Meat supply in selected Mediterranean countries (European, African and Asian) from 1961 to 2001 ( source: Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets) 

Meat supply in selected Mediterranean countries (European, African and Asian) from 1961 to 2001 ( source: Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets) 

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To describe geographical differences and time trends in the supply of the most important food components of the traditional Mediterranean diet. Food supply data collected from national food balance sheets for the period 1961-2001. Selected Mediterranean countries: Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Differences of al...

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... countries, where red meat availability remained steadily low whereas poultry experienced a 2.5- to five-fold increase ( Fig. 8). During the 1960s, the percentage of energy from animal products (data not shown) was relatively low in African and Asiatic Mediterranean countries (7 –16%) and in European Mediterranean ones (13 –18%), except France ( . 30%). However, an almost two-fold increase was observed in Greece, Italy and Spain (22–27%) by 2001. In France, 37% of energy came from animal products in the 1990s. Overall, FBS data show that food availability in the Mediterranean area was quite heterogeneous, and experienced important changes from 1961 to 2001. Between-country differences are and were present, probably linked to differences in natural and economic resources, as well as inherited cultural and religious traditions. In 1993, the ‘traditional healthy Mediterranean diet pyramid’ was proposed as a cultural model for a healthy diet, based on the dietary pattern found in Crete, much of the rest of Greece and southern Italy during the 1960s 16 . Cereals and starchy roots were the base of this pyramid. However, figures based on FBS data show that, at this time, cereals were the base of food supply only in countries of the African and Asiatic Mediterranean area and not in those of the European Mediterranean area. High fruit and vegetable intakes are also characteristic of the defined traditional Mediterranean diet. Favourable increasing trends were observed during the period 1961 – 2001, except for vegetable supply in Spain and ...

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... Overall, these dietary changes consist of a shift from the consumption of natural foods with marginal handling-mainly fruit, vegetables, and legumesto highly processed foods (refined carbohydrates, SFA and trans fats, added sugars, salt, and food additives). Notably, this phenomenon occurred also in African Mediterranean countries (Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) (84). Unfortunately, to the best of our knowledge, no clear information on the actual nutritional habits of African populations is available so far. ...
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