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Microscope history timeline and the application of the super-resolution technology in Ophthalmology. EM, electron microscopy; FPALM, Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy; GFP, green fluorescence protein; OCT, Optical coherence tomography; OCTA, OCT angiography, PALM, photoactivated localization microscopy, RESOLFT, reversible saturable optical linear fluorescence transitions; SD-OCT, Spectral Domain OCT;; SIM, structured illumination microscopy; STED, stimulated emission depletion; STORM, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy.  

Microscope history timeline and the application of the super-resolution technology in Ophthalmology. EM, electron microscopy; FPALM, Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy; GFP, green fluorescence protein; OCT, Optical coherence tomography; OCTA, OCT angiography, PALM, photoactivated localization microscopy, RESOLFT, reversible saturable optical linear fluorescence transitions; SD-OCT, Spectral Domain OCT;; SIM, structured illumination microscopy; STED, stimulated emission depletion; STORM, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy.  

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Imaging techniques have experienced a great development in recent years. Specifically, the super-resolution fluorescence cutting-edge technique has allowed the observation of many biological structures impossible to be observed with conventional fluorescence microscopy. Super-resolution imaging reach the mapping of single molecules with <8 nm resol...

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Drug and toxicity assays are necessary to develop advanced treatments as a way of improving diagnostics and treatment. However, the actual in vitro models are currently not on par regarding the in vivo system they attempt to mimic. Two research directions can be invested in to overcome this issue: 1) elaboration of more complex in vitro biological model and 2) improvement of the in vitro experiment monitoring. We propose a multi-parametric system approach integrating bioelectronic devices complementing optical monitoring. A review on Organic Microelectrodes introduces the field of organic materials. To include electrophysiology monitoring steps into usual biological experiments, the planar bioelectronic chips are assembled in the form of a standard cell biology tool: the 12-well plate. To overcome the number limitation of channels available for both input and output monitoring, Organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) designs were arranged and optimized in a matrix structure. The bioelectronic device’s ability to monitor biological experiments in vitro is tested to monitor a) the transmembrane proteins in a lipids bilayer b) an epithelial barrier formation, and c) detect electrogenic cell activity. In conclusion, we have included bioelectronic devices into generic tools from the biological experiment is possible, and allows multiparametric monitoring of the in vitro experiment.