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Mini meta-analysis of subject's confidence ratings by condition (R code; Carter & McCullough, 2014 [67]).

Mini meta-analysis of subject's confidence ratings by condition (R code; Carter & McCullough, 2014 [67]).

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Some research suggests people are overconfident because of personality characteristics, lack of insight, or because overconfidence is beneficial in its own right. But other research fits with the possibility that fluent experience in the moment can rapidly drive overconfidence. For example, fluency can push people to become overconfident in their a...

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... This is a vital skill-based outcome quality that organizations need to increase to counter insider threats. Test takers' feelings of confidence in performing a complex skill after watching an online tutorial are often unrelated to their actual competence in a real situation (Jordan et al., 2022). Unfortunately, cost is often the enemy of quality. ...
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Insider threats are a growing problem that undermine organizations and national security. Understanding and reduction of some types of insider threats has improved, but significant gaps, emerging risks, and untapped opportunities remain. The purpose of this article is to highlight the criticality of human factors and social science approaches to countering insider threats and to share seven useful sets of overarching insights, evidence, and recommendations gleaned from over 35 years of research. Although good policy and technological tools are necessary, they are not sufficient. Reliable technological safeguards are important, and software, hardware, and data science innovations should be vigorously pursued to help reduce insider threats. But because insider threats are instigated or facilitated by human behavior, technological developments must involve social scientists and subject matter experts. If enough individuals in an organization have sufficient knowledge, skill and, most important, personally-felt commitment to protect the safety, security, and well-being of their colleagues and organization, even limited insider threat policies will succeed. Without individuals’ sincere commitments, the most extensive insider threat policies will fail.