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Mirrored topologies recovered using maximum likelihood (left) and Bayesian inference (right) analyses. Conflicting nodes between both analyses and respective nodal support values are depicted.

Mirrored topologies recovered using maximum likelihood (left) and Bayesian inference (right) analyses. Conflicting nodes between both analyses and respective nodal support values are depicted.

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The Neotropical tribe Dorynotini is characterized by a conspicuous tubercle or spine adorning the elytra, which, along with a few other characters, has been used to differentiate its recognized five genera and two subgenera. However, relationships among these taxa and the evolutionary origin of the pronounced tubercle remain speculative. Here we pr...

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... is decisively paraphyletic, as previous phylogenetic reconstructions have demonstrated (Chaboo, 2007;López-Pérez et al., 2017). A representative of Cassidini was recovered as sister taxon to Dorynotini in all analyses (Fig. 3), Syngambria bisinuata (Boheman, 1855) in the ML analysis and Eremionycha bahiana (Boheman, 1855) in the BI analysis (Fig. ...
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... as monophyletic in all concatenated molecular analyses (UFBoot = 100, PP = 1.0). The genus Paranota was also recovered as monophyletic with strong support (UFBoot = 100, PP = 1.0), and the ML and BI topologies were congruent with respect to intrageneric phylogenetic relationships. The genus Dorynota was recovered as polyphyletic in all analyses ( Fig. 4; Supporting Information, Appendix S2, Figs S89-S96), although there was some consistent structuring within the genus. The subgenus Akantaka was recovered as monophyletic with strong support (UFBoot = 99, PP = 0.98), albeit the intrasubgeneric phylogenetic relationships received low support and exhibited areas of conflict across ...
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... ( Fig. 4; Supporting Information, Appendix S2, Figs S89-S96), although there was some consistent structuring within the genus. The subgenus Akantaka was recovered as monophyletic with strong support (UFBoot = 99, PP = 0.98), albeit the intrasubgeneric phylogenetic relationships received low support and exhibited areas of conflict across analyses (Fig. 4). The subgenus Dorynota s.s. was recovered as paraphyletic with respect to other genera, with its members emerging in three different clades within the tree: (1) a strongly supported clade of South American Dorynota s.s. species ('clade 1'; UFBoot = 99, PP = 1.0) was recovered as sister to the rest of Dorynotini (UFBoot = 88, PP = 1.0); ...
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... and the transfer of its species and D. (s.s.) aculeata to the genus Omoteina. As a result, the clade is composed of Omoteina aculeata (Boheman, 1854) For the remaining recovered clades, we do not propose any taxonomic changes. The Greater Antilles clade is the only clade that is consistently recovered with high support and presents a distributional pattern that offers another line of evidence supporting the clade as an independent lineage within Dorynotini. ...

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... They are commonly called hispines and tortoise beetles with "hispines" roughly corresponding to the plesiomorphic tribes and tortoise beetles forming the monophyletic crown clade as found in the current phylogenetic hypotheses of this subfamily (Borowiec 1995;Hsiao & Windsor 1999;Chaboo 2007). Some modern tribe-focused phylogenetic hypotheses are available (Fernandes 2011;Shin 2015;López-Pérez et al. 2018;Simões 2018;Leocádio et al. 2020). All these phylogenetic hypotheses are based on molecular and morphological data but include little or no information from immature stages. ...
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Pupal morphology has been described for 11 species in six genera of the Neotropical tortoise beetle tribe, Ischyrosonychini Chapuis, 1875. This life stage may offer valuable phylogenetic information but more pupae need to be documented. The pupae of Physonota humilis Boheman, 1856 and P. stigmatilis Boheman, 1854 are described and illustrated for the first time. The pupa of P. humilis does not exhibit lateral scoli on the abdominal segments. Additionally, the body surfaces of P. humilis and P. stigmatilis are somewhat tuberculate, different from other described Physonota Boheman, 1854 pupae. A key to the described pupae of Physonota is provided and 10 phylogenetic character hypotheses are proposed.
... The Neotropical tribe Dorynotini is a monophyletic group characterized by a conspicuous postscutellar tubercle or spine that forms at the elytral suture (Simões et al. 2018). It comprises four genera: Dorynota Chevrolat, 1836, Heteronychocassis Spaeth, 1915, Omoteina Chevrolat, 1836, and Paranota Monrós and Viana, 1949(Borowiec andŚwiętojańska 2018Simões et al. 2018). ...
... The Neotropical tribe Dorynotini is a monophyletic group characterized by a conspicuous postscutellar tubercle or spine that forms at the elytral suture (Simões et al. 2018). It comprises four genera: Dorynota Chevrolat, 1836, Heteronychocassis Spaeth, 1915, Omoteina Chevrolat, 1836, and Paranota Monrós and Viana, 1949(Borowiec andŚwiętojańska 2018Simões et al. 2018). The genus Dorynota includes 41 species divided into two subgenera. ...
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... (http://tree.bio.ed.ac .uk/software/figtree/). The tribe Dorynotini was chosen because it is arguably the most distantly related to Mesomphaliini among the tribes sampled (Shin, 2015;López-Pérez et al., 2017;Simões et al., 2018). A Bayesian posterior probability ≥0.95, SH-aLRT ≥80 and UFBoot ≥95 were recognized as indicating strong support for a given node (Erixon et al., 2003;Minh et al., 2013Minh et al., , 2017. ...
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