Method used to measure stretched penile length in the current study.

Method used to measure stretched penile length in the current study.

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Studies of penile length in children have been rarely conducted. In Korea, great improvements in height and weight have been observed because of economic development over the past 25 years. We investigated the current status of penile length in Korean children and compared the results with those of a previous Korean study conducted in 1987. The sub...

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... The risk of daytime urinary incontinence differs according to the type of surgery. Vaginal stenosis is present in 6%-57% with a reoperation rate of 3%-36% (190,191,(195)(196)(197)(198)(199)(200)(201)(202)(203)(204). The stricture rate according to the procedure is unclear. ...
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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a category of disorders characterized by impaired adrenocortical steroidogenesis. The most frequent disorder of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is caused by pathogenic variants of CAY21A2 and is prevalent between 1 in 18,000 and 20,000 in Japan. The clinical guidelines for 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Japan have been revised twice since a diagnostic handbook in Japan was published in 1989. On behalf of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, the Japanese Society for Mass Screening, the Japanese Society for Urology, and the Japan Endocrine Society, the working committee updated the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency published in 2014, based on recent evidence and knowledge related to this disorder. The recommendations in the updated guidelines can be applied in clinical practice considering the risks and benefits to each patient.
... Penile dimensions and normal variations in children have been previously reported, [6][7][8][9][10][11][12] but similar data in Indian population is sparse. It is important to establish reference values for penile dimensions in Indian children as significant variations may exist among males from different races and ethnicities right from birth to childhood and adulthood. ...
... Upon individually comparing the results using Student's t-test with other studies conducted in the past, the values in this study were found to be statistically smaller from the most of the other studies (Brazil, [7] Korea, [9] and Turkey [10] ) with a P < 0.01 during infancy, 4-5 years as well as 9-10 year age group. However, on comparing the results with the study conducted on Bulgarian boys, [8] the penile length was statistically smaller during infancy, smaller but not statistically significant in the age group 4-5 years and larger in the age group 9-10 years. ...
... This might be due to difference in the extent of stretching of penis and different methodologies adapted for measurements. Lee et al. [9] in their study on Korean boys found the mean penile length to be 3.5 cm during infancy and 5.6 cm at 10 years, which is slightly more than our study and similarly the penile length was comparatively more in Turkish boys with values of 4.44 cm during infancy and 6.79 cm as found in the study by Peyami et al. [10] No direct correlation of penile length with either weight, height or BMI was found when all the age groups were evaluated. Of all the age groups, height, weight and BMI had a strong positive correlation with penile length during infancy, which may suggest that birth weight and height may bear some influence on penile length of the child. ...
Chapter
Commonest complaint in the long-term follow-up of Hypospadiacs is the short penis, and all pediatricians and clinicians frequently encounter the questions by parents regarding the standard size of their child’s penis. Much less than required attention is paid to the size of the penis in management of hypospadias repair. Size of the penis and glans is a vital variable in defining the outcome of hypospadias surgery. The abnormalities of penile morphology are likely to affect interpersonal relations. It may also lead to emotional disturbances with the growth of a child to adulthood. Child’s parents/patients may have a misconception of the size of the penis, even in the cases of normal variations. On the other hand, the micropenis must be ruled out. The penis otherwise is normal in terms of shape and function, but is smaller by >2.5 SD than the mean size in terms of length for age of the child is termed as micropenis. With a defined penile nomogram, the patients and parents can be counseled regarding the penile size. However, as the physical stature differs across racial and ethnical spectrums, it stands to reason that penile size may vary too. A separate penile dimensions chart may be necessary to define the standard penile dimensions among various population groups. The chapter will provide denominator about the size of the penis and its relation with age and BMR, which will help in the timely clinician treatment.KeywordsAnthropometryPenile circumferencePenisPenile lengthBMRHypospadias
... There have been several studies on penile size in children [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In neonates, Soheilipour et al. [11] determined values for stretched penile length and the cutoff value for micropenis in a study of 587 Iranian neonates born between 28 and 42 weeks of gestational age. ...
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Purpose: To determine references for penile circumference according to age in prepubertal children and whether this measurement can be used as a basic penile parameter along with stretched penile length in prepubertal children. Materials and methods: A total of 750 children (mean age, 4.2±3.4 years) aged under 14 years without penile problems were enrolled in this study. Children with penile or testicular abnormalities were excluded. All data were gathered at the outpatient clinic by a single pediatric urologist from July 2017 to April 2020. Penile parameters (baseline and stretched penile length, penile circumference) and testicular volumes were measured by using an elastic ruler and a Prader orchidometer, respectively. Results: Mean baseline and stretched penile lengths were 3.0±1.0 cm and 4.2±1.0 cm, respectively. The mean penile circumference was 4.2±0.9 cm. The stretched penile length was similar to penile circumference (p=0.425). This similarity was found for each age group except for the 0-1-year-old and 3-4-year-old age groups (p=0.001 and p=0.034, respectively). As children grow into adolescence, stretched penile length increases significantly compared to penile circumference. Conclusions: Penile circumference increased with age like stretched penile length and testicular volume in prepubertal children. Stretched penile length and penile circumference were found to be similar. This study can be used as a basic reference for penile circumference values in prepubertal children.
... All external genital examinations were performed by the same endocrinologist (Chunxiu Gong). Stretched PL was measured as previously described (Lee et al., 2012) and compared to reference values obtained in China (Fu & Li, 2010) (Table S1). ...
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Background Patients with steroid 5α‐reductase 2 deficiency (5α‐RD) caused by SRD5A2 (OMIM #607306) variants present variable genotypes and phenotypes. The genotype‐phenotype correlations remain unclear. Methods We investigated genotype‐phenotype correlations of SRD5A2 variants in a large Chinese single‐center cohort. Phenotypes were categorized using the external masculinization score (EMS), urethral meatus and gonad position, and penile length‐standard deviation score. Results Of the 130 included patients, 113 had hypospadias, and 17 had a normal urethral meatus position. Testosterone/dihydrotestosterone (T/DHT) values were not significantly associated with phenotypic severity (p = 0.539–0.989). Of the 31 SRD5A2 variants, including 10 novel variants, p.R227Q was the most prevalent (39.62%), followed by p.Q6* (16.92%), p.R246Q (13.46%), and p.G203S (10.38%). Compared to biallelic missense mutations, biallelic nonsense mutations were associated with a lower EMS and urethral meatus score (p = 0.009 and p = 0.024, respectively). Patients homozygous for p.R227Q exhibited mild and variable phenotypes, while those homozygous for p.Q6*, p.R246Q, or p.G203S showed consistently severe phenotypes. The phenotypes were variable and milder in patients with compound heterozygosity for p.R227Q and these mutations. Conclusion T/DHT does not predict phenotype severity. The most prevalent SRD5A2 variant in Han Chinese is p.R227Q, which is associated with milder phenotypes and greater phenotypic variability. SRD5A2 variants may significantly influence phenotypic variation.
... The normal stretched penile lengths (SPL) of newborns vary depending on the maturity, ethnicity, and race [6][7][8]. Normative data used in Caucasian populations may not be applicable to Asian populations [9,10]. It is therefore important to establish normal values for SPL for Sri Lankan new-borns. ...
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Introduction Evaluation of the external genitalia is important in the routine neonatal examination, since abnormalities of the genitalia give clues to underlying endocrine disorders or structural malformations. Objectives The objectives of the study were to document the stretched penile length (SPL) of healthy term neonates born following an uncomplicated delivery at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka, and to establish the normative data for the SPL for Sri Lankan neonates. Method This was a cross sectional observational study,carried out at post natal wards of the Castle Street Hospital for Women, Sri Lanka. The study was done on 369 stable newborns delivered at the gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks. A complete neonatal examination was performed by the principal investigator and the measurements of the weight, length, head circumference and stretched penile length were obtained. Mean penile length and statistically significant difference of penile length (SD) values were calculated. The correlation of mean penile length, period of gestation, birth weight and length were analysed. Results The SPL positively correlated with the length of the baby. There is no statistically significant correlation of birth weight, head circumference and gestational age with the SPL. The mean SPL for term Sri Lankan newborns was 3.03cm ± 0.37cm and the -2SD value was 2.29cm. Conclusion Since the -2SD of SPL was 2.29cm, measurements less than this should be considered as micropenis.
... Ukuran antropometri saat ini pada anak-anak Korea seperti tinggi badan, berat badan, dan ukuran testis meningkat dibandingkan dengan yang diteliti pada tahun 1987. 10 Nilai rata-rata untuk panjang penis, lingkar midshaft, dan lingkar koroner adalah 3,34, 3,05, 3,29 cm pada masa bayi, 4,28, 3,86, 4,1 cm selama 4-5 tahun, dan 5,25, 4,78, 5,05 cm selama 9-10 tahun. , masing-masing. ...
Article
Latar belakang:Sirkumsisi atau khitan atau sunat adalah prosedur yang biasa dilakukan dalam operasi. Prosedur ini sama tuanya dengan peradaban manusia, dimulai pada abad pertengahan. Sekitar 25-33% dari total populasi laki-laki di dunia disunat. Di AS, rata-rata satu juta bayi laki-laki yang baru lahir disunat setiap tahunnya. Tingkat sunat di AS setinggi 70%, sementara di Inggris itu adalah 6%. Di Nigeria, tingkat sunat diperkirakan 87%. Di Indonesia usia yang paling sering adalah 5-12 tahun. Banyak metode sirkumsisi yang digunakan saat ini, salah satunya dengan metode klem.Metode:Metode dari penelitian ini adalah retrospektif menggunakan rekam medis selama periode 1 desember – 31 desember 2017 dan diperoleh data sebanyak 57 sampel. Sampel merupakan pasien yang telah dilakukan tindakan sirkumsisi menggunakan metode klem merk Mahdian Klem.Hasil dan Kesimpulan:Lingkar penis dipengaruhi oleh usia dengan nilai signifikansi 0,038 (p<0,05) dan juga dipengaruhi oleh berat badan dengan nilai signifikasi 0,042 (p<0,05) sehingga disimpulkan bahwa ukuran lingkar penis dipengaruhi oleh usia dan berat badan yaitu semakin bertambah usia maka ukuran lingkar penis semakin besar, begitu pula dengan berat badan, semakin bertambah berat badan maka ukuran lingkar penis semakin besar.Diskusi:Ukuran lingkar penis semakin bertambah seiring dengan pertambahan usia dan berat badan. Tingkat keberhasilan sunat menggunakan metode klem (plastibell) tanpa komplikasi tercatat sebanyak 196 kasus (80,00%) sedangkan 49 kasus (20,00%) mengalami komplikasi. Waktu penyembuhan luka rata-rata 25,5 ± 4,6 hari serta tidak menemukan adanya deformitas penis atau komplikasi jangka panjang lainnya. Sunat tidak mempengaruhi dorongan seksual atau ejakulasi berdasarkan skor persediaan fungsi seksual pria singkat.Latar belakang:Sirkumsisi atau khitan atau sunat adalah prosedur yang biasa dilakukan dalam operasi. Prosedur ini sama tuanya dengan peradaban manusia, dimulai pada abad pertengahan. Sekitar 25-33% dari total populasi laki-laki di dunia disunat. Di AS, rata-rata satu juta bayi laki-laki yang baru lahir disunat setiap tahunnya. Tingkat sunat di AS setinggi 70%, sementara di Inggris itu adalah 6%. Di Nigeria, tingkat sunat diperkirakan 87%. Di Indonesia usia yang paling sering adalah 5-12 tahun. Banyak metode sirkumsisi yang digunakan saat ini, salah satunya dengan metode klem.Metode:Metode dari penelitian ini adalah retrospektif menggunakan rekam medis selama periode 1 desember – 31 desember 2017 dan diperoleh data sebanyak 57 sampel. Sampel merupakan pasien yang telah dilakukan tindakan sirkumsisi menggunakan metode klem merk Mahdian Klem.Hasil dan Kesimpulan:Lingkar penis dipengaruhi oleh usia dengan nilai signifikansi 0,038 (p<0,05) dan juga dipengaruhi oleh berat badan dengan nilai signifikasi 0,042 (p<0,05) sehingga disimpulkan bahwa ukuran lingkar penis dipengaruhi oleh usia dan berat badan yaitu semakin bertambah usia maka ukuran lingkar penis semakin besar, begitu pula dengan berat badan, semakin bertambah berat badan maka ukuran lingkar penis semakin besar.Diskusi:Ukuran lingkar penis semakin bertambah seiring dengan pertambahan usia dan berat badan. Tingkat keberhasilan sunat menggunakan metode klem (plastibell) tanpa komplikasi tercatat sebanyak 196 kasus (80,00%) sedangkan 49 kasus (20,00%) mengalami komplikasi. Waktu penyembuhan luka rata-rata 25,5 ± 4,6 hari serta tidak menemukan adanya deformitas penis atau komplikasi jangka panjang lainnya. Sunat tidak mempengaruhi dorongan seksual atau ejakulasi berdasarkan skor persediaan fungsi seksual pria singkat.
... The exact penile size is essential for diagnosis of penile problems [2] especially the stretched penile length which has been reported to be more reliable than the flaccid penile length [1,3]. ...
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Universal reference values of penile length, circumferences and testicular volume in newborns and infants are inappropriate to be used in variable ethnic backgrounds. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to establish normal reference values for stretched penile length, penile circumference and testicular volume for Egyptian newborn and infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study included 1850 healthy male full term newborn and infants applied for routine check-up, aged 0 -24 months, the newborn and infants were recruited from Tanta University Hospital in the period from July 2015 to January 2017. Penile length, penile circumference, testicular volume, weight, length and occipito-frontal circumference were measured. RESULTS: The studied infants were divided into five groups. Group I: 1-4 weeks , the mean penile length was 3.51 ± 0.49 cm, penile circumference was 3.95 ± 0.48 cm, and testicular size was (right 1.81 ± 0.44 cm and left 1.67 ± 0.47 cm). Group II: > 1-6 months age, the mean penile length was 3.99 ± 0.46 cm, penile circumference was 4.10 ± 0.38 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.10 ± 0.33 cm and left 2.04 ± 0.27 cm). Group III: >6-12 months age, the mean penile length was 4.45 ± 0.48 cm, penile circumference was 4.21 ± 0.33 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.13 ± 0.33 cm and left 2.06 ± 0.28 cm). Group IV: >12-18 months age, the mean penile length was 4.55 ± 0.54 cm, penile circumference was 4.28 ± 0.32 cm, and testicular size was (right 2.12 ± 0.33 cm and left 2.09 ± 0.32 cm). Group V: >18-24 months age, the mean penile length was 4.89 ± 0.63 cm, penile circumference was 4.45 ± 0.33 cm , and testicular size was (right 2.28 ± 0.45 cm and left 2.25 ± 0.45 cm). There were significant positive correlations between penile length, penile circumference, left and right testicular volumes with each other and also with all other anthropometric measures including: weight, height and head circumference. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The age-related values of penile and testicular measurements must be known to be able to determine the abnormal sizes and to monitor treatment of underlying diseases. Our study is a step to achieve accurate reference values of penile and testicular measurements for Egyptian male newborns and infants. Therefore multicenter studies are recommended to establish Egyptian norms.
... There may be underlying severe endocrine and chromosome disorders. There have been various studies trying to create regional nomograms for penile length in children [1][2][3][4]. However, studies evaluating the penile length in hypospadiac children are sparse [5]. ...
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Aim To measure the penile length in hypospadiac patients and compare the length with normal Indian children Method The penile length was measured in 50 hypospadiac patients (Group A) and compared with 50 normal boys (Group B) forming the age matched control group. The stretched penile length (SPL) was measured on the dorsal aspect of the penis. In cases with associated chordee the length was measured after chordee correction Results The mean age of the Hypospadiac boys (5.98 + 2.39 years) was comparable with that of the normal boys (6.04+ 3.12 years) (p>0.05). The mean SPL was 4.62 +0.46cm while the median (range) was 5 (2.6-6.3) cm in Group A. The mean SPL 4.95+0.82cm while median (range) was 5 (3-8) cm in Group B. When the SPL was further subgrouped into type of hypospadias after chordee release, it was much less in the proximal hypospadias (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation with age in both the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion The SPL in distal and mid penile hypospadias is similar to age matched control group while it is less in patients with proximal penile hypospadias. Presence of severe chordee in proximal penile hypospadias may be a contributing factor to shorter SPL. There is a positive correlation between penile length and age of the subject.
... Indeed, previous studies have reported racial/ethnic differences in newborn penile sizes [1,17,18]. Some studies have even demonstrated significant differences in the same ethnic group with the passage of time and improvement in national economic conditions [19]. Recent studies from various parts of the world have aimed at establishing genital anthropometric norms representing their own populations [20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... No study has examined the effect of socioeconomic status on genital sizes per say. However, Lee et al. [19] reported a significant increase in SPL in Korean children when they compared normative data obtained in the year 2011 to that of 1987. They attributed this to a comparative increase in anthropometric indices like weight and length/height from improved economic conditions. ...
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Background Genital measurements are a useful adjunct in the early detection of various endocrine conditions including hypopituitarism and disorders of sexual differentiation. Standards for genital sizes have been published but racial/ethnic differences exist. This study was done to establish norms for genital sizes in term Ghanaian male newborns. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of all apparently well full-term newborns of postnatal age < 48 h and birth weight between 2.5 and 4.0 kg delivered at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital within the study period. Anthropometric and genital parameters were documented for study subjects as well as parental socio-demographic indices. ResultsA total of 644 male newborns were recruited between May and September 2014. The mean penile length (MPL) was 3.3 ± 0.5 cm and the mean penile width (MPW) was 1.05 ± 0.1 cm. An inverse relationship was found between maternal age and MPL (correlation coefficient −0.062, 95% CI −0.121 to −0.002; p = 0.04). MPL was also significantly different (p = 0.04) by mode of delivery, with babies delivered by caesarean section having the lowest MPL. MPL correlated positively with both gestational age (p = 0.04) and birth length (p < 0.001), while MPW correlated proportionally with birth weight and length (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions Using the conventional definition of micropenis as stretched penile length (SPL) < 2.5 standard deviation (SD) below the mean and macropenis as an SPL > 2.5 SD, a Ghanaian term newborn may warrant investigation if he has an MPL < 2.1 cm or > 4.4 cm.
... [2] Gerilmiş penis uzunluğu (GPU), çocuğun kendi yaş grubuna göre ortalama 2.5 standart deviasyonun altında ise mikro-penis olarak kabul edilmelidir. [3] Mikro-penis genellikle testiküler anomaliler ve hipospadias-epispadias gibi dış genital anomaliler ile birliktelik göstermektedir. Bu patoloji erken dönemde saptanmayıp uygun şekilde tedavi planı yapılmazsa metabolik, psikolojik ve seksüel çeşitli bozukluklara yol açabilmekte, ilerleyen dönemde kişi için sosyal bir sorun halini alabilmektedir. ...
... Daha sonraki dönemde yedi yaşına kadar penil büyüme düşük hızda devam eder ve toplamda 1-2 cm'lik bir büyüme gerçekleşir. [3,11,12] Çocuklarda penis uzunluğunun doğru ölçülmesi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Penis boyutundaki bir anomali, ciddi hastalıkların işaretçisi olabilmektedir. ...
... [13,14] Ancak farklı ırk ve köken üzerinde yapılan araştırmalarda, ortalama GPU arasında büyük farklılıklar olabilmektedir. [3,11] Örneğin Çinli çocuklar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalarda ortalama GPU değeri, Kafkas ırkı ve hatta diğer Asyalı ırklarda daha düşük olarak saptanmıştır. Çinli bir çocuk, kendi populasyonuna özgü ortalama GPU ölçümleriyle değerlendirilmezse mikro-penis olarak yanlış tanı alabilir. ...