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Mitochondrial aging theory. The production of intracellular free radicals, and its effects on cellular components, is a determinant of lifespan. Mitochondria is the prime target for oxidative damage; accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to changes of the inner membrane permeability causing release of intramitochondrial content and activating a cytoplasmic immune response leading to apoptotic cell death.

Mitochondrial aging theory. The production of intracellular free radicals, and its effects on cellular components, is a determinant of lifespan. Mitochondria is the prime target for oxidative damage; accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to changes of the inner membrane permeability causing release of intramitochondrial content and activating a cytoplasmic immune response leading to apoptotic cell death.

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The mitochondrial theory of aging suggests that mitochondria have a decrease in production capacity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The question may seem trivial, but it becomes more complex when considering that dysfunctional mitochondria can be eliminated by lysosomal digestion and that cell with dysfunctional mitochondria can undergo the proces...

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... sequence variations existing between different individuals have been very useful for anthro- pological, ethnological, and forensic studies and are the basis for the hypothesis that all existing humans descend from a woman who lived in Africa about 250,000 years ago (Figure 4) [25][26][27]. ...