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| Microsaccades. (A) Mainsequence. Plotting microsaccade amplitudes against microsaccade velocities results in a straight line on a log/log scale (i.e., the mainsequence). This relationship is a signature for ballistic eye movements, thus confirming the physiological origin of the microsaccades detected here. (B) Histogram of the microsaccade distribution over all fixation trials. After stimulus onset the frequency of microsaccades decreases, followed by a rebound starting at around 200 ms and peaking 370 ms after stimulus onset. (C) ERP aligned to microsaccade onset. At scalp electrodes microsaccades display a similar biphasic pattern as the saccadic spike potential, suggesting that the most prominent contribution of microsaccades to the signal measured on the scalp is produced by spike potentials going along with eye movement. (D) Time-frequency signature of microsaccades. The sharp peak of the microsaccade-related spike potential results in a transient broadband power burst that spans over the entire gamma frequency range (30-100 Hz). (E) Reduction of microsaccade-related artifacts in the time domain. The ICA-based correction procedure proposed here diminishes the microsaccade-related spike potential to about one third of its original amplitude. (F) Reduction of microsaccade-related artifacts in the frequency domain. Corresponding to what was observed for the ERP, the correction procedure substantially reduces the spike potential-related frequency signature in the gamma band.

| Microsaccades. (A) Mainsequence. Plotting microsaccade amplitudes against microsaccade velocities results in a straight line on a log/log scale (i.e., the mainsequence). This relationship is a signature for ballistic eye movements, thus confirming the physiological origin of the microsaccades detected here. (B) Histogram of the microsaccade distribution over all fixation trials. After stimulus onset the frequency of microsaccades decreases, followed by a rebound starting at around 200 ms and peaking 370 ms after stimulus onset. (C) ERP aligned to microsaccade onset. At scalp electrodes microsaccades display a similar biphasic pattern as the saccadic spike potential, suggesting that the most prominent contribution of microsaccades to the signal measured on the scalp is produced by spike potentials going along with eye movement. (D) Time-frequency signature of microsaccades. The sharp peak of the microsaccade-related spike potential results in a transient broadband power burst that spans over the entire gamma frequency range (30-100 Hz). (E) Reduction of microsaccade-related artifacts in the time domain. The ICA-based correction procedure proposed here diminishes the microsaccade-related spike potential to about one third of its original amplitude. (F) Reduction of microsaccade-related artifacts in the frequency domain. Corresponding to what was observed for the ERP, the correction procedure substantially reduces the spike potential-related frequency signature in the gamma band.

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Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual sea...

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Context 1
... ensure that the detected movements were indeed microsaccades and not noise in the eye move- ment recordings, we investigated the relationship between their amplitude and velocity. In agreement with previous descriptions (Martinez-Conde et al., 2004), the microsaccades detected in our data follow a linear relationship when plotted on a log-log scale (i.e., the "main sequence," Figure 7A). ...
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... it rapidly increases again reaching its maximum at about 350 ms (Engbert and Kliegl, 2003;Dimigen et al., 2009). When we investigated the distribution of microsaccades over all fixation trials and all subjects, we found that it matched this pattern very closely ( Figure 7B). ...
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... study the impact of microsaccades on the EEG signal, we segmented the data into epochs time-locked to microsaccade onset. The ERP of these epochs displays the same biphasic wave- form as the saccadic spike potential of larger saccades, although its amplitude is substantially smaller (Figure 7C). In the time- frequency analysis of our data this pattern manifests itself as a transient burst between 40 and 100 Hz (Figure 7D), which is in concordance with earlier studies (Yuval-Greenberg et al., 2008;Keren et al., 2010). ...
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... ERP of these epochs displays the same biphasic wave- form as the saccadic spike potential of larger saccades, although its amplitude is substantially smaller (Figure 7C). In the time- frequency analysis of our data this pattern manifests itself as a transient burst between 40 and 100 Hz (Figure 7D), which is in concordance with earlier studies (Yuval-Greenberg et al., 2008;Keren et al., 2010). Altogether these findings confirm, that microsaccade-induced confounds in the EEG are mainly caused by spike potentials occurring at microsaccade onset, while ori- entation changes of the corneo-retinal dipole only play a minor role. ...
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... observed a significant difference (p < 0.001, shaded area) between ERPs of raw (blue traces) and ICA corrected data (red traces), comprising a time interval from 198 ms after stimulus onset to the end of the trial. However, the distribution of microsaccades over all trials (Figure 9, 5th column bottom) and the observation that after correction microsaccade- related spike potentials are reduced to about one third of their initial value (Figure 7E), suggest that a significant part of this difference can be attributed to the reduction of microsaccade- related artifacts, rather than to removal of neural activity. To test The magnification in the inset illustrates that the ratios are not clearly bimodally distributed. ...
Context 6
... concor- dance with the observation for ERP data, ICA correction (left column) completely removes power changes related to corneo- retinal dipole offsets and eyelid artifacts, and reduces the high- frequency correspondent of the saccadic spike potential by about 85% (Figure 10A). Note that in concordance with earlier stud- ies ( Keren et al., 2010) a similar reduction was also observed for microsaccadic spike potentials (Figure 7F). ...

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