). A similar correlation could not be seen for the large porous scaffolds, yet the initial decomposition temperature (T10%) is higher in PGS-5deB-LP: 389.041 than in PGS-0deB-LP: 379.570. ...
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The microarchitecture of bone tissue engineering (BTE) scaffolds has been shown to have a direct effect on the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone tissue regeneration. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a promising polymer that can be tailored to have specific mechanical properties, as well as be used to create microenvironments that are relevant in the context of BTE applications. In this study, we utilized PGS elastomer for the fabrication of a biocompatible and bioactive scaffold for BTE, with tissue-specific cues and a suitable microstructure for the osteogenic lineage commitment of MSCs. In order to achieve this, the PGS was functionalized with a decellularized bone (deB) extracellular matrix (ECM) (14% and 28% by weight) to enhance its osteoinductive potential. Two different pore sizes were fabricated (small: 100–150 μm and large: 250–355 μm) to determine a preferred pore size for in vitro osteogenesis. The decellularized bone ECM functionalization of the PGS not only improved initial cell attachment and osteogenesis but also enhanced the mechanical strength of the scaffold by up to 165 kPa. Furthermore, the constructs were also successfully tailored with an enhanced degradation rate/pH change and wettability. The highest bone-inserted small-pore scaffold had a 12% endpoint weight loss, and the pH was measured at around 7.14. The in vitro osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs in the PGS-deB blends revealed a better lineage commitment of the small-pore-sized and 28% (w/w) bone-inserted scaffolds, as evidenced by calcium quantification, ALP expression, and alizarin red staining. This study demonstrates a suitable pore size and amount of decellularized bone ECM for osteoinduction via precisely tailored PGS elastomer BTE scaffolds.
... In the infrared spectrum of mesalazine (MSZ), the presence of bands that identify its functional groups was observed: 3471 cm −1 (N-H stretching), 2557 cm −1 (NH2 deformation), 1620-1590 cm −1 (N-H primary deformation and C-N stretch), 1246 cm −1 (C-N stretch), 3085 and 2978 cm −1 (C-H aromatic stretch), 2784 cm −1 (carboxylic acid OH stretch), 1647 cm −1 (C=O stretch of carboxylic acid), 1192 cm −1 (C-O stretch phenol), 810, 773 and 686 cm −1 (out-of-plane deformation of C-H in aromatic rings). These data corroborated the literature [40][41][42][43][44]. NP-ZN bands were observed at 3381 cm −1 (N-H stretch), 2935 cm −1 (C-H stretch), 1660 cm −1 (C=O stretch), 1530 cm −1 (N-H stretch) and 1259 (C-N stretch) [45][46][47][48]. In the physical mixture, an N-H deformation band was observed at 2557 cm −1 , indicative of the amino group of mesalazine [44], and bands at 810, 773 and Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 2830 7 of 14 686 cm −1 , referring to out-of-plane C-H strains also belonging to mesalazine [40]; these bands appeared at low intensity due to the low drug:polymer ratio (1:20), and were not identified in the NP-ZN-MSZ, which showed no significant difference from the NP-ZN, indicating drug encapsulation by the nucleus prolamin without structural changes and impurities ( Figure 6). ...
... The thermogram provided information on the thermal stability of the synthesized nanoparticles, which is an important aspect for in vivo drug delivery applications and for the identification of changes in the conformation of polymer chains as a function of the chemical changes undergone during the polymerization process, the synthesis of NPs or encapsulation of active ingredients [30]. In this test, the thermal stability was observed, as there was only a loss of mass from 250 • C to 350 • C ( Figure 7A,B,E,F), which was consistent with the data of [45] that showed that nanocarriers could remain thermally stable at a human body temperature (37 • C) [49,50]. ...
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We encapsulated MSZ in zein nanoparticles (NP-ZN) using a desolvation method followed by drying in a mini spray dryer. These nanoparticles exhibited a size of 266.6 ± 52 nm, IPD of 0.14 ± 1.1 and zeta potential of −36.4 ± 1.5 mV, suggesting colloidal stability. Quantification using HPLC showed a drug-loaded of 43.8 µg/mg. SEM demonstrated a spherical morphology with a size variation from 220 to 400 nm. A FTIR analysis did not show drug spectra in the NPs in relation to the physical mixture, which suggests drug encapsulation without changing its chemical structure. A TGA analysis showed thermal stability up to 300 °C. In vitro release studies demonstrated gastroresistance and a sustained drug release at pH 7.4 (97.67 ± 0.32%) in 120 h. The kinetic model used for the release of MSZ from the NP-ZN in a pH 1.2 medium was the Fickian diffusion, in a pH 6.8 medium it was the Peppas–Sahlin model with the polymeric relaxation mechanism and in a pH 7.4 medium it was the Korsmeyer–Peppas model with the Fickian release mechanism, or “Case I”. An in vitro cytotoxicity study in the CT26.WT cell line showed no basal cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. The NP-ZN showed to be a promising vector for the sustained release of MSZ in the colon by oral route.
... Şekil 2'de zein proteininin kimyasal yapısı görülmektedir. 500 Şekil 2. Zein proteinin kimyasal yapısı [29] Ali vd. (2014), çalışmalarında elektro lif çekim tekniği ile çeşitli oranlarda zein proteini ve selüloz asetat (CA) ile nanolif yapı iskelelerini başarıyla üretmişlerdir. ...
... Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, Zein/CA hibrit nanoliflerinin elektro lif çekim yöntemi ile uygun şekilde hazırlanabileceği ve doku mühendisliğinde ve diğer biyomedikal uygulamalarda yapı iskeleleri için kullanılabileceği belirtilmiştir. Şekil 3'te farklı oranlarda Zein/CA içerikli nanoliflere ait SEM görüntüleri bulunmaktadır [29]. Ullah vd. ...
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Bu çalışmada protein esaslı nanolifler, özellikleri ve uygulama alanları araştırılmış ve yumurta akı proteininden nanolifli yüzey üretimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Proteinler, bitkisel ve hayvansal olmak üzere iki ana gruba ayrılırlar. Biyolojik yapıdaki bu proteinler, medikal alan başta olmak üzere gıda endüstrisinde ve kozmetik sanayiinde çeşitli kullanım alanlarına sahiptir. Bu araştırmada, protein esaslı polimerler alt sınıflara ayrılmış, her birinin özellikleri verilmiş, nanolif üretimlerinden bahsedilmiş ve protein esaslı nanoliflerin kullanım alanlarına değinilmiştir. Ayrıca yumurta akı proteini kullanılarak elektro lif çekim teknolojisi ile nanolifli yüzeyler elde edilmiştir. Protein esaslı nanoliflerin biyomedikal alanda genel olarak, ilaç salım sistemleri ve doku mühendisliğinde yapı iskelesi, yara örtüsü, doku jenerasyonu gibi alanlarda kullanımı söz konusudur. Medikal alan dışında ise biyolojik yapısından kaynaklı gıda endüstrisinde de paketleme malzemesi olarak kullanımı söz konusudur. Ayrıca, protein esaslı nanoliflerin filtre malzemesi, biyosensör, katalizör, deri protezleri, ameliyat iplikleri, yumuşak kontakt lensler gibi çok çeşitli kullanım alanları da mevcuttur.
... In addition, this feature aids in the production of films, but it also contributes to casein's degradability. Electrospinability is severely limited by the low viscoelasticity of the material ( (Jeong et al., 2009) 10 Silk Wound dressing (Kim et al., 2003) 14 Silk/chitosan (Ali et al., 2014) 2016). As a result, the addition of synthetic polymers like PVA is required for electrospinning fibers from casein (Biranje et al., 2019). ...
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Electrospun fibers have recently gained popularity, particularly in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications , owing to their high surface-to-volume ratio, solubility, versatility, and other special characteristics. Peptide/protein structures from plants and animals, combined with synthetic and natural polymers, are utilized to create biocompatible and biodegradable fibers. Casein, silk fibroin, hemoglo-bin, bovine serum albumin, elastin, collagen, gelatin, keratin, soy, pea, and zein are some animal and plant proteins used in the production of nanofibers. These animal and plants-derived proteins and synthetic biopolymers are used in the production of electrospun nanofibers. Their potential applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields are discussed in this review. Since proteins have bio-degradability and compatibility with living cells, protein-based nanofibers may be of special interest. The natural enzymes of the body can degrade these proteins into absorbable non-toxic amino acids. Although protein-based fibers have several advantages, it is still challenging to standardize their mechanical and physical characteristics. The review highlights the adverse effects of metallic particles incorporated in nanofibers in healthcare applications and concludes with the challenges and prospects protein-based nanofibrous.
... Amide I is the most important and strongest absorption zone in the characterization of proteins, while it is associated with the stretching vibration of the C=O bond and provides information about the secondary structure of the protein (α-helix, β-pleated sheet) [50]. More specifically, the fact that the peak at 1652-1705 cm −1 is symmetrical indicates the highest amount of α-helices in the secondary structure [51]. Amide II is mainly associated with the bending vibration of the N-H bond and the tendency of the C-N bond while it is not particularly associated with the structure modulation of the protein [50]. ...
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Purpose Tomato waste (leaves, stems, green and red fruit) containing valuable bioactive compounds was used for the creation of ground cover films. Methods The extraction methods for the recovery of the bioactive extracts, were ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction (UAE-MAE). Extraction yield, antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid, protein and glycoalkaloids content of the extracts were evaluated using standard protocols. Subsequently, the extracts were encapsulated with the electrospinning process into zein (ZN) and polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers and their physicochemical properties were characterized. The best encapsulation product was utilised as an extra layer on low density polyethylene (LDPE) for the creation of an advanced ground cover film. The final film was evaluated regarding its mechanical properties and the release rate of the extracts when exposed to different humidity and temperature conditions. Results Stem and leaf extracts, especially from 72 h maceration and UAE for 20 min had the highest bioactive content and were chosen as the core material with electrospinning. Encapsulation led to physical inclusion of the extracts and thermally stable nanofibers, with zein showing a higher glass transition temperature and water resistance. The ZN nanofibers were, finally, synthesized on LDPE film and the product showed high tensile strength and elongation while 18 and 20% extract release occurred after 30 days at 25 and 45 °C respectively, at a relative humidity (RH) of 95%. Conclusions Tomato waste proved to be rich in bioactive compounds that could be exploited for the creation of advanced ground cover films for hydroponic tomato crops in the framework of the circular economy. Graphical Abstract
... Glycodendrimer indicated an intensive peak at 1642 cm − 1 , which may form the amide linkage between the OCH 3 groups of MA and the NH 2 group on the chitosan after amidation reaction, verifying the structure of glycodendrimer. After conjugation to FA, two new signals appeared at 1732 and 1570 cm − 1 , attributed to the stretching vibration peaks of amine bond (C -N) and carboxyl (C--O) [52,53]. It showed the characteristic peak of the ester linkage between the hydroxyl group on glycodendrimer and the FA carboxyl group after being activated by DCC/DMAP, which overlapped with the amide linkage peak of glycodendrimer. ...
Article
The present study synthesized a new kind of pH-responsive active targeting glycodendrimer (ATGD) for doxorubicin delivery to cancerous cells. First, the glycodendrimer was synthesized based on the cultivation of chitosan dendrons on amine-functionalized, silica-grafted cellulose nanocrystals. Afterward, glycodendrimer was conjugated with folic acid to provide a folate receptor-targeting agent. The response surface method was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for the preparation of doxorubicin-loaded ATGD. The effect of doxorubicin/ATGD ratio, temperature, and pH on doxorubicin loading capacity was evaluated, and high loading capacity was achieved under optimized conditions. After determining doxorubicin release pattern at acidic and physiological pH, ATGD cytotoxicity was surveyed by MTT assay. Based on the results, the loading behavior of doxorubicin onto ATGD was in good agreement with monolayer-physisorption, and drug release was Fickian diffusion-controlled. ATGD could release the doxorubicin much more at acidic pH than physiological pH, corresponding to pH-responsive release behavior. Results of MTT assay confirmed the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin-loaded ATGD in cancer cells, while ATGD (without drug) was biocompatible with no tangible toxicity. These results suggested that ATGD has the potential for the treatment of cancer.
... Represents the chemical structure of Zein[65]. ...
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Coating the solid dosage form, such as tablets, is considered common, but it is a critical process that provides different characteristics to tablets. It increases the value of solid dosage form, administered orally, and thus meets diverse clinical requirements. As tablet coating is a process driven by technology, it relies on advancements in coating techniques, equipment used for the coating process, evaluation of coated tablets, and coated material used. Although different techniques were employed for coating purposes, which may be based on the use of solvents or solvent-free, each of the methods used has its advantages and disadvantages, and the techniques need continued modification too. During the process of film coating, several inter-and intra-batch uniformity of coated material on the tablets is considered a critical point that ensures the worth of the final product, particularly for those drugs that contain an active medicament in the coating layer. Meanwhile, computational modeling and experimental evaluation were actively used to predict the impact of the operational parameters on the final product quality and optimize the variables in tablet coating. The efforts produced by computational modeling or experimental evaluation not only save cost in optimizing the coating process but also saves time. This review delivers a brief review on film coating in solid dosage form, which includes tablets, with a focus on the polymers and processes used in the coating. At the end, some pharmaceutical applications were also discussed.
... According to the chemical composition of nanofibers, electrospun nanofibers can be divided into inorganic nanofibers, organic nanofibers, and inorganic organic hybrid nanofibers [127]. In order to regulate the properties of electrospun nanofibers, on the basis of traditional electrospinning technology, modified electrospinning processes, such as hybrid electrospinning [128], emulsion electrospinning [129,130], coaxial electrospinning [131][132][133][134], parallel electrospinning [135,136], and triaxial electrospinning [137,138], have been successively developed, as shown in Figure 5. ...
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Bleeding control plays a very important role in worldwide healthcare, which also promotes research and development of wound dressings. The wound healing process involves four stages of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling, which is a complex process, and wound dressings play a huge role in it. Electrospinning technology is simple to operate. Electrospun nanofibers have a high specific surface area, high porosity, high oxygen permeability, and excellent mechanical properties, which show great utilization value in the manufacture of wound dressings. As one of the most popular reactive and functional synthetic polymers, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is frequently explored to create nanofibers for a wide variety of applications. In recent years, researchers have invested in the application of PAN nanofibers in wound dressings. Research on spun nanofibers is reviewed, and future development directions and prospects of electrospun PAN nanofibers for wound dressings are proposed.