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Mean drought frequency in China's provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions from 1982 to 2010. The map was created using ArcGIS 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, California, USA). 

Mean drought frequency in China's provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions from 1982 to 2010. The map was created using ArcGIS 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, California, USA). 

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Droughts cause huge losses of society and environment, therefore it is important to study the spatial-temporal pattern of drought. The traditional remote sensing drought indices (AVI, VCI and TCI) only consider the single factor representing the soil moisture (surface temperature or NDVI). The comprehensive remote sensing drought indices (VSWI and...

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... frequencies in Southeast and Northeast China were relatively lower (<20%). The drought frequencies in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Plain and the eastern coastal areas were much lower (<20%). There is also clearly difference in mean drought frequency between provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in the past 30 years (Fig. 3). High frequency droughts (>50%) appeared in Ningxia, Xinjiang, Gansu and Inner Mongolia. The mean drought frequencies in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Qinghai, Shandong and Tibet were between 30% and 50%. The mean drought frequency in Heilongjiang, Zhejiang and Fujian were much lower ...

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... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) working group I the sixth assessment report Climate Change 2021: Foundation of Natural Science (hereinafter referred to as the AR6 WG I report) pointed out that climate change caused by human activities has affected extreme weather and climate events in various regions on the Earth since the 1950s [1]. Although extreme weather events belong to small probability events, they are often sudden and harmful and easy to cause other natural disasters, thus posing serious threats to the natural ecosystem and human society [2][3][4][5]. In order to facilitate the study of extreme climate, Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Index (ETCCDI) established jointly by World Meteorological Organization (WMO), World Climate Research Program (WCRP), the Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) define 27 representative and globally applicable extreme climate indexes [6][7][8]. ...
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... Drought-affected areas have increased significantly in recent decades, and extreme droughts have occurred more frequently since 2000 (Xu et al., 2015). Zhao et al. (2017) examined the spatial-temporal variation of drought in China and demonstrated that the frequency of severe drought increased significantly by 4.86% during 1982 to 2010. According to EM-DAT (1983, extreme droughts affecting more than 10 million people occurred five times between 1983 and 1999; however, this number doubled between 2000 and 2016. ...
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... Besides precipitation, the most crucial component of the hydrologic budget is water stress, which can result from excessive evapotranspiration rates [6,7], overexploitation of water resources, or a combination of these variables [8]. Drought poses significant hazards to individuals and the environment; hence, it is crucial to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of drought [9]. Various parts of the world are predicted to experience increasingly frequent and severe droughts as a result of climate change [10]. ...
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... Besides precipitation, the most crucial component of the hydrologic budget is water stress, which can result from excessive evapotranspiration rates [6,7], overexploitation of water resources, or a combination of these variables [8]. Drought poses significant hazards to individuals and the environment; hence, it is crucial to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of drought [9]. Various parts of the world are predicted to experience increasingly frequent and severe droughts as a result of climate change [10]. ...
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... Historically, China is affected by severe, regional, and multi-year droughts [29]. Every year, drought-related crop losses in China are put in the range of 4-8% [29,30]. ...
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... Based on the limitations of TVDI, i.e., TVDI ignored the effect of elevation on temperature, which reduces the accuracy of temperature remote sensing product in high latitude areas (Wang et al., 2015). Some researchers also modified TVDI with correction of elevation (DEM), dry edge, and incorporating air temperature to monitor drought (Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran et al., 2012;Zhao et al., 2017). ...
... At the same time, the drought trend showed a movement of declining tendencies from the northwest to the east, converging in central Sichuan Province. Some previous studies on Southwest China have shown that 65% of the regional droughts in parts of Southwest China have increased significantly in drought intensity and duration, especially in Sichuan Province, and extreme droughts indicate that the trend coefficient from east to west in the southwest region is decreasing (Ayantobo et al., 2017;Zhao et al., 2017), which is similar to this study. As a result, studying the distribution of drought features in Sichuan Province is crucial. ...
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Drought indicators based on remote sensing include the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) and the crop water stress index (CWSI). The data was processed using TVDI, which was calculated by parameterizing the MODIS EVI and LST data connection. For drought monitoring, we compared the efficiency of TVDI with that of CWSI, which is obtained from the MOD16A2 products. The study's findings revealed that drought conditions measured by TVDI and CWSI had a number of differences and similarities, which indicated that both CWSI and TVDI can be used for drought monitoring, although they had some discrepancies in the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought intensity in this region. High TVDI values were mainly concentrated on the northwestern Sichuan Plateau and mountainous areas of southwestern Sichuan, corresponding to extreme drought. The Panzhihua and the mountainous area of southwestern Sichuan had relatively high CWSI values. Spring had the highest TVDI values, followed by autumn and winter. TVDI and CWSI have different patterns, showing moderate and severe drought conditions in different areas. Overall, CWSI values showed a significant decreasing trend (P
... In the past 20 years, the degree of drought in more than half of the QTP has increased significantly, and the central QTP has become the center of aggravated drought. Other studies have demonstrated similar findings [65,66]. The decrease in precipitation and increase in evapotranspiration in the QTP decreased soil moisture and caused a drying trend [67]. ...
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The Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) is a sensor of global climate change and regional human activities, and drought monitoring will help to achieve its ecological protection and sustainable development. In order to effectively control the geospatial scale effect, we divided the study area into eight geomorphological sub-regions, and calculated the Temperature-Vegetation Drought Index (TVDI) of each geomorphological sub-region based on MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, and synthesized the TVDI of the whole region. We employed partial and multiple correlation analyses to identify the relationship between TVDI and temperature and precipitation. The random forest model was further used to study the driving mechanism of TVDI in each geomorphological division. The results of the study were as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2019, the QTP showed a drought trend, with the most significant drought trend in the central region. The spatial pattern of TVDI changes of QTP was consistent with the gradient changes of precipitation and temperature, both showing a gradual trend from southeast to northwest. (2) There was a risk of drought in the four seasons of the QTP, and the seasonal variation of TVDI was significant, which was characterized by being relatively dry in spring and summer and relatively humid in autumn and winter. (3) Drought in the QTP was mainly driven by natural factors, supplemented by human factors. The driving effect of temperature and precipitation factors on TVDI was stable and significant, which mainly determined the spatial distribution and variation of TVDI of the QTP. Geomorphological factors led to regional intensification and local differentiation effects of drought, especially in high mountains, flat slopes, sunny slopes and other places, which had a more significant impact on TVDI. Human activities had local point-like and linear impacts, and grass-land and cultivated land that were closely related to the relatively high impacts on TVDI of human grazing and farming activities. In view of the spatial-temporal patterns of change in TVDI in the study area, it is important to strengthen the monitoring and early warning of changes in natural factors, optimize the spatial distribution of human activities, and scientifically promote ecological protection and restoration.
... The main reason is that the strong La Niña phenomenon occurred in 2000-2001, which led to the abundant precipitation in the South and the dry precipitation in the north . In addition, based on the Integrated Surface Drought Index (ISDI) and modified Temperature Vegetation Drought Index (mTVDI), Zhou et al. (2017) and Zhao et al. (2017) found that drought in Northeast China and the south of the YZRB showed an obvious decreasing trend in different periods. Zhu et al. (2019) showed that the SM of farmland increased fastest in summer and autumn. ...
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With advancement of remote sensing techniques, remote-sensing drought indices have been widely used for drought monitoring. However, the monitoring accuracy of a specific drought index regionally varies. Considering the deficiency of existing drought indices in reflecting vegetation growth, here we propose a Modified Drought Severity Index (MDSI) with local optimization method constrained by the inclusion of vegetation greenness, crop water shortage, canopy temperature, vegetation structure, and physiological status. We evaluated drought monitoring performance of MDSI across China, and detected high correlations between MDSI and soil moisture (SM), Standardized Precipitation Index at a 3-month scale (SPI-3), actual drought-affected areas (ADA), evidencing higher drought performance of MDSI when compared to 8 widely-used drought indices. Besides, MDSI performed better in monitoring agricultural drought. We found amplifying short-term drought intensity in the future. Ecological restoration and cultivated land reclamation can alleviate drought effects. However, urbanization can potentially intensify droughts. How to adapt human behavior to droughts is a challenging task.
... This might be related to the location of Southwest China, which is the subtropical monsoon climate zone, with adequate precipitation. Therefore, small changes of precipitation may not cause seriously change on vegetation growth (Lai et al. 2020;Hou et al. 2015;Zhao et al. 2017). In addition, the dual hydrological structures of surface and underground in karst region in Southwest China lead to drainage of precipitation through leakage and runoff (Tong et al. 2016), indicating the precipitation has limited effect of vegetation growth. ...
... In particular, we have elaborated the impacts of climate change in Southwest China. Human activities were the dominate factor of vegetation greening, while in 2009/2010 there was a downward trend in SINDVI due to a period of extreme drought (Li et al. 2019;Zhao et al. 2017). Many previous studies have also confirmed that abnormal cyclone in the western North Pacific during an El Niño period resulted in a severe reduction in precipitation in Southwest China in the autumn of 2009 (Zhang et al. 2013). ...
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BackgroundsVegetation dynamics play a dominant role in the global carbon cycle and climate, especially in vulnerable karst ecosystem. Many studies have examined the past several decades changes in vegetation greenness and the associated with climate drivers. Yet, few studies have analyzed the vegetation change in global karst regions particularly in the last decades when climate change and anthropogenic disturbance widely occurred.Methods In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal variations in vegetation dynamic using the Seasonally Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (SINDVI) and examined their relationship with climate changes using correlation analysis, the ordinary least squares method investigate the variation trends and the Mann-Kendal test to detect the turning points from 2001 to 2020.ResultsAs expected, there were greening trends in global karst SINDVI from 2001 to 2020, with significant increasing trends in China (range = 0.836, P < 0.05), Europe (range = 0.456, P < 0.05) and many other regions. According to correlation analyses, SINDVI was water-limited in arid and semi-arid regions, such as Middle East and central Asia, and temperature-limited in northern high-latitude.Conclusions Our results suggest that anthropogenic activities were mainly responsible for the increasing vegetation greenness in tailoring management measures (e.g., Ecological Engineering, the Grain to Green Project) in China and Europe, and intensive farm in Middle East. Coupling warming temperature and increasing precipitation, southeastern Asia and Russia showed increasing trends in SINDVI. In general, climate factors were the dominant drivers for the variation in vegetation greenness in globally karst regions during research period.
... Longer periods of time between rainfall events and lower precipitation during the summer are expected in some regions [3]. In Northern China, the spatial extent of precipitation reduction and the frequency of drought are expected to increase two-fold over the next few decades [4,5]. Some evidence has suggested that both rainfall intensity and frequency significantly affect the growth of plants [6,7]. ...
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Climate change causes the global redistribution of precipitation, yet little is known about the effects of the changes in precipitation intensity and frequency on the seedlings of wood trees in warm temperate forests. In this study, we focused on the effects of variability in both the intensity and frequency of water supply on the physiological traits, biomass, and growth of an important plantation wood species, Robinia pseudoacacia. In the greenhouse, we exposed R. pseudoacacia seedlings to three rainfall intensity and three rainfall frequency treatments. The results from the 62-day experiment revealed that lower rainfall intensity and frequency significantly reduced the photosynthetic performance, growth, and biomass of the tree seedlings. In lower rainfall intensity and frequency conditions, the seedlings had improved water absorption and utilization by increasing the water use efficiency and root shoot ratio, and reduced water consumption by defoliating the compound leaves of the lower crown. More importantly, we found that R. pseudoacacia seedlings were more sensitive to rainfall frequency than to rainfall intensity. Therefore, our results suggest that increasing the irrigation water, especially irrigation frequency, could better facilitate the survival and growth of R. pseudoacacia seedlings and eventually promote the process of vegetation restoration in the future global climate change context.