| Mean values through the menstrual cycle with 95% confidence intervals for (A) maximal voluntary grip strength, (B) 20-m sprint, (C) leg press, and (D) countermovement jump. Week 1-4 (week 1/2 FP; week 3/4 LP) are based on serum hormonal levels.

| Mean values through the menstrual cycle with 95% confidence intervals for (A) maximal voluntary grip strength, (B) 20-m sprint, (C) leg press, and (D) countermovement jump. Week 1-4 (week 1/2 FP; week 3/4 LP) are based on serum hormonal levels.

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Purpose The female menstrual cycle (MC) is characterized by hormonal fluctuations throughout its different phases. However, research regarding its effect on athletic performance in high level athletes is sparse. The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the female MCs effect on strength and power performance in highly trained female team athlete...

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... weeks chosen for analysis, although both groups showed variation in performance (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). Additionally, no significant changes were observed when investigating the MC cycle in both groups separately. ...
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... no significant changes were observed when investigating the MC cycle in both groups separately. Despite non-significant findings, In terms of maximal isometric grip strength both groups demonstrated weekly variations in MVIGS, displaying the highest isometric grip strength values for both groups in the LP with a mean of 31.3 ± 5.6 kg in the HCG and 28.7 ± 3.6 in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). Further, both groups showed consistent measures for sprint performance throughout the 4 weeks of the MC, with results ranging from 3.194 ± 0.132 s to 3.209 ± 0.123 s in the HCG and 3.165 ± 0.121 s to 3.191 ± 0.116 s in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). ...
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... non-significant findings, In terms of maximal isometric grip strength both groups demonstrated weekly variations in MVIGS, displaying the highest isometric grip strength values for both groups in the LP with a mean of 31.3 ± 5.6 kg in the HCG and 28.7 ± 3.6 in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). Further, both groups showed consistent measures for sprint performance throughout the 4 weeks of the MC, with results ranging from 3.194 ± 0.132 s to 3.209 ± 0.123 s in the HCG and 3.165 ± 0.121 s to 3.191 ± 0.116 s in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). With respect to counter movement jump the CMJ displayed a greater between group difference compared to the other tests, with means ranging from 32.9 ± 6.3 cm to 30.7 ± 4.3 cm in the HCG and 33.5 ± 4.7 cm to 30.7 ± 2.7 cm in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). ...
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... both groups showed consistent measures for sprint performance throughout the 4 weeks of the MC, with results ranging from 3.194 ± 0.132 s to 3.209 ± 0.123 s in the HCG and 3.165 ± 0.121 s to 3.191 ± 0.116 s in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). With respect to counter movement jump the CMJ displayed a greater between group difference compared to the other tests, with means ranging from 32.9 ± 6.3 cm to 30.7 ± 4.3 cm in the HCG and 33.5 ± 4.7 cm to 30.7 ± 2.7 cm in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). Finally, the NHCG displayed greater variation between weeks in leg press compared to the HCG; means ranging from 24.4 ± 2.9 W/kg to 23.3 ± 2.0 W/kg in the NHCG compared to 23.6 ± 2.6 W/kg to 23.2 ± 2.8 W/kg in the HCG (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). ...
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... respect to counter movement jump the CMJ displayed a greater between group difference compared to the other tests, with means ranging from 32.9 ± 6.3 cm to 30.7 ± 4.3 cm in the HCG and 33.5 ± 4.7 cm to 30.7 ± 2.7 cm in the NHCG, respectively (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). Finally, the NHCG displayed greater variation between weeks in leg press compared to the HCG; means ranging from 24.4 ± 2.9 W/kg to 23.3 ± 2.0 W/kg in the NHCG compared to 23.6 ± 2.6 W/kg to 23.2 ± 2.8 W/kg in the HCG (Figure 2 and Supplementary Table 2). ...

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... Recently, it was reported that 36% of high-performance female athletes stated that their menstrual cycle impacted negatively on their performance for at least some or most of the time (Heather et al., 2021). In contrast, it did not a ect the production of muscle strength and power (McNulty et al., 2020;Dasa et al., 2021). Furthermore, we recommend to future research could consider the confounding influence of physical fitness levels of participants. ...
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This study aimed to examine sex differences in oxygen saturation in respiratory (SmO 2-m.intercostales) and locomotor muscles (SmO 2-m.vastus lateralis) while performing physical exercise. Twenty-five (12 women) healthy and physically active participants were evaluated during an incremental test with a cycle ergometer, while ventilatory variables [lung ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), and respiratory rate (RR)] were acquired through the breath-by-breath method. SmO 2 was acquired using the MOXY R devices on the m.intercostales and m.vastus lateralis. A two-way ANOVA (sex ⇥ time) indicated that women showed a greater significant decrease of SmO 2-m.intercostales, and men showed a greater significant decrease of SmO 2-m.vastus lateralis. Additionally, women reached a higher level of 1SmO 2-m.intercostales normalized toVE (L·min 1) (p < 0.001), whereas men had a higher level of 1SmO 2-m.vastus lateralis normalized to peak workload-to-weight (watts·kg 1 , PtW) (p = 0.049), as confirmed by Student's t-test. During an incremental physical exercise, women experienced a greater cost of breathing, reflected by greater deoxygenation of the respiratory muscles, whereas men had a higher peripheral load, indicated by greater deoxygenation of the locomotor muscles.
... The effects of the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect strength training, with a higher gain in strength during the follicular phase [32]. However, this conflicts with previous information and reports of a lack of significance between phases have been identified with hormonal contraceptive use [34] or without [35] its use. Prior observations have concluded that caffeine metabolism was significantly slower in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to the follicular phase [33]. ...
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Caffeine supplementation has shown to be an effective ergogenic aid enhancing athletic performance, although limited research within female populations exists. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to assess the effect of pre-exercise caffeine supplementation on strength performance and muscular endurance in strength-trained females. In a double-blind, randomised, counterbalanced design, fourteen strength-trained females using hormonal contraception consumed either 3 or 6 mg·kg−1 BM of caffeine or placebo (PLA). Following supplementation, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press and repetitions to failure (RF) at 60% of their 1RM. During the RF test, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded every five repetitions and total volume (TV) lifted was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that RF (p = 0.010) and TV (p = 0.012) attained significance, with pairwise comparisons indicating a significant difference between 3 mg·kg−1 BM and placebo for RF (p = 0.014), with an effect size of 0.56, and for 6 mg·kg−1 BM (p = 0.036) compared to the placebo, with an effect size of 0.65. No further significance was observed for 1RM or for RPE, and no difference was observed between caffeine trials. Although no impact on lower body muscular strength was observed, doses of 3 and 6 mg·kg−1 BM of caffeine improved lower body muscular endurance in resistance-trained females, which may have a practical application for enhancing resistance training stimuli and improving competitive performance.
... This work neither found differences in performance comparing these three phases (bleeding, follicular and luteal phases), which concur with our main findings for similar outcomes. Lastly, our results are also in line with a recent study with high-level team sport players, which did not show differences among MC phases in CMJ performance in eumenorrheic athletes, analyzed with serum hormonal levels by blood sample [35]. Therefore, the current study confirms the lack of MC effect on vertical jumping performance and, as a novelty, provides information about the dynamic of the F-v relationship parameters over the different phases of MC. ...
... Likewise, in an experiment performed outdoors (i.e., on field testing) [16], the authors found no differences in 30 m linear sprint time during the different phases of MC in female soccer players. Another recent study found differences in 20 m linear sprint with high-level team sport players [35]. However, as previously indicated, the authors of these studies only compared the follicular phase with the luteal phase, dismissing the bleeding phase, one of the most important physiological moments of the MC due to the lower concentrations of estrogen and progesterone [8,9]. ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the menstrual cycle on vertical jump, sprint performance and force-velocity profiling in resistance-trained women. A group of resistance-trained eumenorrheic women (n=9) were tested in 3 phases over the menstrual cycle: bleeding phase, follicular phase, and luteal phase (i.e., days 1-3, 7-10, and 19-21 of the cycle, respectively). Each testing consisted of a battery of jumping tests (i.e., squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump from a 30 cm box [DJ30], and the reactive strength index) and 30 m sprint running test. Two different applications for smartphone (My Jump 2 and My Sprint) were used to record the jumping and sprinting trials, respectively, at high-speed (240 fps). The repeated measures ANOVA reported no significant differences (p0.05, ES<0.25) in CMJ, DJ30, reactive strength index and sprint times between the different phases of the menstrual cycle. A greater SJ height performance was observed during the follicular phase compared to the bleeding phase (p=0.033, ES=-0.22). No differences (p0.05, ES<0.45) were found in the CMJ and sprint force-velocity profile over the different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vertical jump, sprint performance and the force-velocity profiling remain constant in trained women, regardless the phase of the menstrual cycle.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the menstrual cycle on vertical jumping, sprint performance and force-velocity profiling in resistance-trained women. A group of resistancetrained eumenorrheic women (n = 9) were tested in three phases over the menstrual cycle: bleeding phase, follicular phase, and luteal phase (i.e., days 1–3, 7–10, and 19–21 of the cycle, respectively). Each testing phase consisted of a battery of jumping tests (i.e., squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump from a 30 cm box [DJ30], and the reactive strength index) and 30 m sprint running test. Two different applications for smartphone (My Jump 2 and My Sprint) were used to record the jumping and sprinting trials, respectively, at high speed (240 fps). The repeated measures ANOVA reported no significant differences (p � 0.05, ES < 0.25) in CMJ, DJ30, reactive strength index and sprint times between the different phases of the menstrual cycle. A greater SJ height performance was observed during the follicular phase compared to the bleeding phase (p = 0.033, ES = −0.22). No differences (p � 0.05, ES < 0.45) were found in the CMJ and sprint force-velocity profile over the different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vertical jump, sprint performance and the force-velocity profiling remain constant in trained women, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle.
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The importance of defining sex differences across various biological and physiological mechanisms is more pervasive now than it has been over the last 15-20 years. As the muscle biology field pushes to identify small molecules and interventions to prevent, attenuate or even reverse muscle wasting, we must consider the effect of sex as a biological variable. It should not be assumed that a therapeutic will affect males and females with equal efficacy or equivalent target affinities under conditions where muscle wasting is observed. With that said, it is not surprising to find that we have an unclear or even a poor understanding of the effects of sex or sex hormones on muscle wasting conditions. Although recent investigations are beginning to establish experimental approaches that will allow investigators to assess the impact of sex-specific hormones on muscle wasting, the field still has not established enough published scientific tools that will allow the field to rigorously address critical hypotheses. Thus, the purpose of this review is to assemble a current summary of knowledge in the area of sexual dimorphism driven by estrogens with an effort to provide insights to interested physiologists on necessary considerations when trying to assess models for potential sex differences in cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle wasting.