Figure - available via license: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic
Content may be subject to copyright.
Mean METs and standard deviation per minute during the yoga session (n = 20). Data from the first four minutes of the 56 minute yoga practice are not displayed. The postures used within each section of the yoga practice (see Table 1) varied in sequence and timing. Minutes 1–24 were sun salutation postures with postures changing every 3–8 seconds; minutes 25–44 were standing poses with postures changing every 10–48 seconds, and minutes 45–52 were sitting and lying postures lasting 3 minutes and 4.5 minutes respectively. Readers are referred to the yoga DVD for a complete description of the yoga session [57].

Mean METs and standard deviation per minute during the yoga session (n = 20). Data from the first four minutes of the 56 minute yoga practice are not displayed. The postures used within each section of the yoga practice (see Table 1) varied in sequence and timing. Minutes 1–24 were sun salutation postures with postures changing every 3–8 seconds; minutes 25–44 were standing poses with postures changing every 10–48 seconds, and minutes 45–52 were sitting and lying postures lasting 3 minutes and 4.5 minutes respectively. Readers are referred to the yoga DVD for a complete description of the yoga session [57].

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
New active videogames (AVGs) may provide youth an alternative to traditional play. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), intensity, and enjoyment of AVGs with those of seated videogames (SVGs). Youth (8-17 years old) volunteered to play a random selection of six (two SVGs, four AVGs) videogames fo...
Article
Full-text available
Results of epidemiologic studies of physical activity and ovarian cancer risk are inconsistent. Few have attempted to measure physical activity over the lifetime or in specific age windows, which may better capture etiologically‐relevant exposures. We examined participation in moderate‐to‐vigorous recreational physical activity (MVPA) in relation t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Powered exoskeletons are designed to safely facilitate ambulation in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We conducted the first meta-analysis of the available published research on the clinical effectiveness and safety of powered exoskeletons in SCI patients. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies of powe...
Article
Full-text available
Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake) is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2–10years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I–II...
Article
Full-text available
Studies often report beneficial effects of physical exercise on depression symptomatology, both in clinical and community samples. In clinical samples, effects are observed using physical exercise as primary treatment and supplement to antidepressant medications and/or psychotherapies. Magnitudes vary with sample characteristics, exercise measure,...

Citations

... The beneficial effects of yoga on hypertension may occur through its blood pressure-lowering effect (11), as well as its effects on physical activity, stress reduction, and lifestyle (16)(17)(18)(19). The exact mechanism of yoga for lowering blood pressure is not known yet but proposed physiological mechanisms include an increase in parasympathetic activity, possibly due to vagal stimulation, the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis, and reduction in the activity and reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (20)(21)(22)(23). ...
... Yoga, as physical activity, can satisfy the recommended levels of physical activity for people with hypertension. For example, one study found that an hour of Ashtanga yoga satisfies the moderate levels of physical intensity (16) and another study found that 1.5 h of Vinyasa yoga is higher than moderate physical activity requirements (24). 2020 ISH Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines also suggest yoga as an aerobic form of physical activity under lifestyle modification (8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This systematic review aimed to synthesize the content, structure, and delivery characteristics of effective yoga interventions used for managing hypertension and to compare these characteristics with ineffective interventions. Design and Method: The JBI and the PRISMA guidelines were followed in this systematic review. RCTs conducted among hypertensive adults were included. RCTs reporting at least one of the major components of yoga (i.e., asana, pranayama, and dhyana and relaxation practices) and comparing them with no intervention or any intervention were eligible. Sixteen databases were searched for published and unpublished studies without any date and language restrictions till March 15, 2021. Results: The literature search yielded 13,130 records. 34 RCTs (evaluating 38 yoga interventions) met the inclusion criteria. Overall, included studies had low methodological quality mostly due to inadequate reporting. Yoga reduced SBP and DBP compared to a control intervention (MD −6.49 and −2.78; 95CI% −8.94-−4.04 and −4.11-−1.45, respectively). Eighteen, 14 and 20 interventions were effective in improving SBP, DBP, or either, respectively. 13 out of 20 effective interventions incorporated all the 3 major components of yoga and allocated similar durations to each component whereas ineffective interventions were more focused on the asana and duration of asana practice was longer. The most common duration and frequency of effective interventions were 45 min/session (in 5 interventions), 7 days/week (in 5 interventions), and 12 weeks (in 11 interventions) whereas the most common session frequency was 2 days a week (in 7 interventions) in ineffective interventions. Effective interventions were mostly center-based (in 15 interventions) and supervised (in 16 interventions) and this was similar with ineffective interventions. Conclusion: Despite the low quality and heterogeneity of included studies, our findings suggest yoga interventions may effectively manage hypertension. The differences between the effective and ineffective interventions suggest that effective yoga interventions for managing hypertension yoga interventions mostly incorporated asana, pranayama, and dhyana and relaxation practices and they had a balance between these three components and included regular practice. They were mostly delivered in a center and under supervision. Future studies should consider developing and evaluating an intervention for managing hypertension using the synthesized findings of the effective interventions in this review. Systematic Review Registration: [PROSPERO], identifier [CRD42019139404].
... Hatha yoga is considered as a low-to-moderate-intensity physical activity based on MET values and percentages of HR max and VO 2max (Hagins et al., 2007;Ainsworth et al., 2011;Ray et al., 2011). Furthermore, HY can be a form of high-intensity exercise (HIE) (Papp et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate metabolic energy contributions during high-intensity hatha yoga (HIHY) and to compare changes in physiological variables between active and passive recovery methods. Methods: The study involved 20 women yoga instructors ( n = 20) who performed 10 min of HIHY (vigorous sun salutation). Upon completion, they were randomly assigned to either active (walking; n = 10) or passive ( savasana ; n = 10) recovery groups for a period of 10 min. During HIHY, physiological variables such as heart rate (HR peak and HR mean ), oxygen uptake (VO 2peak and VO 2mean ), and blood lactate concentrations (peak La ⁻ ) were measured. Energetic contributions (phosphagen; W PCR , glycolytic; W Gly , and oxidative; W Oxi ) in kJ and % were estimated using VO 2 and La ⁻ data. Furthermore, the metabolic equivalents (METs) of VO 2peak and VO 2mean were calculated. To compare different recovery modes, HR post , ΔHR, VO 2post , ΔVO 2 , recovery La ⁻ , and recovery ΔLa ⁻ were analyzed. Results: The results revealed that HR peak , VO 2peak , and peak La ⁻ during HIHY showed no differences between the two groups ( p > 0.05). Values of HR peak , HR mean , METs of VO 2peak and VO 2mean , and La ⁻ during HIHY were 95.6% of HR max , 88.7% of HR max , 10.54 ± 1.18, 8.67 ±.98 METs, and 8.31 ± 2.18 mmol·L ⁻¹ , respectively. Furthermore, W Oxi was significantly higher compared with W PCR , W Gly , and anaerobic contribution (W PCR + W Gly ), in kJ and % ( p < 0.0001). VO 2post and recovery ΔLa ⁻ were significantly higher in the active recovery group ( p < 0.0001, p = 0.0369, respectively). Values of ΔVO 2 and recovery La ⁻ were significantly lower in the active group compared with the passive group ( p = 0.0115, p = 0.0291, respectively). Conclusions: The study concluded that high-intensity hatha yoga which was performed for 10 min is a suitable option for relatively healthy people in the modern workplace who may have hatha yoga experience but do not have time to perform a prolonged exercise. Following active recovery, they can participate in further HIHY sessions during short breaks. Furthermore, a faster return to work can be supported by physiological recovery.
... This is contrary to Clay, et al. (2005), who found that cardiovascular and HR responses during a 30-minute Hatha Yoga routine were lower than those from moderate walking at 3.5 km per hour [9]. This agrees with Hagins, et al. (2007), who also found that the average metabolic cost of Yoga across the entire session represented a low level of physical activity similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 km per hour [10]. According to Barnett (2004), Hot Yoga practitioners have better body's response to heat. ...
... This is contrary to Clay, et al. (2005), who found that cardiovascular and HR responses during a 30-minute Hatha Yoga routine were lower than those from moderate walking at 3.5 km per hour [9]. This agrees with Hagins, et al. (2007), who also found that the average metabolic cost of Yoga across the entire session represented a low level of physical activity similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 km per hour [10]. According to Barnett (2004), Hot Yoga practitioners have better body's response to heat. ...
Article
Full-text available
Area: Sport Science, May 2018, page 632-642 www.iseec2018.kbu.ac.th T Th he e 9 9 t th h I In nt te er rn na at ti io on na al l S Sc ci ie en nc ce e, , S So oc ci ia al l S Sc ci ie en nc ce e, , E En ng gi in ne ee er ri in ng g a an nd d E En ne er rg gy y C Co on nf fe er re en nc ce e' 's s e e-P Pr ro oc ce ee ed di in ng g ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heat on energy expenditure in experienced and non-experienced Hot Yoga practitioners. Forty female participants were recruited and divided into two groups: hot yoga (HY, n=20) and yoga (Y, n=20) groups. Each participant attended a 60-minute Hot Yoga session in a temperature-controlled room. The heart rate (HR), rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), rate of carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), rated perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, and discomfort scales were measured every ten minutes. Repeated two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. The VO2 and VCO2 between groups were significantly different during exercise and at the end of exercise (p < 0.05). Within groups, the comparison was significantly different (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the RER's at the end of exercise in the HY group were also significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those in the Y group. In summary, heat stress affected non-experienced practitioners much more than experienced ones. Therefore, heat acclimatization is a mandatory pre-exercise measure for sedentary people attending Hot Yoga classes.
... In present study nochanges were observed after two months of yogic exercise in VO2Max. Similar results were also observed in studies done by Hovsepian et al., 2013 (17) who studied three months effect of yoga on physical fitness parameters in 60 healthy participants&Kodgire 2014 (18) who studied two months effect of yoga on selected physiological variables of healthy individuals. ...
... In many of these studies an indirect calorimeter Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2020, 27(4), [29][30][31][32][33][34][35] was used, and usually similar caloric responses were found. Pate and Buono [28] compared some physiological responses of novice and experienced yoga practitioners during a 90-min Bikram yoga class, and found that novice practitioners had about 333 kcal, and experienced 423 kcal energy expenditure at the end of the session. ...
... Furthermore, Ray et al. also reported that the intensity of the HY session was between 9.9 and 26.5% of the participants' VO2max. Similarly, Hagins et al. [33] found EE to be 2.5 MET after a 52-minute HY session in 20 intermediate to advanced level yoga practitioners, and considered it as low level physical activity. Again, the study on EE in a HY session was performed by Clay et al. [34] in 26 female yoga practitioners, and the MET value was found to be 2.17 after a 30-minute exercise. ...
... In these studies, the HRave to HRmax ratio was recorded by Ray et al. [32] as 52.3-54.5%, by Hagins et al. [33] as 49.4%, and by Clay et al. [34] as 56.89%. These results are about 10-20% lower than the result observed in the present study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. This study purposed to examine energy expenditure (EE) of one-hour hatha yoga (HY) practice and to compare changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during and right after HY practice. Material and methods . A total of ten experienced female HY practitioners participated in the study voluntarily. Daily EE on a weekday and during a one-hour HY session was measured using a metabolic holter. The ECG holter was applied to record HRV variables 5 minutes before, during, 5 minutes after and 10 minutes after the one-hour HY session. The HY session included HY asanas for the first 55 minutes and meditation during the last 5 minutes. Results. Participants showed 2201.40 kcal of total EE, and 421.70 kcal of active EE during the weekday. Active EE was 109.70 kcal (26% of daily active EE) during the one-hour HY session, and the mean MET was recorded as 2.57. HRV measurements showed crucial changes. Increased sympathetic activity observed in SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50, LF/HF, and HF did not reach the initial level after 15 minutes of total recovery time. Conclusions. One hour of HY practice provided moderate EE. Moreover, 10 minutes of supine rest in addition to 5 minutes of the meditation phase of HY practice is not seen as completely effective in improving parasympathetic activity and returning the practitioners to their initial level. Extending the meditation phase at the end of the HY session by more than 10 minutes and measuring the recovery process of HRV could add more detailed results to the literature.
... Only a few reported improvement in maximal oxygen uptake capacity [1,7,10] while other studies reported no improvement or changes like Carroll et al. [11]. The exercise physiologists are sceptical about the potential of yoga on the aerobic performance improvement as it does not generate sufficient exercise stimulus which is required to improve aerobic capacity as recommended by ACSM/AHM [12][13][14]. Apparently it looks justified as Ray et al 15 have shown that in yoga practice session exercise intensity remains maximum up to 26 5 of O 2max and 2.19 MET. Thus, it remains within low to moderate intensity of exercise. ...
... This is true also for cardiac haemodynamics, as none of the reported studies linked it to the aerobic performance improvement by YBM in general. Rather, the potentiality of yoga to improve aerobic capacity has been doubted on the basis of the low to moderate intensity of exercise stimulus in yoga which does not conform to the prescribed exercise intensity as given by ACSM [11,13]. Ray et al 7 have shown the intensity of exercise in terms of oxygen consumption energy cost and O 2max which indicate that in yoga practice session exercise intensity remains within maximum 26.5% of O 2 max. ...
... Growing evidence suggests that yoga as an alternative and complementary therapy can also increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior (Lau et al., 2015). In addition to the beneficial yoga effects on flexibility and strength (Gothe, McAuley, 2016;Groessl et al., 2018), some yoga postures (asanas) may achieve the recommended level of intensity for endurance improvement (Hagins et al., 2007). Nevertheless, there is evidence that yoga can improve cardiovascular en-durance (Lau et al., 2015), however, to the best of our knowledge, no information is available regarding population aged 60 years and older. ...
... However, previous studies observed that yoga could improve endurance in younger population (Chen et al., 2010;Tran et al., 2001). Differences between studies may be explained by different postures included in yoga programs and the duration of specific postures exceeding sufficient intensity to improve cardiovascular endurance (Hagins et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. There is evidence that yoga practice can improve cardiovascular endurance, and that physically fit individuals have better psychomotor functioning, however, to the best of our knowledge, no information is available regarding yoga effects in population aged 60 years and older. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that 10 weeks of yoga practice would improve physical fitness and psychomotor coordination in older adults. Methods. Thirty-three older adults aged 66.9 ± 6.0 years were randomly assigned to the control group and the experimental group, which had 90-min yoga practice twice a week, for 10 weeks. Attendance and adherence ratios, and changes in cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, grip strength, and psychomotor coordination were assessed. Results. Attendance of the experimental group subjects in yoga practice was 96.4 ± 4.1%. Yoga practice increased (p < 0.05) hand grip strength, flexibility in hips, thighs and spine, and decreased (p < 0.05) the distance from target in the psychomotor task, whereas no changes in peak oxygen consumption were observed. Conclusion. Nevertheless, regular 10-week yoga practice had no effect on cardiovascular endurance, but it produced beneficial changes in muscular strength, flexibility and psychomotor coordination for older adults. Keywords: aging, cardiovascular endurance, strength, flexibility, exercise.
... A ten-day training-based trial [56] has demonstrated the significance of asanas and pranayama components of yoga in reducing CVD risk factors in unfit men. Another study [73] postulates the possibility of ten-minute daily sun salutation postures to meet a portion of the rigorous physical activities that is needed to maintain cardio-respiratory fitness in obese subjects. A 5.4-year intervention [74] has shown beneficial effects of a transcendental meditation program in the secondary inhibition of CVDs. ...
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a sedentary and stressful lifestyle and affects underactive people disproportionately. Yoga is considered to be a low-impact mind-body stress-relieving exercise, and researchers are increasing their focus on the benefits of yoga for managing metabolic disorders. It is also important for physicians and health care professionals to understand the therapeutic efficacy of yoga intervention, in terms of its type, duration and frequency on various MS risk factors. The present review summarizes the current scientific understanding of the effects of yoga on MS risk factors such as glucose homeostasis markers, lipid profile, adipocytokines and cardiovascular risk factors, and discusses the possible mechanisms of action. MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception up to December 2019, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome," "diabetes," "cardiovascular diseases," "obesity" and "yoga." The literature summarized in this review have shown mixed effects of yoga on MS risk factors and do not provide robust evidence for its efficacy. More rigorous research and well-designed trials that have a higher standard of methodology and evaluate yoga's long-term impacts on MS are needed. Understanding yoga's biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action on various metabolic pathways is also needed.
... The 30-min training session twice a day can reduce the physical burden of participants who lacked continuous exercise habits, allow participants to maintain a relaxed mood during practice, and raise their interest. According to the previous studies, the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) of Tai chi is 2.5 to 6.5 25 ; Yoga MET is between 1.5 and 2.9 26 ; the MET of Qigong is 1.78 + 0.20 27 . The main principle of DEE comes from Tai chi and yoga and DEE is a moderate activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mind–body interventions (MBIs) have many health benefits, such as reducing stress, modulating blood pressure, and improving sleep and life quality. The long-term practice of Tai chi, an MBI, also increases the number of CD34 ⁺ cells, which are surface markers of hematopoietic stem cells, so prolonged Tai chi practice may have antiaging effects. We developed the day easy exercise (DEE), an innovative MBI, that is easy to learn and requires only a small exercise area and a short practice time. The aim of this study was to explore whether DEE, like Tai chi, has antiaging effects after short-term practice. Total 44 individuals (25 to 62 years old) with or without 3-month DEE practice were divided into young- and middle-aged groups (≤30 and >30 years old) and peripheral blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, and 3 months for analysis of CD34 ⁺ cells. The number of CD34 ⁺ cells in peripheral blood remained unchanged in control young- and middle-aged groups. After DEE, the number of CD34 ⁺ cells in peripheral blood was increased over time in both young- and middle-aged groups. For young-aged adults, the cell number was markedly increased by threefold at 3 months after DEE, and for middle-aged adults, the increase was significant from the first month. DEE practice indeed increased the number of CD34 ⁺ cells in peripheral blood and the increase was more significant for older people in a shorter time. This is the first study to provide evidence that the DEE may have antiaging effects and could be beneficial for older people.
... practitioners claim that hy can correct biomechanical abnormalities and provide a qualitatively different exercise experience which may be perceived as less strenuous and more pleasurable than other modes of physical activity. 3 Based on cross-sectional and interventional studies, the practice of hy has been shown to interact with various somatic and physiological mechanisms bringing about potentially therapeutic effects. 4 prior studies demonstrate that hy can be used as an alternative and cost-effective therapy for a variety of psychophysical problems in both asymptomatic and symptomatic women. ...
... 42 Blank 43 reported that the mean cumulative metabolic expenditure for a 90-min HY-based practice was 149.4±50.7 kcal; ranging from 80.3 to 277.5. Hagins et al. 3 demonstrated in 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners (18 female and two male, mean age 31.4±8.3 years) that the metabolic costs of yoga averaged across a full 60-minute session represented low levels of physical activity; <3.0 MET. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is paucity of data examining the effectiveness of long-term Hatha yoga-based (HY) programs focused on the health-related fitness (H-RF) of asymptomatic, sedentary women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month HY-based training program on H-RF components in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: Eighty sedentary women were randomly assigned into either the HY group (HYG) (N.=42) or the control group (CG) (N.=38). The 6-month HYG program involved a progressive series of Vinyasa Flow poses performed 3 times/week for 60 minutes (40 minutes within the exercise zone of 60-75% HR max ). The CG participants did not undergo any physical training or education. Health-related fitness parameters included measures of pre- and post-training: body composition, muscular strength and maximal voluntary isometric torques of elbow flexors and knee extensors, cardio-respiratory fitness, lower back and hamstring flexibility and a static-dynamic balance. Results: Two-way mixed design ANOVA revealed significant main effects for all the indicators of H-RF. Tukey post-hoc tests confirmed that the HYG demonstrated significant improvements in every variable tested. Examples of the benefits achieved include (all P<.001): an average loss of 1.03 kg and a 4.82% decrease in body fat, 14.6% and 13.1% gains in isometric strength of the knee extensors and elbow flexors respectively, an increase in relative VO 2max of 6.1% (33.12±5.30 to 35.14±4.82 mL/kg/min), a 4-cm or 10.4% increase in their MSAR, and an average improved Balance Index of 5.6 mm/s. Reversely, the CG showed non-significant changes in H-RF variables (all P>0.05; percent range from -1.4% to 1.1%). Conclusions: By participating in a moderate-intensity 6-month HY-based training program, middle-aged women can significantly improve their HR-F status. The application of progressive target heart rate goals facilitated greater than expected improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness and improvements in body composition.