Figure - uploaded by Taylor Witkin
Content may be subject to copyright.
Methods by which CSF fisheries reduce environmental impacts associated with fisheries.

Methods by which CSF fisheries reduce environmental impacts associated with fisheries.

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... our interviews, we identified five ways in which CSFs reduce environmental impacts associated with fisheries that are not apparent from stock assessment data or other sustainability metrics (Table 4). Bycatch utilization represented a common type of reduction in environmental impact, as CSFs can market locally abundant species that are caught incidentally and often discarded. ...
Context 2
... have also enabled collaborations among fishers, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations, which enhances communication among groups that may not typically interact. For example, two of the CSFs in our study had direct connections to universities, and one had a direct connection with a local nonprofit (Table 4). While these collaborations may not be typical of CSFs, it demonstrates the potential for CSFs to foster such connections. ...
Context 3
... terms of stock status and overall sustainability of the target stock, we found that CSFs distribute highly abundant stocks not available through industrial seafood systems ( Fig. 4; Table 2), suggesting that there is potential to improve sustainability if these seafood products are substituted for less sustainable options. Our interview results also provide empirical evidence of many of the proposed associated environmental benefits to CSFs, confirming that CSFs are helping to create new markets for locally abundant stocks that would otherwise not be marketable due to issues of scale and distance, and that many are experimenting with lower impact gear types (Table 4). On average, we found that CSF fisheries stocks are not significantly more sustainable than those entering the industrial supply chains as measured by our three metrics of stock status (Table 1). ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
In this paper we argue that unsustainable behaviors often stem from a common averaging bias when people estimate the environmental impact of a set of environmentally friendly and less friendly objects or actions. In Experiment 1, we show that people believe that the total carbon footprint of a category of items (a community of buildings in this cas...
Article
Full-text available
In the past ten years, artificial intelligence has encountered such dramatic progress that it is now seen as a tool of choice to solve environmental issues and, in the first place, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). At the same time, the deep learning community began to realize that training models with more and more parameters require a lot of energy...

Citations

... These ideas were being discussed in the decades before the 20-teens (FAO, 2015) but in the 20-teens they have taken a central place in discussing sustainability of fishing. Correspondingly, fully 20% of the papers presenting new or adapted ideas of the social aspects of sustainable fishing deal directly with governance and or the use of alternative knowledge systems in sustainability of small-scale fisheries (Al-Humaidhi et al., 2013;Groeneveld, 2011;Maravelias et al., 2018;McClenachan et al., 2014;O. R. Young et al., 2018). ...
... Kronen, (2010) destaca que las comunidades exploran y desarrollan actividades económicas alternativas para diversificarse, y esto ocurre, si éstas son factibles, utilizando o no sus activos de capital, sin abandonar la pesca. Entre los beneficios sociales de la diversificación sobresalen una mayor seguridad económica y consecuentemente menor vulnerabilidad, mejora su calidad de vida, reduce el tiempo que pasan a bordo de embarcaciones, lo que lleva a modificaciones del esfuerzo pesquero 4 REMEF (The Mexican Journal of Economics and Finance) La diversificación económica de los pescadores de pequeña escala y sus contribuciones en los objetivos de la Agenda 2030 que puede contribuir en la salud de las poblaciones, y fomenta el interés de la comunidad por la pesca sostenible (Kasperski y Holland, 2013;McClenachan et al., 2014;Miret-Pastor, 2015). ...
Article
La pesca de pequeña escala es relevante. Sin embargo, aspectos como la sobrepesca, el crecimiento de la población humana, el estado de los stocks, influyen en la adopción de estrategias de diversificación económica por los pescadores. Este artículo investiga cómo evoluciona este proceso, identificando éxitos y desafíos, y sus contribuciones en los ODS de la Agenda 2030. Se realizó una revisión de alcance y análisis crítico de publicaciones del 2017 al 2022. Se encontró que el proceso de diversificación se gesta a nivel mundial, independientemente de las disimilitudes entre flotas. La diversificación muestra dos vías principales de evolución: en las actividades pesqueras y en actividades no pesqueras de acuerdo al patrimonio de cada región, destacando actividades turísticas, servicios de transporte, alimentos y acuicultura. La política pública, la capacitación y la integración del conocimiento académico se identifican como elementos de éxito, mientras que el control del mercado por mayoristas, sistemas de cuotas y una débil gobernanza destacan como desafíos. Se reconocen aportes importantes en seguridad alimentaria, reducción de pobreza y empleos dignos. No hay evidencia concluyente de sus impactos en ecosistemas sanos.
... Three fishers sold directly to clients located 100-190 km distant from where they landed (see also Egle, 2019). Still, our interviewees were convinced that seafood sold in the conventional system travelled farther, a claim supported by research from the US showing that conventionally-sold fish travels an average distance of 8812 km (McClenachan et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Swedish and EU authorities, scholars, and activists have articulated sustainability visions and goals related to direct sales of fish and seafood, small-scale fisheries, and coastal communities. Research that investigates whether and how direct seafood sales by European or Swedish coastal fishers achieve such sustainable futures is however only beginning to emerge. In this study we use the theoretical framework of sustainable materialism to analyse qualitative data from eight Swedish operations that market fish and seafood directly to consumers. Our findings reveal that fishers who sell directly confront social and economic challenges and operate at a small scale, which calls into question claims made in policy documents, reports, and the media about the relationship between direct sales and sustainable development. At the same time, the operations realise sustainability visions promoted by the global alternative food movement: they strengthen non-fishers' support for small-scale producers, transmit knowledge and concern about fish and marine environments, and facilitate some consumption outside the corporate-industrial food system. For the practice to contribute meaningfully to supporting small-scale fisheries, coastal communities and sustainable consumption, we argue, direct seafood sales must be repositioned in thicker social and institutional arrangements that can spread laterally and be networked.
... Alternative seafood networks (ASNs) are seafood distribution models that aim to shorten or restructure seafood supply chains in order to promote a variety of economic, environmental, and social values (Bolton et al., 2016;Brinson et al., 2011;Campbell et al., 2014;McClenachan et al., 2014;A. L. Witter, 2020). ...
... Within the last decade there has been a proliferation of ASNs that, research suggests, enable smallscale fishermen to participate in fisheries dominated by market governance through the promotion of values along their diverse value chains while addressing ecological sustainability, sociocultural concerns, and small-scale fishermen livelihoods (A. Bolton, 2015;Cumming et al., 2020;McClenachan et al., 2014;A. Witter & Stoll, 2017). ...
... L. Witter, 2020). They were created in response to perceived issues within the global seafood industry related to international trade and consolidation, including welfare issues for harvesters, environmental degradation, and product mislabeling (Bush & Oosterveer, 2019;McClenachan et al., 2014;A. Witter & Stoll, 2017). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The globalization of the seafood industry has prompted the creation of alternative business models that seek to resist the industrialization of the industry, while promoting a specific set of core social and environmental values that ostensibly deviate from the global mainstream. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, actors in this "alternative" space emerged as a visible feature of the global seafood distribution system. By restructuring and shortening seafood supply chains, alternative seafood networks (ASNs) are reasserting the importance of a specific set of values in food systems for both environmental and socio-cultural reasons. This thesis explores the diversity of businesses within the alternative seafood space and how this diversity has emerged and changed over time. It also draws comparisons from food systems literature to understand the implications of too much diversity within the alternative seafood space. Finally, this thesis also explores the challenges ASN operators face and opportunities to address them. This work is an opportunity to explore the current and future role of ASNs in the broader seafood economy. iii
... Similarly, support for local rules and authorities over centralized government regulations and institutions has the potential to improve responsivity to both local nutritional needs as well as potential declines in reef health (Jupiter et al., 2014). While tradeoffs certainly exist between some social and environmental management objectives, often interventions that seek to promote local access to seafood resources simultaneously work to promote overall ecosystem health (McClenachan et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recognized as an emerging global crisis in the mid-1990s, the “nutrition transition” is marked by a shift to Western diets, dominated by highly processed, sugar-sweetened, and high caloric foods. Occurring in parallel to these health transitions are dramatic shifts in the natural systems that underlie food availability and access. Traditionally, environmental degradation and ecosystem change, and processes of nutritional transition, though often collinear and potentially causally linked, have been addressed in isolation. Food systems represent an emblematic social-ecological system, as both cultivated and wild foods are directly reliant on natural ecosystems and their processes. While healthy ecosystems are a necessary precondition of food production, they are not themselves sufficient to ensure continued benefits from local food systems. Mediating between food production and nutritional security are myriad governance and market institutions that shape differential access to food resources. Moreover, globalization and urbanization may shift communities from non-market to market-based economies, with profound implications for local environments and food systems. Specifically, we argue that it is this feedback between coupled socioeconomic and natural dynamics within food systems that reinforces specific nutritional outcomes, and may result in a social-ecological trap. Here, we use the case of reef-based food systems globally, paying particular attention to the Pacific to showcase social-ecological traps present in global food systems, and to illustrate how such traps lead to the acceleration of the nutrition transition. Improving both nutritional and environmental outcomes of food systems requires understanding the underlying drivers of each, and how they interact and reinforce each other. Only in recognizing these interactions and coupled dynamics will economic, governance, and environmental policies be positioned to address these food system challenges in an integrated fashion.
... With special concern to fisheries, co-management can emerge or benefit from institutional innovations because these can bring about the construction of alternative markets for local and traditional seafood products (Goodman, 2003;Campbell et al., 2014;McCleanachan et al., 2014;Marsden, 2018;Salladarrè et al., 2018;Makuta, 2018;Chiodo et al., 2019), as it has also been observed in the case studies. ...
Article
Initiatives of artisanal fisheries co-management and the construction of differentiated markets for seafood products have been emerging in different parts of the world, as an institutionalized way of coping with a global fishery crisis. This paper analyses some institutionalization processes of artisanal mollusc fisheries, considering the role of co-management in two Brazilian and Italian protected areas (Resex Pirajubaé and Conero Regional Park). Within a theoretical framework aiming at moving beyond the dualism between nature and society, the methodology of multiple-case-study has been used to carry on research about mollusc artisanal fisheries co-management networks in their constitution and development. The paper analyses how these networks are organised in the two contexts and the relations social actors have been developing for a sustainable fishery as a possible way to influence and increase their capacity to address environmental crisis. In the artisanal mollusc fishery co-management experiences, fishers’ participation may favour institutional innovations and the co-management networks stability may be generated by the institutions legitimacy. Furthermore, the case studies offer complementary insights to better understand the linkage between artisanal fishery institutionalization processes, common natural resources co-management and value aggregation for traditional seafood. Artisanal mollusc fishery co-management experiences should be stimulated and investigated since they can help in diagnosing early climate and environmental changes in the oceans.
... Like alternative food networks in the agricultural sector (c.f. Whatmore et al., 2003;Goodman et al., 2012), which emerged in response to problems in terrestrial food systems, ASNs aim to address perceived economic, social, and environmental issues associated with the global seafood system-including but not limited to concerns about overfishing, industrialization, privatization, and the disappearance of smallscale and community-based fishing operations (Brinson et al., 2011;Campbell et al., 2014;McClenachan et al., 2014;Stoll et al., 2015). The literature also refers to ASNs as direct marketing arrangements (Stoll et al., 2015), community supported fisheries (Bolton et al., 2016), and relational seafood supply chains . ...
Article
Full-text available
Export-oriented seafood trade faltered during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, alternative seafood networks (ASNs) that distribute seafood through local and direct marketing channels were identified as a "bright spot." In this paper, we draw on multiple lines of quantitative and qualitative evidence to show that ASNs experienced a temporary pandemic "bump" in both the United States and Canada in the wake of supply chain disruptions and government mandated social protections. We use a systemic resilience framework to analyze the factors that enabled ASNs to be resilient during the pandemic as well as challenges. The contrast between ASNs and the broader seafood system during COVID-19 raises important questions about the role that local and regional food systems may play during crises and highlights the need for functional diversity in supply chains.
... It was found that while these farms tended to be of low profit, they can effectively reduce energy consumption and hence improve environmental sustainability. Another study was implemented by McClenachan et al. (2014). They compared the environmental impacts of community-supported fisheries Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
Full-text available
While industrialized agro-food supply systems have gained tremendous success in recent decades, it has been increasingly criticized for its adverse environmental and social impact. Amongst this criticism, Short Food Supply Chains (SFSCs) have emerged as a promising sustainable alternative to the industrialized agri-food supply systems. In recent years there have been some attempts to explore the relationship between SFSCs and sustainability, but these are mostly theoretical discussions and lacks empirical validation. This study, therefore, attempts to provide empirical validation of the SFSCs and sustainability linkages. Additionally, from the theoretical perspective, our work extends the traditional triple bottom line constructs and explores two extra dimensions of sustainability in the food supply chain system, namely, governance and culture, thus exploring five dimensions of sustainability. Furthermore, while SFSCs have proven to improve farmers’ livelihoods and reconnect producers with consumers, little or no attention has been given to understand the consumers' attitudes towards the SFSC practices. Therefore, this study aims to explore the customers’ attitudes towards participating in SFSCs through the concept of a moral economy and personal relationship. Based on the 532 valid responses from Chinese consumers, our study shows that all five pillars of sustainability, moral economy and Chinese relationship have a positive influence on consumers’ participation in SFSCs. With its intuitive benefits, the economic pillar emerged as the most approved factor by the participants. Interestingly our findings show that the social aspect is less prominent than others, which is contrary to existing studies conducted in developed countries.
... CSFs are seafood distribution programs that market finfish and shellfish from suppliers (e.g. harvesters, processors) to consumers through shortened supply chains, often involving recurring, pre-arranged product deliveries [12,13]. Originating in Maine in 2007 [35], CSFs decrease the distance (physical and/or social) from 'boat to bowl,' much like Community Supported Agriculture programs reduce the distance from 'farm to fork' [12]. ...
... CSF missions vary [36] but typically involve providing fresh, local seafood and corresponding education to consumers and generating alternative markets and fair prices for suppliers. CSFs often seek to make seafood environmentally friendly by minimizing overexploitation, habitat impairment, and carbon emissions from international trade [12,13,37]. We illustrate how CSFs can increase resilience through network rewiring in response to disturbances, such as those created by a pandemic. ...
... [ [12][13][14] Degree ...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries are coupled human-natural systems locally, regionally, and globally. However, human-nature interactions within and between adjacent and distant systems (metacouplings) are rarely studied in fisheries despite their prevalence and policy relevance. We filled this knowledge gap by using network models to identify how the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rewired couplings and reshaped resilience of Fishadelphia, a community-supported fishery program (CSF) in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. As abstractions illustrating interactions among supply-chain actors, networks are helpful for characterizing flows and assessing resilience to disturbances such as those induced by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Since Fall 2018, 18 seafood (finfish and shellfish) species totaling 6,273 lbs have flowed from harvesters (n = 4), to processors (n = 2), to a distributor, to retailers (n = 2), and finally to customers (n = 183). The pandemic reduced the number of seafood harvesters and processors (-50%), seafood flow quantity (-25%), species diversity in the marketplace (-67%), and species per supplier (-50%) before stopping flows in mid-March 2020, when Fishadelphia closed for three months. Models of network optimality indicated that the pandemic fragmented metacouplings that previously allowed multiple seafood suppliers to provide diverse products to customers. However, demand-side resilience increased through dispersed, socially distanced, efficient seafood delivery that expanded the customer base and generally increased customer satisfaction. This resilience dichotomy—wherein the post-closure network was less resilient than the pre-closure network in supply-side species diversity, but more resilient in demand-side social distancing, delivery efficiency, and customer satisfaction—has implications for rewiring networks to sustain CSFs and other local food systems amid ecological and social disturbances.
... The literature on alternative seafood marketing arrangements originally arose in the US and Canada in the early 2000 s, where the initiatives were primarily based on the Community Supported Agriculture model [25]. The main goals of these initiatives were to react to producers' and consumers' concerns about the environmental impacts, social, economic, as well as cultural consequences on rural communities that globalization and industrialization could produce [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. These initiatives, originally linked to social movements, provided an arena for producer and consumer activism, with the aim of re-embedding food markets in the social fabric of communities and to tackle the environmental impacts that large agrifood value chains produce [32]. ...
... The failure of the CSF was also related to the impossibility to meet the demand of those consumers that preferred the fish prepared and cleaned, ready for cooking, which would have implied investment in a skilled workforce and fulfilling the sanitary requirements of the workplace. As stated by McClenachan et al. [29], food skills impact food choices by limiting the foods that individuals are able to prepare. In contrast, those more successful initiatives showed better flexibility in diversifying the distribution channel by addressing the diversity of the consumers' demands and needs. ...
... Several scholars warn of the possibility of falling into the economic attractiveness of specialization, targeting highly valued and demanded species, which can reproduce the same problems of conventional value chains. That is, aligning the fishing effort with demand, impinging the overexploitation and, in turn, boosting complex dependency relations by, for example, producing a fisher co-dependence to meet and sustain the market demand [29,30,[45][46][47]. ...