Migration of rat carotid VSMCs after 10d of tannin treatment. Migration was stimulated by the addition of PDGF-BB (20 ng/mL) to the lower chamber. VSMCs were allowed to migrate for 14 h. Representative images of crystal violet-stained cells that migrated to the lower surface of the membrane are shown for tannin-treated (0.5% and 0.1%) vs untreated VSMCs (A). Cell counts on the lower face of the membrane reveal reduced motility of VSMCs treated with 0.1% tannin extract (B). The data are expressed as means +SD of each experiment performed in triplicate. *P<0.005 vs. untreated cells. n=4 wells per treatment group (4 fields/well).

Migration of rat carotid VSMCs after 10d of tannin treatment. Migration was stimulated by the addition of PDGF-BB (20 ng/mL) to the lower chamber. VSMCs were allowed to migrate for 14 h. Representative images of crystal violet-stained cells that migrated to the lower surface of the membrane are shown for tannin-treated (0.5% and 0.1%) vs untreated VSMCs (A). Cell counts on the lower face of the membrane reveal reduced motility of VSMCs treated with 0.1% tannin extract (B). The data are expressed as means +SD of each experiment performed in triplicate. *P<0.005 vs. untreated cells. n=4 wells per treatment group (4 fields/well).

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Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is integral in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Sumac (Rhus coriaria) berries are believed to have atheroprotective effects. Therefore, Sumac, which is a rich source of tannin antioxidants, was tested for its capacity to inhibit VSMC migratory activity. Tannin was extracted and purified from ground S...

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... By sequestering macro-molecules and giving conjugated forms, tannins show strong anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, and anti-predator activities (Abu-Reidah, Jamous, & Ali-Shtayeh, 2014). Tannins may induce the release of nitric oxide, and thus help to prevent atherosclerosis (Zargham & Zargham, 2008). ...
Article
The current study screened the oil content, fatty acids profile, and antioxidant properties of twelve Iranian sumac fruit accessions. The oil contents were variable among the investigated populations (ranging from 5.15 to 16.70%). Oleic acid (32.3- 47.41%), palmitic acid (18.90-36.29%), and linoleic acid (10.31-35.39%) were the predominant fatty acids in the oil samples. According to principal component and cluster analysis, sumac germplasms were categorized into three groups: i.e., group I (five populations rich in linoleic acid), group II (four populations rich in oleic acid), group III (three populations rich in palmitic acid). The highest fruits weight, oil percentage, and linoleic acid content was obtained from Arasbaran population. Arasbaran population possessed the highest ∑PUSFA (i.e, 34.53%) and ∑UNSFA: ∑SFA ratio. Meanwhile, Paveh population possessed the highest antioxidant attributes. Such variabilities provide the possibility of using elite populations containing a high ratio of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds in the food industry
... investigated plants, while GA was found to be its most important phenolic acid. Sumac extract has pioneer medicinal properties including: antibacterial and antifungal, antidiabetic, anti-migratory, antiischemic, DNA-protective properties, as well as antioxidant and anticancer qualities [4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
In this paper, the extraction of gallic acid (GA) from brown sumac seeds was evaluated using supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) fluid and ethanol as the co-solvent, as well as Soxhlet method. Response surface methodology (RSM) design and optimize the experiments with second order model with the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) of 95.7%. Then, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process was modeled based on differential mass balances and the shrinking core model. To determine the equilibrium coefficient, four thermodynamic equations were used. Based on the results, the optimal temperature, pressure, CO2 flow rate and dynamic time were obtained as 35 °C, 30 MPa, 1.64 ml/min and 127.08 min, which resulted in 50.54% recovery (w/w), respectively. The mentioned mathematical model appropriately predicted the behavior of the process. Accordingly, the results obtained from thermodynamic equation of Peng–Robinson cubic plus association (PR-CPA) with adj. R² of 93.12%, showed the highest accuracy.
... Although our results do not reveal a significant change in the lipid profile parameters and in liver enzymes ALT and AST, likely because this meta-analysis includes a relatively small number of participants, several studies carried out with different animal models (broiler chickens, rabbits and hypercholesterolemic rats and rabbits) have demonstrated that sumac reduced cholesterol levels. Sumac was shown to decrease blood lipid profiles and the concentration of several biomarkers of liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner (Capcarova et al., 2011;Golzadeh et al., 2012;M, 2017;Madihi et al., 2013;Mohammadi et al., 2010;Shafiei et al., 2011;Zargham and Zargham, 2008). Additionally, it was also demonstrated that sumac could revert the hypertrophic cardiac histology observed in hypercholesterolemic rats (Shafiei et al., 2011). ...
... The onset of atherosclerosis resulting from the accumulation of LDL cholesterol in arteries is promoted by the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. An in vitro study has shown that the tannin extracted from sumac has the capacity to reduce cell migration, and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, reinforcing the described protective effect against atherosclerosis (Zargham and Zargham, 2008). ...
Article
Background : Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have revealed the beneficial effects of sumac (Rhus coriaria) on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the entirety of the evidence has yet to be summarized in a systematic review. Objective : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of sumac on several cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with MetS and related disorders. Methods : We reviewed Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL for RCTs published from inception to December 2020 evaluating the impact of sumac in adults with MetS or related disorders. Outcome measures included anthropometric measures, glycemic indices, blood lipids, blood pressure and liver enzymes. Pooled effect sizes were reported as standard mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Trials were pooled using a random effects model. Results : Nine studies enrolling 526 participants met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Our results indicate that sumac intake significantly decrease fasting blood sugar (FBS) (SMD: −0.28; 95% CI: −0.54, -0.02; I² = 00.0%), insulin (SMD: −0.67; 95% CI: −0.99, -0.36; I² = 03.7%), and insulin resistance (measured through the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) (SMD: −0.79; 95% CI: −1.24, -0.34; I² = 50.1%). Sumac intake did not have a significant impact on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Conclusion : Sumac, as an adjuvant therapy, may decrease serum levels of FBS, insulin and HOMA-IR. However, due to high heterogeneity in the included studies, these findings must be interpreted with great caution. Larger, well-designed placebo-controlled clinical trials are still needed to further evaluate the capacity of sumac as a complementary treatment to control MetS risk factors.
... The main compounds found in the sumac are tannins and flavonoids [3]. Sumac extracts have been shown to have some biological activities such as antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic and anti-mutagenic activities [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. In a study conducted in heat-stressed broilers, it was shown that consumption of 0.5% sumac in the diet decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration in thigh meat [11]. ...
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Citation: PS Sabir and R Aydin. "Diet Supplemented with Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) Influenced Fatty Acid Composition but not the Cholesterol Content of Eggs from Japanese Quail". EC Nutrition 12.2 (2017): 103-109. Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rhus coriaria L. on body weight, feed intake, egg fatty acid and cholesterol content in Japanese quail. In this study, 84 laying quails were randomly assigned into 4 groups and fed a diet including 0 (Control),
... Sumac is a rich source in terms of tannin, phenolic compound, anthocyanin, organic acid, vitamin, mineral, oleic and linoleic acid (Zargham and Zargham, 2008;Kossah et al., 2009;Kossah et al., 2010). ...
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Sumac is the common name of the Anacardiaceae family, belonging to the Rhus genus, with more than 250 species of flowering plants, and the most known among these species is Rhus coriaria. When the general characteristics of the Anacardiaceae family are examined, it is seen that there are plants in the form of bush or shrub, which find themselves naturally dis tributed in temperate and warm climates. Sumac can also grow in areas that are not suitable for agriculture, and this shows the potential for commercialization of sumac plants without competing for land uses. Sumac, a natural source of bioactive compounds; It has significant potential with components that can be used in many different fields such as organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids. It also shows a strong antioxidant effect due to the phenolic compounds it contains, especially gallic acid and its derivatives. In the food industry, sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is used as a spice and sumac sour to give aroma and flavor in many dishes. It is also considered a valuable raw material for the food industry due to its bioactive components. Today, increasing the usage areas of sumac plant in the food sector and knowing its contribution to human health are increasing the interest of consumers for sumac every day. In this review article, information is given about the properties of sumac plant and its importance in nutrition.
... Zargham and Zargham demonstrated anti-migratory activity of Rhus coriaria fruits extract on rat carotid vascular smooth muscle cells using transmembrane migration assay. The biological assay showed that Rhus coriaria extracts considerable vascular smooth cell migration reduction by 62%, thus owning a strong antimigratory potential, with a possible atheroprotective activity [42]. ...
... Sumac has been found to be effective in patients with hyperlipidemia as it was shown to increase HDL levels (Hajmohammadi et al., 2016) as well as decrease LDL (Low-density lipoprotein) levels (Boroujeni et al., 2016). Additionally, it has shown a great potential in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis (Zargham, 2008). ...
... The accumulation in VSMC is critical in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases and tannins were shown to have the ability to inhibit VSMC migration. The results showed that sumac decreased VSMC migration by 62%, making it a potent aid in the treatment of atherosclerosis (Zargham, 2008). ...
Article
Background Syrian Sumac, scientifically defined as Rhus coriaria, is a commonly used spice powder in the Middle East. Rhus coriaria has been shown to contain numerous compounds that have a substantial role in the food industry and in homeopathic therapy. From the retardation of oxidative processes to the treatment of fungal and bacterial infections and many more, these compounds are of great importance in improving human health and economy. Scope and approach Several studies have been done to explore the benefits and potential uses of Rhus coriaria. In the following review, the relevant phytochemical and biological research available on Rhus coriaria have been explored. A comprehensive account of its healing activity is shown. Also presented are its phytochemical components which have medicinal, nutritional and industrial significance. Key findings and conclusions Sumac has been studied for its use as an antibacterial, antioxidant, colorant, food and animal feed supplement, steel inhibitor in sea water and much more. Its antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties make it a great and versatile tool to be used in the food industry, where it can be used as an efficient food preservative and natural, harmless food additive.
... It has been also previously shown that sumac extract is rich in hydrolysable tannins ((Abu-Reidah et al., 2015), (Farag et al., 2018)). Tannins were shown to have a potent migratoryreducing effect on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that help in the treatment of atherosclerosis (Zargham and Zargham, 2008). These results together suggest that sumac extract possesses an anti-migratory effect on different cell lines. ...
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Uterus cervix cancer is one of the most common malignant gynecological tumors in women globally. Its standard treatment includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy are considered highly toxic, expensive and exhaustive for patients. Medicinal plants became increasingly a better and a safer alternative therapeutic approach. Rhus coriaria L., Anacardiaceae, is a medicinal plant whose anti-cancer effect has been explored in few cancer types including breast and colorectal cancer. However, its effect on uterus cervix cancer is still unknown. In this study, we showed that non-cytotoxic concentrations of R. coriaria reduces uterus cervix cell migration capacity. We have also found that R. coriaria has a growth inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cells in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner. We have carried out a phytochemical compound analysis of R. coriaria extract using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method in order to identify bioactive compounds in R. coriaria extract that could potentially induce its anti-cancer effects. Our results are promising to involve R. coriaria as a therapeutic drug candidate for uterus cervix cancer.
... Among these herbal medicines is Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae), known as sumac, a wild edible-medicinal plant growing in tropical and temperate regions worldwide [7]. Sumac is one of the herbal plants traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and stroke [7][8][9][10][11]. Sumac was shown to have numerous health properties including antioxidant [12], antifibrogenic [13], antitumorigenic activities [14], and hypoglycaemic [15]. ...
... The most active constituents present in the extract were hydrolyzable tannins, gallic acid, quercetin, and myricetin derivatives as measured by HPLC. The presence of these active constituents was shown to be responsible for numerous health properties of Rhus coriaria fruits in treating many diseases as antidiabetes, anticancer, and antistroke [7][8][9][10][11]. Also, sumac was used traditionally in treating many physiological and cellular disorders as an antioxidant [12], antifibrogenic [13], antitumorigenic activities [14] and hypoglycaemic [15], DNA, and hepatoprotective properties [11]. ...
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Impaired wound healing was mainly associated with severe microbial infections which significantly affect diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Thus, in this study, the potential wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria extract (AERc) were evaluated by wound contraction, scar formation, period of epithelization, MPO enzyme activity, collagenase-2 (MMP-8), hydroxyproline (HPX), and collagen deposition as markers of wound healing at different days of postwound. Phytoconstituents, microbial activity, and fibrogenic markers were screened by HPLC, disc-diffusion, and colorimetric assays. The animals were treated with Rhus coriaria extract (AERc) concentrations at doses of 5 mg.kg ⁻¹ and 10 mg.kg ⁻¹ , respectively. On days 6 and 9, the AERc-treated animals at doses of 5 mg.mL ⁻¹ and 10 mg.mL ⁻¹ exhibited a significant reduction in the wound area, increased deposition of collagen, HPX, and reduction in MMP-8, and MPO enzyme activity when compared with controls. Scar formation and epithelization were completed in 10 days compared to controls. In addition, in wounds infected separately with Staph. aureus or P. aeruginosa , the AERc extract significantly improved wound contraction, deposition of collagen, and HPx and reduced MMP-8 and MPO concentrations, with complete epithelization of wounds in 10-13 days compared to the saline-treated group. Hydrolyzable tannins, gallic acid, quercetin, and myricetin were the most common active components of AERc. In vitro , the AERc and its components were effective against a set of microbes especially Staph. aureus , P. aeruginosa , and Staph. aureus (MRSA). In conclusion, the results showed that antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity of Rhus coriaria extract suggested its importance as a target for formulation of novel drugs against many microbial infections with minimal side effects and could play a good potential role in accelerating wound healing activity via promoting myofibroblast activity, increase of hydroxyproline and collagen deposition, and regulation of MMP-8 and MPO enzyme activities.
... Previous studies have indicated that RC has anti-fungal (McCutcheon et al. 1994), anti-inflammatory (Fourie and Snyckers 1984) and anti-microbial (McCutcheon et al. 1992) effects. These effects have been shown to be mediated by the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins that it contains (Zargham and Zargham 2008, Pourahmad et al. 2010, Shabana et al. 2011, Capcarova et al. 2012. Al-Bataina et al. (2003) showed that RC did not demonstrate mutagenic effects in the Ames Test. ...
Article
Rhus coriaria has been important in the treatment of many diseases in traditional use. In this content, the genotoxic, antigenotoxic, and oxidative stress effects of methanol extract of R. coriaria (RCE) were investigated in this study. Two hundred fifty, 500, or 750 mg/mL concentrations of RCE were not found to have DNA damaging effect on pET22-b(þ) plasmid and were unable to induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes (24 or 48 h treatment period). However, it did not inhibit the genotoxic effect of mitomycin-c (0.25 mg/mL). Cytotoxic effects of RCE were investigated using mitotic index (MI) and nuclear division index (NDI). Five hundred, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg concentrations of RCE did not induce chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells for 12 or 24 h treatment period. In addition, 2000mg/kg concentration of RCE showed an antigenotoxic effect by decreasing to genotoxic effect of 400 mg/kg urethane at 12 and 24 h treatment periods. RCE showed cytotoxic effects by significantly decreasing NDI. Moreover, RCE increased cytotoxic effect of Mitomycin C (MMC). However, RCE did not induce cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow cells. The highest concentration of RCE reduced total oxidant level in 12 h treatment. Interestingly, the lowest total oxidant level was found in rats blood treated with the lowest concentration RCE and urethane together. Thousand and 2000mg/kg concentrations of RCE decreased total antioxidant levels of rat blood at 24 h treatment period. Our results showed that RCE possess cytotoxic effect in short-term treatments in vitro. However, it does not demonstrate genotoxic or cytotoxic effects in vivo.