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Meridiastra nigranota sp. nov. a, abactinal view of holotype (R = 7 mm) (NMV F87414); b, cleared abactinal ray and interradii (paratype NMV F87232; R = 8 mm); c, abactinal view of dissected and cleared interradius , showing ambulacral plates and absence of superambulacral plates (paratype NMV F87232); d, abactinal plates and spinelets (0.15 mm long) (holotype); e, proximal actinal view, with single spine (arrow) on adradial plates (NMV F87162); f, cleared actinal view, with gonopores (arrows) (paratype NMV F87232).  

Meridiastra nigranota sp. nov. a, abactinal view of holotype (R = 7 mm) (NMV F87414); b, cleared abactinal ray and interradii (paratype NMV F87232; R = 8 mm); c, abactinal view of dissected and cleared interradius , showing ambulacral plates and absence of superambulacral plates (paratype NMV F87232); d, abactinal plates and spinelets (0.15 mm long) (holotype); e, proximal actinal view, with single spine (arrow) on adradial plates (NMV F87162); f, cleared actinal view, with gonopores (arrows) (paratype NMV F87232).  

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O'Loughlin, P.M., 2002. New genus and species of southern Australian and Pacific Asterinidae (Echinodermata, Asteroidea). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 59(2): 277–296. The diagnostic characters of the Asterinidae species Asterina atyphoida H.L. Clark from southern Australia and Asterina gibbosa (Pennant) from the Atlantic, type species of Asterina Nar...

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... Specimens were deposited in Bogor Zoological Museum, Cibinong, west Java, Indonesia. Terminology follows those described in the illustrations and glossary by Clark and Downey (1992, Figs. 2 & 3) as modified by o' Loughlin (2002) for papulae-related terms, with additional definitions for spine and spinelet forms by o' Loughlin and waters (2004). 'Papular space' refers to 'restricted area with papular pores' whereas 'papulate area' refers to 'parts of the abactinal surface where papulae occur' (o 'Loughlin 2002). ...
... Terminology follows those described in the illustrations and glossary by Clark and Downey (1992, Figs. 2 & 3) as modified by o' Loughlin (2002) for papulae-related terms, with additional definitions for spine and spinelet forms by o' Loughlin and waters (2004). 'Papular space' refers to 'restricted area with papular pores' whereas 'papulate area' refers to 'parts of the abactinal surface where papulae occur' (o 'Loughlin 2002). 'Spinelets' refers exclusively to abactinal armature regardless of size, while 'spines' refers to armature of actinal plates; pertinent spinelet forms including 'sacciform' ('sac-like base tapering distally to narrowly rounded end or point'), 'digitiform' ('thick, finger-like') and 'conical' (o 'Loughlin & waters 2004). ...
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... Terminologies and descriptions of characters used in this study were mainly as in O'Loughlin (2002), O'Loughlin et al. (2003), O'Loughlin and and Clark and Downey (1992). ...
Article
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... Within the Asteroidea, fission has been reported in 27 out of more than 1600 extant species (Mladenov 1996;O'Loughlin 2002;O'Loughlin & Rowe 2006). Many of these sea stars have a broad geographic range (e.g. ...
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... El conocimiento taxonómico existente sobre los equinodermos de las costas del estado de Veracruz es limitado. Hasta hace relativamente pocos años se empezaron a realizar en México listados faunísticos de los equinodermos de las zonas arrecifales del país (Bravo et al., 1999;Laguarda Figueras et al., 2001, 2002, 2004Solís Marín et al., 1993;Durán González et al., 2005). El interés por inventariar la diversidad de especies del Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (PN-SAV) se debe a la necesidad de conocer el elenco taxonómico de los grupos que en él habitan. ...
... Traditional systematics of the Asterinidae has been confounded by morphological characters of limited phylogenetic value (Clark and Downey 1992;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004). Guided by molecular data, the taxonomy of the Asterinidae in Australasia has been revised and several new genera and species have been described (O'Loughlin 2002;O'Loughlin andothers 2002, 2003;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004;Waters and others 2004). This taxonomic revision provided an important opportunity to review the patterns of life history evolution in asterinid genera. ...
... Traditional systematics of the Asterinidae has been confounded by morphological characters of limited phylogenetic value (Clark and Downey 1992;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004). Guided by molecular data, the taxonomy of the Asterinidae in Australasia has been revised and several new genera and species have been described (O'Loughlin 2002;O'Loughlin andothers 2002, 2003;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004;Waters and others 2004). This taxonomic revision provided an important opportunity to review the patterns of life history evolution in asterinid genera. ...
Article
Asterinid sea stars have the greatest range of life histories known for the Asteroidea. Larval form in these sea stars has been modified in association with selection for planktonic, benthic, or intergonadal developmental habitats. Life history data are available for 31 species and molecular data for 28 of these. These data were used to assess life history evolution and relationships among asterinid clades. Lecithotrophy is prevalent in Asterinidae, with at least 6 independent origins of this developmental mode. Morphological differences in the attachment complex of brachiolaria larvae were evident among species with planktonic lecithotrophy. Some features are clade specific while others are variable within clades. Benthic brachiolariae are similar in Aquilonastra and Parvulastra with tripod-shaped larvae, while the bilobed sole-shaped larvae of Asterina species appear unique to this genus. Multiple transitions and pathways have been involved in the evolution of lecithotropy in the Asterinidae. Although several genera have a species with a planktonic feeding larva in a basal phylogenetic position, relative to species with planktonic or benthic lecithotrophy, there is little evidence for the expected life history transformation series from planktonic feeding, to planktonic non-feeding, to benthic non-feeding development. Intragonadal development, a life history pattern unique to the Asterinidae, arose three times through ancestors with benthic or pelagic lecithotrophy. Evolution of lecithotrophy appears more prevalent in the Asterinidae than other asteroid families. As diverse modes of development are discerned in cryptic species complexes, new insights into life history evolution in the Asterinidae are being generated.
... Traditional systematics of the Asterinidae has been confounded by morphological characters of limited phylogenetic value (Clark and Downey 1992;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004). Guided by molecular data, the taxonomy of the Asterinidae in Australasia has been revised and several new genera and species have been described (O'Loughlin 2002;O'Loughlin andothers 2002, 2003;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004;Waters and others 2004). This taxonomic revision provided an important opportunity to review the patterns of life history evolution in asterinid genera. ...
... Traditional systematics of the Asterinidae has been confounded by morphological characters of limited phylogenetic value (Clark and Downey 1992;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004). Guided by molecular data, the taxonomy of the Asterinidae in Australasia has been revised and several new genera and species have been described (O'Loughlin 2002;O'Loughlin andothers 2002, 2003;Dartnall and others 2003;O'Loughlin and Waters 2004;Waters and others 2004). This taxonomic revision provided an important opportunity to review the patterns of life history evolution in asterinid genera. ...
... Rowe and Gates (1995) listed eight genera and 37 species of asterinids from the Australian region, including 10 Asterina and 10 Patiriella species. Subsequently, a total of seven new asterinid species have been described from Australia and the Pacific (OÕLoughlin, 2002;OÕLoughlin et al., 2002OÕLoughlin et al., , 2003. OÕLoughlin (2002) established the new genus Meridiastra for the temperate Australian Asterina atyphoida and three of the new species: M. nigranota, M. fissura (both southern Australia), and M. rapa (Rapa Island). ...
... Subsequently, a total of seven new asterinid species have been described from Australia and the Pacific (OÕLoughlin, 2002;OÕLoughlin et al., 2002OÕLoughlin et al., , 2003. OÕLoughlin (2002) established the new genus Meridiastra for the temperate Australian Asterina atyphoida and three of the new species: M. nigranota, M. fissura (both southern Australia), and M. rapa (Rapa Island). ...
... The Pacific genus Meridiastra was recently erected on the basis of morphology (OÕLoughlin, 2002), and the Meridiastra species sampled for this study are strongly monophyletic for mtDNA (Fig. 1). The particularly close relationship we report for M. nigranota and M. atyphoida was presaged by OÕLoughlinÕs (2002) observation that these taxa are morphologically similar, and relatively distinct from the fissiparous M. fissura. ...
... The Asterinidae comprise 21 genera and about 116 species according to the comprehensive index of taxa by A.M. Clark (1993) and the subsequent work of Rowe (in Rowe and Gates, 1995), Campbell and Rowe (1997), O'Hara (1998), VandenSpiegel et al. (1998, A.M. Clark and Mah (2001), H.E.S. Clark and McKnight (2001), O'Loughlin (2002), O'Loughlin et al. (2002O'Loughlin et al. ( , 2003 and Dartnall et al. (2003). The need for a systematic revision was first commented on by Verrill (1913). ...
... The need for a systematic revision was first commented on by Verrill (1913). Recently, Rowe (in Rowe and Gates, 1995), Campbell and Rowe (1997), O'Loughlin (2002) and O'Loughlin et al. (2002) noted continuing conflicting opinions on the systematic status of, and assignment of species to, the genera Asterina Nardo, 1834, Asterinides Verrill, 1913and Patiriella Verrill, 1913. O'Loughlin (2002 provided a restricted morphological review of Asterinidae and erected a new genus (Meridiastra) with three new species (M. ...
... revision was first commented on by Verrill (1913). Recently, Rowe (in Rowe and Gates, 1995), Campbell and Rowe (1997), O'Loughlin (2002) and O'Loughlin et al. (2002) noted continuing conflicting opinions on the systematic status of, and assignment of species to, the genera Asterina Nardo, 1834, Asterinides Verrill, 1913and Patiriella Verrill, 1913. O'Loughlin (2002 provided a restricted morphological review of Asterinidae and erected a new genus (Meridiastra) with three new species (M. fissura, M. nigranota, M. rapa). Hart et al. (1997) reported the first molecular phylogeny for 12 asterinid species assigned to the genera Asterina and Patiriella. The phylogeny indicated that neither Asterina nor P ...
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O’Loughlin, P.M., and Waters, J.M., 2004. A molecular and morphological revision of genera of Asterinidae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 61(1): 1‐40. A molecular phylogeny has inspired a reappraisal of the systematics of the Asterinidae. New morphological characters are defined and illustrated and used to diagnose all genera. A table of the distribution of morphological characters among genera and key for genera of Asterinidae are provided. New genera of Asterinidae are erected: Aquilonastra O’Loughlin, Indianastra O’Loughlin, Parvulastra O’Loughlin and Pseudopatiria O’Loughlin. Patiria is raised out of synonymy with Asterina. Allopatiria is a junior synonym of Asterina, Manasterina is a junior synonym of Disasterina, and Paxillasterina is a junior synonym of Asterinides. The genus Asterinopsis and the genus and species Desmopatiria flexilis are nomina nuda. Patiriella tangribensis is a nomen dubium. Genera reviewed are: Anseropoda, Asterina, Asterinides, Callopatiria, Cryptasterina, Disasterina, Kampylaster, Meridiastra, Nepanthia, Paranepanthia, Patiria, Patiriella, Pseudasterina, Pseudonepanthia, Stegnaster, Tegulaster and Tremaster. Asterina cephea var. iranica is raised to species status. Enoplopatiria siderea is a junior synonym of Asterina stellifera. Disasterina leptalacantha var. africana is no longer recognised as a subspecies. Disasterina spinulifera is a junior synonym of Disasterina praesignis. A synonymy of Tremaster novaecaledoniae with Tremaster mirabilis is formalised. Asterinid species reassigned on the basis of molecular evidence and morphological congruity are new combinations: Aquilonastra anomala, A. batheri, A. burtoni, A. coronata, A. minor, A. scobinata, Meridiastra calcar, M. gunnii, M. medius, M. mortenseni, M. occidens, M. oriens, Paranepanthia aucklandensis, Parvulastra calcarata, P. exigua, P. parvivipara, P. vivipara, Patiria chilensis, P. miniata, P. pectinifera. Species reassigned on the basis of morphological evidence are new combinations: Aquilonastra cepheus, A. corallicola, A. heteractis, A. iranica, A. limboonkengi, A. rosea, Asterina ocellifera, Asterinides hartmeyeri, A. pilosa, A. pompom, Disasterina ceylanica, D. longispina, Indianastra inopinata, I. sarasini, Nepanthia pedicellaris, Parvulastra dyscrita, Pseudonepanthia briareus, P. gracilis, P. grangei, P. nigrobrunnea, P. reinga, P. troughtoni, Pseudopatiria obtusa, Tegulaster alba, T. leptalacantha, T. praesignis. Three species remain incertae sedis: Asterina lorioli, Asterina novaezelandiae and Nepanthia brachiata. A table of asterinid species is provided, with original and current combinations. It is concluded that Asterinidae is a cosmopolitan family, mainly of shallow-water narrow-range genera but including some more widespread in deeper waters of all oceans.
... Rowe and Gates (1995) listed eight genera and 37 species of asterinids from the Australian region, including 10 Asterina and 10 Patiriella species. Subsequently, a total of seven new asterinid species have been described from Australia and the Pacific (OÕLoughlin, 2002;OÕLoughlin et al., 2002OÕLoughlin et al., , 2003. OÕLoughlin (2002) established the new genus Meridiastra for the temperate Australian Asterina atyphoida and three of the new species: M. nigranota, M. fissura (both southern Australia), and M. rapa (Rapa Island). ...
... Subsequently, a total of seven new asterinid species have been described from Australia and the Pacific (OÕLoughlin, 2002;OÕLoughlin et al., 2002OÕLoughlin et al., , 2003. OÕLoughlin (2002) established the new genus Meridiastra for the temperate Australian Asterina atyphoida and three of the new species: M. nigranota, M. fissura (both southern Australia), and M. rapa (Rapa Island). ...
... The Pacific genus Meridiastra was recently erected on the basis of morphology (OÕLoughlin, 2002), and the Meridiastra species sampled for this study are strongly monophyletic for mtDNA (Fig. 1). The particularly close relationship we report for M. nigranota and M. atyphoida was presaged by OÕLoughlinÕs (2002) observation that these taxa are morphologically similar, and relatively distinct from the fissiparous M. fissura. ...
Article
Describing ontogenetic morphological change is an important part of integrative taxonomy; still, most taxonomic studies are based only on adult characters. Here, we provide illustrations and a morphological description of the sea stars from Bahia, including ontogenetic and intraspecific variation, and identify taxonomic issues. A total of 293 specimens from different localities along the Bahia State coastline and comparative material from other localities were examined. Eighteen species (11 genera, eight families) of Asteroidea were identified; Astropectinidae was the most representative family. All species identified also occur in subtropical Brazilian waters and most species are from shallow water habitats with soft bottoms. Most observed ontogenetic variation was quantitative in nature, such as the increase in the number of spines in the furrow and of spinelets in the paxillae with specimen growth. Genera that require further taxonomic studies are Astropecten and Othilia, whose specimens are commonly misidentified in local studies. One third of the species from Bahia are currently classified as “Vulnerable” in the Brazilian Red List, but baseline data on the population biology of these species are scarce. An illustrated identification key to the 65 Brazilian sea star species is also provided. This taxonomic study will facilitate the identification of specimens occurring along the Brazilian coast and help scientists and policy makers to establish the conservation status of the Brazilian species.