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Measurement of waist circumference at three levels. (A) umbilical level, (B) midline level (between the inferior margin of the ribs and the superior border of the iliac crest), or (C) level of the superior border of the iliac crest. Waist circumference is measured with the subject standing, at minimal respiration, and rounded off to the nearest 0.1 cm.

Measurement of waist circumference at three levels. (A) umbilical level, (B) midline level (between the inferior margin of the ribs and the superior border of the iliac crest), or (C) level of the superior border of the iliac crest. Waist circumference is measured with the subject standing, at minimal respiration, and rounded off to the nearest 0.1 cm.

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Introduction: While waist circumference (WC) is widely used as an index for visceral fat accumulation and purportedly the primary pathology responsible for the metabolic syndrome (MS), its proposed cut-off value varies depending on the disparate diagnostic criteria used as well as on the gender, race and ethnic group being evaluated. Due to the str...

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... were taken with the tape placed directly on the skin (not over clothing). WC was measured at three levels: (A) umbilical level, (B) midline level (between the inferior margin of the ribs and the superior border of the iliac crest), or (C) level of the superior border of the iliac crest (Figure 1). Each measurement was done once at each waist location before a second measurement is done. ...

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Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff val...

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... Patients' height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) were recorded at baseline and after 4 weeks of the interventions. The WC was measured at the level of the umbilicus using a tape measure [28], which was kept in a horizontal plane around the waist, fitting closely to the skin without compressing it [29]. The number on the tape was recorded immediately after the patient's exhalation [29], and each measurement was repeated 3 times and the average measurement was recorded. ...
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... Waist circumference was measured as waist circumference at the umbilical level in centimeters by a tape meter line (Lemoncito et al., 2010). Hip circumference was the largest part of the hip around the buttock. ...
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Objectives Overweight and obesity are global health threats and accurate measures of adiposity are essential for monitoring and treatment. Body mass index has traditionally been utilised, however, waist circumference also assesses central adiposity; strongly associated with development of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Waist circumference can be measured in different locations on the trunk. We aimed to synthesize the literature regarding effectiveness of different locations of waist circumference for measuring percentage body fat and central adiposity in adults with cardiovascular disease or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Design A systematic review, conducted using searches PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Embase. Publications were selected and critically appraised through standardised systematic review methodology. Subjects 11 observational studies, comprising 8514 participants, mean age range 36.3–69.4 years, from various geographic regions. Results Waist circumferences measured at all locations were strongly correlated with body mass index. Waist circumference-mid (midline between the lowest rib and iliac crest) was the most accurate measure of visceral fat and percentage body fat in both sexes. Additionally, waist circumference-mid was most sensitive to visceral fat changes over time. Waist circumference-umbilicus and waist circumference-iliac crest were also valid and reliable measures of visceral fat in both sexes. According to our findings, ethnicity has a huge impact on applying waist circumference measures, particularly between Asians and Caucasians. Conclusions There was strong evidence indicating that waist circumference-mid is the most valid and responsive measure to assess visceral fat, % body fat, and visceral fat change over time in both sexes.