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Mean values of skin thickness in chickens of control, OS and AM fed groups at different time intervals

Mean values of skin thickness in chickens of control, OS and AM fed groups at different time intervals

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The present study was undertaken to study the immuno modulatrory effects of leaves of Ocimum santum (OS) and Argemone mexiana (AM) plants in chicken model. 250 mg/kg body weight oral dose of OS and AM was found ideal and nontoxic in chickens and experimental chickens were fed this dose. Humoral immune response to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 'O'...

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... studying the effect of HAE of OS and AM leaves on Cell mediated immune response, in vivo assay was employed to assess the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in chickens using DNCB as an allergen. Mean values of skin thickness of chickens of experimental (OS and AM fed) and control groups at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post challenge of DNCB are presented in Table 2 and Figure 2. In relation to control group, skin thickness increased markedly in OS fed chickens which were 29.89% higher at 24 h. In AM fed groups thickness was lower than that of control group showing 34.02% inhibition at 24 h. ...

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... Argemone mexicana was reported to decrease the cell mediated immune response in albino rats (Goel et al., 2008). But increased humoral response against Salmonella antigen was found in chicken model (Varshney et al., 2013). ...
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Argemone mexicana, a prickly plant commonly called as prickly poppy is found in sub tropical regions and is well known for its medicinal properties. Its potential as a medicinal plant has been practiced traditionally and been prescribed as medicines by Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic practices since several years. Each part of plant posses bio active compounds that help in curing ailments like HIV, malaria, ring worm infections, fungal infections, cancer etc. These activities have been studied in vivo and in vitro set up and results have been obtained in favor. Further, phytochemical evaluation has unveiled the presence of compounds like berberine, argemonine, protopine etc, which show curative actions and could be used for treatment of diseases with future preception. This review is a sum up of all literature available through the internet and was searched using keywords ‘Argemone mexicana’, ‘phytochemical importance of Argemone’ and many other exclusive words with respect to different activities scanned for reviewing. The references provided in the papers were also given a thorough look and retrieved the respected data from them too. ‘Scopus’, ‘Pubmed’, ‘Google Scholar’, ‘Research Gate’ were used to search for the relevant papers through different journals available. The literature has then been framed in a way with up gradation about Argemone mexicana and its promising affects seen with the potential of the plant which is still undiscovered but could be utilized as curative methods
... Hashemipour, Kermanshahi, Golian, Veldkamp, & Hashemipour (2016) found an improved immune response in broilers fed a diet supplemented with thymol and carvacrol, characterized by an enhancement in hypersensitivity and an increase in total IgG and IgG anti-sheep red blood cells with a decreased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. However, higher antibody titres in animals supplemented with plant extracts were also reported by other authors both in chickens (Franciosini et al., 2016;Hashemipour et al., 2013;Varshney, Dash, Goe, & Bhatia, 2013) and in ruminants (Ozkaya, Erbas, Ozkan, Baydar, & Aksu , 2017). ...
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The effects of an oregano and/or rosemary (Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L.) dietary supplementation to the diet of fattening pigs were investigated. Thirty-two grower-finisher pigs (45 kg) were divided into four dietary groups identified as: control diet (CTR); CTR+ 0.2% oregano (O); CTR + 0.2% rosemary(R), and CTR+ 0.1% oregano + 0.1% rosemary (OR). During the finishing period, all groups received a further supplementation of 0.5% of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Blood samples were collected after an adaptation period of 15 days to the new diet (T1) and at the end of the finishing period (T2) to evaluate antioxidant status (total antioxidant power and reactive oxygen metabolites) and immune responses (lymphocytic phenotyping and IgG levels). Pork meat samples were evaluated for glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPx), total phenolic content and preference rating. A significant increase in B lymphocytes (CD79+) and a higher IgG level was observed in the R and O groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were significant effects of dietary supplementation on meat GSHPx activity and total phenolic contents (P<0.001 and P<0.005, respectively). Preference rating showed that pork derived from group R was the most preferred by the consumers.
... Goel et al, 2010 [87] hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum enhanced the antibody level by 42.85% in comparison to control group and acted as stimulant of humoral response stimulant; stimulatory effect on both arms of immune system Goel et al., 2008; [88] Varshney et al.,2013 [89] hot aqueous extract of Argemone mexicana enhanced the antibody level by 14.28% in comparison to control group and acted as stimulant of humoral response stimulant; antibody stimulation response but suppression in cell mediated immune response Goel et al., 2008; [88] Varshney et al.,2013 [89] rosemary powder and ethanolic extract failed to show any significant impact on antibody titers against NDV, SRBC and influenza disease virus, but remarkably improve total serum antioxidant activity. ...
... Goel et al, 2010 [87] hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum enhanced the antibody level by 42.85% in comparison to control group and acted as stimulant of humoral response stimulant; stimulatory effect on both arms of immune system Goel et al., 2008; [88] Varshney et al.,2013 [89] hot aqueous extract of Argemone mexicana enhanced the antibody level by 14.28% in comparison to control group and acted as stimulant of humoral response stimulant; antibody stimulation response but suppression in cell mediated immune response Goel et al., 2008; [88] Varshney et al.,2013 [89] rosemary powder and ethanolic extract failed to show any significant impact on antibody titers against NDV, SRBC and influenza disease virus, but remarkably improve total serum antioxidant activity. ...
Article
Safety and quality of food and feed today is at a high level, the challenge is to ensure a healthy daily diet but affordable for everyone. But the most important link for obtaining sanogen products for food is to use organic, eco-friendly and not polluted agricultural raw materials (vegetable and animal) and most of all, to “produce for man in harmony with nature”. Use of immunostimulants is a unique approach for farm owners as they undertake methods of controlling disease losses in their facilities. Microbial diseases are limiting factors in all forms of intensive culture and a problem is that few approved chemotherapeutic agents are available for use in animal food because of growing concerns for consumers liability and for accumulation of substances in the environment. Many medicinal plants showing immunomodulatory activity have been used instead of drugs because of their low toxicity for the host system. This review aims at presenting recent contributions to development of herbal-based immunomodulators for farm animals, a total of 97 studies from 2000 - 2016 concerning species of economic interest (various categories of fish - tilapia, trout, carp; shrimps; cattle; pigs and chickens). In veterinary practice, innovative eco-friendly products that could improve or prevent some disorders became of great actuality and therefore the research on animals of economic interest should continue for the benefit of both animals and humans.
... SX extract show the antibacterial [4], antifungal [5],Hypoglycemic [6], antifilariasis [7] and antioxidant [8] activity.Hematological parameters such as total WBC, RBC,hemoglobin and neutrophil are important constitute of immune system. An alteration in the concentration of these cells profoundly affects the health and immune system as they are known to recognize the foreign antigen and mount immune response [9].Present work was done to estabilish the correlation between the hematological and biochemical parameter with different pharmacological activity [10]. ...
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This work has been performed to study the efficacy of hot whole plant aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl on hematological and Biochemical parameters of wistar albino rats.Doses hot aqueous extract of different concentration like 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight was given orally to different group of rats. As the result of dose administration level of hemoglobin , Packed cell volume (PCV), RBCs decreased and WBCs significantaly (p<.05) increased .On the other hand efficacy of dose on Biochmemical parameter show the mixed effect , the level of urea, creatinin ,albumin, and bilirubin as comparison with control wistar albino rat were not significantly differ while level of Glucose, total cholesterol, Alanin amono transferas (ALT) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST) significantly (p<.05 and .01) decreased .
... Hashemipour et al. (2013) found an improved immune response in broilers fed with a diet supplemented with thymol and carvacrol, characterized by an enhancement of hypersensitivity response and an increase of total IgG and IgG anti-sheep red blood cells with decreased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Varshney et al. (2013) examined the effects of Ocimum sanctum and Argemone Mexicana AEs in chickens, reporting higher antibody titres and improved cell-mediated immune response compared to control. With respect to the microbiological investigations, this study was mainly undertaken to detect possible differences in some bacterial populations following the administration of diets supplemented with AEs. ...
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A 57-day study was performed to determine the effects of two aqueous extracts (AEs) on broiler performance, immune function and intestinal microflora. Four groups of 75 one-day-old female broilers (Ross308) received one of the following treatments: (1) a standard commercial feed (C); (2) C supplemented with 2 g/kg rosemary AE (R); (3) C supplemented with 2 g/kg oregano AE (O); (4) C supplemented with 1 g/kg oregano AE + 1 g/kg rosemary AE (OR). Individual body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were determined at 1, 11, 22, 36 and 57 days. Sample collections for IgG titration and intestinal microflora examination were performed at 22 and 57 days. The addition of oregano AE alone or in combination with rosemary AEs improved body weight up to 36 days of age (P < .01). A time effect was recorded for total serum IgG in all groups (P < .001) and the percentage increase of the value was positively (P < .05) influenced by the AE supplementation. Lactobacilli raised (P < .001) in ileum and cecum of all groups supplemented with AEs. Staphylococcus spp. population was constantly lower in both intestinal tracts of the AE supplemented groups. On the basis of our results, AEs could improve broiler performance and immune function and contribute to a balanced gut microflora, essential for the digestion process and protection against enteropathogenic organisms.
... Sadekar et al., (1998) had reported that feeding of dried leaves powder of OS @ 500 mg/chicken for 45 days orally to 15 weeks old pullets naturally infected with IBD virus exhibited immunopotentiation of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Our study also revealed the stimulation of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses due to OS as evidenced by increase in antibody titer and skin thickness as compared to control using S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and DNCB test (Varshney et al., 2013). Gupta and Charan (2005) (IBDV) infection in broiler chickens and observed enhanced cell mediated immune response. ...
... The non-toxic dose was determined by oral feeding of three doses 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight of HAE of OS and AM leaves. For in vivo antiviral study oral feeding of 250 mg/kg HAE of OS and AM leaves was done as it was ideal (Varshney et al., 2013). ...
Article
The present study was undertaken to explore the in vitro antiviral potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum (OS) and Argemone mexicana (AM) leaves against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. First the nontoxic dose of HAE of OS and AM was determined in CEF. Doses of OS and AM below 20 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL respectively were found to be nontoxic to CEF in RPMI 1640 media. Anti NDV activity was determined by absence/lower cytopathic effect (CPE) in CEF and lower HA titer of cell culture supernatant. Anti IBDV activity was determined by absence/lower CPE in CEF. Besides in vivo antiviral effects of HAE of OS and AM against NDV and IBDV were evaluated in chicken model. 250 mg/kg body weight oral dose of HAE of OS and AM was found ideal and nontoxic in chickens and experimental chickens were fed this dose for 21 days for determination of in vivo antiviral effect. On 22 nd day respective groups of chickens were challenged orally with ID 50 dose of NDV and IBDV. OS and AM fed chickens challenged with either of the virus were better protected as compared to unfed controls.