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Maximum parsimony combined data analysis strict consensus tree of 231 shortest trees (length 1⁄4 4067; consistency index 1⁄4 0 : 343; retention index 1⁄4 0 : 740; rescaled consistency index 1⁄4 0 : 254). A , Outgroups and clades of Camphorosmeae and Salsoleae s.s. tribes. B , Caroxyloneae tribe clade. Numbers above branches reflect maximum parsimony bootstrap numbers. Shaded boxes refer to species traditionally placed in the genus Salsola . Generic abbreviations are as follows: A : 1⁄4 Anabasis , B : 1⁄4 Bassia , Bi : 1⁄4 Bienertia , C : 1⁄4 Climacoptera , Ca : 1⁄4 

Maximum parsimony combined data analysis strict consensus tree of 231 shortest trees (length 1⁄4 4067; consistency index 1⁄4 0 : 343; retention index 1⁄4 0 : 740; rescaled consistency index 1⁄4 0 : 254). A , Outgroups and clades of Camphorosmeae and Salsoleae s.s. tribes. B , Caroxyloneae tribe clade. Numbers above branches reflect maximum parsimony bootstrap numbers. Shaded boxes refer to species traditionally placed in the genus Salsola . Generic abbreviations are as follows: A : 1⁄4 Anabasis , B : 1⁄4 Bassia , Bi : 1⁄4 Bienertia , C : 1⁄4 Climacoptera , Ca : 1⁄4 

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A first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of tribe Salsoleae s.l. (Salsoloideae: Chenopodiaceae) is presented based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast psbB-psbH DNA sequences. Our data strongly support (1) the sister relationship of Camphorosmeae to the Salsoleae s...

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... including species from other genera such as Arthrophytum and Hammada , but this is not supported by the phylogenetic hypotheses presented here (figs. 1 A , 2 A ). The genera Hammada and Arthrophytum have been inter- preted differently by different authors. Hedge (1997) and Boulos (1996) considered them congeneric with Haloxylon . The three species we have analyzed ( Hammada salicornica , Hammada articulata , and Hammada griffithii ) are not closely associated with Haloxylon and may form early lineages of the Girgensohnia / Cornulaca / Horaninowia clade ( fig. 2 A ), although these relationships are not well supported and are placed differently by the MP strict consensus (fig. 1 A ) but, again, with little support. The phylogenetic hypotheses presented suggest a possible clade including the C 3 Salsola montana complex, Salsola arbusculiformis , Raphydophytum regelii , and the genus Noaea (fig. 2 A ). This clade, however, is not strongly supported and is not present in the MP strict consensus (fig. 1 A ). The placement of the C 3 -C 4 intermediate Salsola arbusculiformis (Voznesenskaya et al. 2001 a ) between Salsola montana and Noaea , a C 4 genus, might demonstrate an interesting case of transition in photosynthetic pathway across a clade. Given the weak phylogenetic placement of S. arbusculiformis in the phylogenetic hypotheses presented here, we are only infor- mally recognizing this species as ‘‘Collinosalsola’’ and will await further evidence of its phylogenetic position before for- mally placing the species. The small subshrub Raphydophytum is characterized by stiff and spinescent leaves that are acicular and three-angular in cross section, with scabrid margins and a dilated base. The perianths bear wings near the base, and the filaments produce a staminal tube with well- developed semiorbicular lobes on the hypogynous disk. All known species of Noaea are included in our phylogenetic analyses, and its monophyly is well supported (mpbs 1⁄4 100%; mlbs 1⁄4 100%). This genus is characterized by alternate branches, leaves spiny tipped or cuspidate at the base with broad white membranous margins, and vertical seeds. All three species grow in temperate and cold-temperate deserts or montane and submontane steppe vegetation, which is not typical for C 4 species. The S. montana complex was classified in Salsola sect. An- chophyllum by Iljin (1936), sect. Caroxylon subsect. Arbusculae by Botschantzev (1976), and sect. Arbuscula by Freitag (1997). The complex includes subshrubby species that differ from species of previously mentioned Salsola s.l. groups in having not only green young stems but also a sympegmoid leaf anatomy (Akhani and Ghasemkhani 2007), filaments attached to the disk without staminodes, and anthers divided only to two-thirds of their length. The precise phylogenetic position of this strongly supported clade (mpbs 1⁄4 100%; mlbs 1⁄4 100%) is not clear, and we are therefore here treating this complex as the informal taxonomic entity ‘‘Oreosalsola’’ (see app. A). The S. montana species complex represents an assemblage of microspecies ( Salsola maracandica Iljin, Salsola oreophila Botsch., Salsola masenderanica Botsch., Salsola botschantzevii Kurbanov, Salsola flexuosa Botsch., Salsola tianschanica Botsch., Salsola lipschitzii Botsch., Salsola junatovii Botsch., and S. montana Litw.), which are collectively included in a broadly defined S. montana by Freitag (1997). We have here examined three populations in this complex, one from Golestan National Park ( S. montana ), one from the Alborz mountains ( S. masenderanica ), and ‘‘ Salsola touranica ,’’ an undescribed but likely distinct entity from the Touran Protected Area of Iran. Members of this species complex need to be studied further in order for us to understand where species boundaries lie and whether one or eight or more species should be recognized. Salsola divaricata was included in Salsola sect. Caroxylon subsect. Coccosalsola by Botschantzev (1976, 1989). This shrubby species is endemic to the Canary Islands and is distinctive in having opposite leaves, mature leaves that are triangular in cross section, and leaves with one layer of hypodermis, two layers of palisade parenchyma, scattered peripheral vascular bundles, and a central aqueous tissue. Morphologically, it is very similar to species of Salsola s.s., but this species does not strongly group with Salsola s.s. Given its unclear phylogenetic position and the need to sample the similar C 3 Mediterranean/ north African/central Asian species Salsola genistoides , Salsola webbii , and Salsola pachyphylla , no nomenclatural changes are here proposed. Three major clades can be distinguished in Caroxyloneae, which are here labeled as the Caroxylon clade (mpbs 1⁄4 88%; mlbs 1⁄4 93%), the Kaviria clade (mpbs 1⁄4 86%; mlbs 1⁄4 87%), and the Climacoptera clade (mpbs 1⁄4 77%; mlbs 1⁄4 83%). Two of the three clades can be divided further into two or more monophyletic lineages, which in most cases correspond with traditional classifications of Salsoleae genera. However, the relationship and generic circumscription of several closely related annual genera in this clade, including Halanthium , Halimocnemis , Halotis , Gamanthus , Climacoptera , Piptoptera , Halocharis , Halarchon , Petrosimonia , and Physandra , has been controversial (Pratov 1986; Akhani 1996; Hedge 1997; Assadi 2001; Ghobadnejhad et al. 2004). These euhalophytic and xerohalophytic species are endemic to the Irano-Turanian area, primarily in temperate deserts of central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran. Except Petrosimonia , with connate cagelike anther appendages, all species are characterized by large, often showy and colorful (white, yel- low, or purple) vesciculate anther appendages, which apparently act as an attractor for insect pollinators and may also contribute as a wind-dispersal device for anthers and pollen grains, depending on the species. The Caroxylon clade includes a large group of species traditionally classified as Salsola sects. Caroxylon p.p. (subsect. Caroxylon , subsect. Vermiculatae ), Cardiandra , Irania , and Malpigipila and two species of sect. Belanthera ( Salsola canescens and Salsola carpatha ). The monophyly of this clade is well supported (figs. 1 B , 2 B ). This is the most widespread lineage of Salsoleae s.l., with ca. 140 described species, being found in central Asia, Arabia, and northern and southern Africa (Botschantzev 1968, 1969 a , 1969 c , 1970, 1972, 1974 a , 1974 b , 1975 b , 1975 d , 1980, 1986; Freitag 1997). Our phylogeny includes 19 species covering most known lineages and geographic areas. The clade is morphologically heterogeneous, although the presence of an acute anther appendage, winged perianth segments, a gibbous leaf base, and a staminal disk provides a combination of characters that distinguishes the clade. The oldest generic name for species in this clade is Caroxylon Thunb. It was reduced to a section of Salsola by ...
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... including species from other genera such as Arthrophytum and Hammada , but this is not supported by the phylogenetic hypotheses presented here (figs. 1 A , 2 A ). The genera Hammada and Arthrophytum have been inter- preted differently by different authors. Hedge (1997) and Boulos (1996) considered them congeneric with Haloxylon . The three species we have analyzed ( Hammada salicornica , Hammada articulata , and Hammada griffithii ) are not closely associated with Haloxylon and may form early lineages of the Girgensohnia / Cornulaca / Horaninowia clade ( fig. 2 A ), although these relationships are not well supported and are placed differently by the MP strict consensus (fig. 1 A ) but, again, with little support. The phylogenetic hypotheses presented suggest a possible clade including the C 3 Salsola montana complex, Salsola arbusculiformis , Raphydophytum regelii , and the genus Noaea (fig. 2 A ). This clade, however, is not strongly supported and is not present in the MP strict consensus (fig. 1 A ). The placement of the C 3 -C 4 intermediate Salsola arbusculiformis (Voznesenskaya et al. 2001 a ) between Salsola montana and Noaea , a C 4 genus, might demonstrate an interesting case of transition in photosynthetic pathway across a clade. Given the weak phylogenetic placement of S. arbusculiformis in the phylogenetic hypotheses presented here, we are only infor- mally recognizing this species as ‘‘Collinosalsola’’ and will await further evidence of its phylogenetic position before for- mally placing the species. The small subshrub Raphydophytum is characterized by stiff and spinescent leaves that are acicular and three-angular in cross section, with scabrid margins and a dilated base. The perianths bear wings near the base, and the filaments produce a staminal tube with well- developed semiorbicular lobes on the hypogynous disk. All known species of Noaea are included in our phylogenetic analyses, and its monophyly is well supported (mpbs 1⁄4 100%; mlbs 1⁄4 100%). This genus is characterized by alternate branches, leaves spiny tipped or cuspidate at the base with broad white membranous margins, and vertical seeds. All three species grow in temperate and cold-temperate deserts or montane and submontane steppe vegetation, which is not typical for C 4 species. The S. montana complex was classified in Salsola sect. An- chophyllum by Iljin (1936), sect. Caroxylon subsect. Arbusculae by Botschantzev (1976), and sect. Arbuscula by Freitag (1997). The complex includes subshrubby species that differ from species of previously mentioned Salsola s.l. groups in having not only green young stems but also a sympegmoid leaf anatomy (Akhani and Ghasemkhani 2007), filaments attached to the disk without staminodes, and anthers divided only to two-thirds of their length. The precise phylogenetic position of this strongly supported clade (mpbs 1⁄4 100%; mlbs 1⁄4 100%) is not clear, and we are therefore here treating this complex as the informal taxonomic entity ‘‘Oreosalsola’’ (see app. A). The S. montana species complex represents an assemblage of microspecies ( Salsola maracandica Iljin, Salsola oreophila Botsch., Salsola masenderanica Botsch., Salsola botschantzevii Kurbanov, Salsola flexuosa Botsch., Salsola tianschanica Botsch., Salsola lipschitzii Botsch., Salsola junatovii Botsch., and S. montana Litw.), which are collectively included in a broadly defined S. montana by Freitag (1997). We have here examined three populations in this complex, one from Golestan National Park ( S. montana ), one from the Alborz mountains ( S. masenderanica ), and ‘‘ Salsola touranica ,’’ an undescribed but likely distinct entity from the Touran Protected Area of Iran. Members of this species complex need to be studied further in order for us to understand where species boundaries lie and whether one or eight or more species should be recognized. Salsola divaricata was included in Salsola sect. Caroxylon subsect. Coccosalsola by Botschantzev (1976, 1989). This shrubby species is endemic to the Canary Islands and is distinctive in having opposite leaves, mature leaves that are triangular in cross section, and leaves with one layer of hypodermis, two layers of palisade parenchyma, scattered peripheral vascular bundles, and a central aqueous tissue. Morphologically, it is very similar to species of Salsola s.s., but this species does not strongly group with Salsola s.s. Given its unclear phylogenetic position and the need to sample the similar C 3 Mediterranean/ north African/central Asian species Salsola genistoides , Salsola webbii , and Salsola pachyphylla , no nomenclatural changes are here proposed. Three major clades can be distinguished in Caroxyloneae, which are here labeled as the Caroxylon clade (mpbs 1⁄4 88%; mlbs 1⁄4 93%), the Kaviria clade (mpbs 1⁄4 86%; mlbs 1⁄4 87%), and the Climacoptera clade (mpbs 1⁄4 77%; mlbs 1⁄4 83%). Two of the three clades can be divided further into two or more monophyletic lineages, which in most cases correspond with traditional classifications of Salsoleae genera. However, the relationship and generic circumscription of several closely related annual genera in this clade, including Halanthium , Halimocnemis , Halotis , Gamanthus , Climacoptera , Piptoptera , Halocharis , Halarchon , Petrosimonia , and Physandra , has been controversial (Pratov 1986; Akhani 1996; Hedge 1997; Assadi 2001; Ghobadnejhad et al. 2004). These euhalophytic and xerohalophytic species are endemic to the Irano-Turanian area, primarily in temperate deserts of central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran. Except Petrosimonia , with connate cagelike anther appendages, all species are characterized by large, often showy and colorful (white, yel- low, or purple) vesciculate anther appendages, which apparently act as an attractor for insect pollinators and may also contribute as a wind-dispersal device for anthers and pollen grains, depending on the species. The Caroxylon clade includes a large group of species traditionally classified as Salsola sects. Caroxylon p.p. (subsect. Caroxylon , subsect. Vermiculatae ), Cardiandra , Irania , and Malpigipila and two species of sect. Belanthera ( Salsola canescens and Salsola carpatha ). The monophyly of this clade is well supported (figs. 1 B , 2 B ). This is the most widespread lineage of Salsoleae s.l., with ca. 140 described species, being found in central Asia, Arabia, and northern and southern Africa (Botschantzev 1968, 1969 a , 1969 c , 1970, 1972, 1974 a , 1974 b , 1975 b , 1975 d , 1980, 1986; Freitag 1997). Our phylogeny includes 19 species covering most known lineages and geographic areas. The clade is morphologically heterogeneous, although the presence of an acute anther appendage, winged perianth segments, a gibbous leaf base, and a staminal disk provides a combination of characters that distinguishes the clade. The oldest generic name for species in this clade is Caroxylon Thunb. It was reduced to a section of Salsola by ...
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... regions was based on comparisons with other species of Chenopodiaceae (Kapralov et al. 2006). Sequences were aligned using Clustal X (Thompson et al. 1997) with gap open- ing penalty of 10.00 and gap extension penalty of 1.00 for both pairwise and multiple comparisons. The resultant alignment was then checked by eye for necessary minor corrections. Alternate alignment parameters did not result in significantly different topologies (data not shown). Gaps were not coded as binary characters because of the complex nature of the gaps in these data sets and the additional problem that they can- not be integrated into the maximum likelihood analyses. ITS and psb-psbH regions were analyzed separately and in combination with both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses. All analyses were performed using PAUP* 4.0b10 (Swofford 2001). MP analyses of the individual and combined data sets used heuristic searches (ACCTRAN; 1000 random addition cycles, tree-bisection- reconnection [TBR] branch swapping, limit of 10,000 rearrangements per addition sequence replicate). Swapping was run to completion for all random addition replicates. Clade support was estimated using 1000 heuristic bootstrap replicates (100 random addition cycles per replicate, TBR branch swapping, limit of 10,000 rearrangements per addition sequence replicate; Felsenstein 1985; Hillis and Bull 1993). ML analyses employed heuristic searches (TBR branch swapping). Clade support was estimated using 100 heuristic bootstrap replicates (10 random addition cycles and 100 total rearrangements per replicate, TBR branch swapping; Felsenstein 1985; Hillis and Bull 1993). ML analysis of the ITS data set employed the general time-reversible model with proportion of invariant sites ( I ) and gamma shape ( G ) parameters and empirical base frequencies (six substitution types: A = C 1⁄4 1 : 4064, A = G 1⁄4 2 : 5332, A = T 1⁄4 1 : 7413, C = G 1⁄4 0 : 7280, C = T 1⁄4 3 : 5703, G = T 1⁄4 1 : 0000; I 1⁄4 0 : 2193; G 1⁄4 0 : 9803; A 1⁄4 0 : 2084, C 1⁄4 0 : 2519, G 1⁄4 0 : 2849, T 1⁄4 0 : 2548). ML analysis of the psbB-psbH genetic region employed a five–rate class transversion model with I and G parameters and empirical base frequencies (five substitution types: A = C 1⁄4 0 : 9657, A = G 1⁄4 1 : 3422, A = T 1⁄4 0 : 2773, C = G 1⁄4 0 : 7521, C = T 1⁄4 1 : 3422, G = T 1⁄4 1 : 0000; I 1⁄4 0 : 2417; G 1⁄4 0 : 9036; A 1⁄4 0 : 2982, C 1⁄4 0 : 1616, G 1⁄4 0 : 1794, T 1⁄4 0 : 3608). ML analysis of the combined data set employed a four–rate class transition model with I and G parameters and empirical base frequencies (four substitution types: A = C 1⁄4 1 : 0000, A = G 1⁄4 1 : 9407, A = T 1⁄4 0 : 8031, C = G 1⁄4 0 : 8031, C = T 1⁄4 2 : 5593, G = T 1⁄4 1 : 0000; I 1⁄4 0 : 2700; G 1⁄4 0 : 7111; A 1⁄4 0 : 2613, C 1⁄4 0 : 2239, G 1⁄4 0 : 2239, T 1⁄4 0 : 2909). These models were chosen based on the results of analysis using DT_ModSel (Minin et al. 2003). The DT_ModSel analysis uses a Bayesian information criterion to select a model using branch-length error as a performance measure in a de- cision theory framework that also includes a penalty for model overfitting. New ITS and psbB-psbH sequences were obtained for 132 species/accessions belonging to tribe Salsoleae s.l. and six species of Salicornieae and Suaedeae as outgroups. The aligned ITS data matrix was 743 base pairs (bp) long with 511 variable sites (68.8%), of which 400 (53.8%) were parsimony informative. Because of poor sequencing reads of some regions, three sequences are missing a portion (104–182 bp) of the 5 9 end of the ITS 1 spacer, eight sequences are missing a portion (92 bp) of the 5 9 end of the ITS 2 spacer, and 14 sequences are missing a portion (4–82 bp) of the 3 9 end of the ITS 2 spacer. The aligned psbB-psbH data matrix was 741 bp long with 270 variable sites (36.4%), of which 144 (19.4%) were parsimony informative. Because of poor sequencing reads of some regions, nine sequences are missing a portion (1–113 bp) of the 5 9 end of the psbB-psbH spacer region, and 21 sequences are missing a portion (1–121 bp) of the 3 9 end of the psbB-psbH spacer region. MP analysis of the ITS Salsoleae data set resulted in 1451 most parsimonious trees (length 1⁄4 3445 steps, consistency index 1⁄2 CI 1⁄4 0 : 303, retention index 1⁄2 RI 1⁄4 0 : 741, rescaled consistency index 1⁄2 RC 1⁄4 0 : 224). The ITS ML analysis resulted in a single tree ( À ln L 1⁄4 17800 : 03435, where L 1⁄4 likelihood). MP analysis of the psbB-psbH data set resulted in 11,122 most parsimonious trees (length 1⁄4 600 steps, CI 1⁄4 0 : 595, RI 1⁄4 0 : 766, RC 1⁄4 0 : 456). The psbB-psbH ML analysis resulted in two tied trees ( À ln L 1⁄4 4783 : 22431). Strict consensus trees of the MP individual data set analyses and the ML trees of individual data set analyses are available from the corresponding authors. MP analysis of the combined data set resulted in 231 most parsimonious trees (length 1⁄4 4067 steps, CI 1⁄4 0 : 343, RI 1⁄4 0 : 740, RC 1⁄4 0 : 254; fig. 1). The combined ML analysis resulted in a single tree ( À ln L 1⁄4 23216 : 90496; fig. 2). Analyses of individual data sets resulted in congruent esti- mates of relationships, with slight differences associated with unresolved branches and short branches with low bootstrap support, particularly in the psbB-psbH analysis. Combined analyses reflect the well-resolved portions of individual data set analyses, and all branches are better supported in the combined analysis than in either of the individual data set analyses (trees from individual analyses in TreeBase). Given our results that multiple alignments of individual data sets produced congruent topologies and that there were no well- supported conflicting branches, as well as the fact that the clades we found are generally supported by morphological characters, we do not consider the high levels of ITS variabil- ity or alignment issues to reduce the ability of our analyses to reconstruct robust phylogenetic hypotheses. MP and ML analyses of the combined data result in congruent inferences of relationships, with differences in resolution resulting in slightly different placement of some species (figs. 1, 2). These differences, however, are associated with branches with low bootstrap support in one or both analysis types. In all analyses, Salsola s.l. is clearly polyphyletic, with Salsola species present in seven to 13 lineages or different clades, depending on the resolution of the phylogenetic hypotheses (figs. 1, 2). Several other genera are not monophyletic as currently circumscribed, namely, Anabasis , Halanthium , Halimocnemis , Hammada , Gamanthus , and Climacoptera (figs. 1, 2). In some cases, this is due to the misclassification of one or a small number of species (e.g., Climacoptera brachiata ; figs. 1 B , 2 B ), whereas other cases, such as the polyphyly ...
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... Fig. 2 Maximum likelihood combined data analysis tree ( À ln L 1⁄4 23216 : 90496). A , Outgroups and clades of Camphorosmeae and Salsoleae s.s. tribes. B , Caroxyloneae tribe clade. Numbers above branches reflect maximum likelihood bootstrap numbers. Shaded boxes refer to species traditionally placed in the genus Salsola . Generic abbreviations follow those in fig. ...

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[Article in press]. Summary of the presentation [talk at the Academic Council of the Kholodny Institute of Botany, NAS of Ukraine, 28 Nov 2017, updated]. Taxonomic opinions on Australian taxa of Salsola sensu stricto (Chenopodiaceae) are analyzed in a historical context. It is concluded, based on available evidence, that the genus is probably repre...

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... While it is classified now as one of the Amaranthaceae genera after merging family Chenopodiaceae with the family Amaranthaceae according to the angiosperm phylogeny group (AGP-IV) 26,[28][29][30] . Plants belonging to the genus Salsola have the following taxonomic classification 27,[30][31][32] . Family: Amaranthaceae (previously, Chenopodiaceae) Subfamily: Salsoloideae Tribe: Salsoleae Genus: Salsola ...
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... Recent molecular studies greatly improved our knowledge of the generic circumscription of many members of the Chenopodiaceae clade, Amaranthaceae s. l. (e. g., Schütze et al., 2003;Akhani et al., 2007;Kadereit et al., 2010;Kadereit, Freitag, 2011;Fuentes-Bazan et al., 2012;Uotila et al., 2021). At the same time, some taxonomic revisions of Chenopodiaceae in Asia have been undertaken based on existing molecular data. ...
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Kalidium juniperinum Sukhor. et Lomon. is described as a species new to science. It is similar to K. folia-tum in having a short leaf blade but differs by the presence of numerous slender, prostrate, or ascending stems forming mats vs. the stout main upright stem; acuminate bracts slightly exceeding the flower cyme vs. obtuse bracts equal to the flower cyme; the exserted pericarp looking like a bulge on the one-seeded diaspore vs. not or slightly elevated top of the diaspore; shorter anthers; the geographic range in the highlands and mountainous steppe zone vs. Eurasian lowland (semi-)desert regions. K. juniperinum is recorded in Russia (West Siberia and Sayan Mountains), Eastern and Northern Kazakhstan, the Mongolian Altai, and NW China. The names K. foliatum α [var.] glomeratum Fenzl and Kalidium foliatum β [var.] brevifolium Fenzl are lectotypified and synonymized with K. juniperinum.
... Akhani et al. 2007). They are mainly succulent halophytes and xerophytes with diverse morphological, anatomical, and physiological traits (Pyankov et al. 2001;Voznesenskaya et al. 2002). ...
... They are mainly succulent halophytes and xerophytes with diverse morphological, anatomical, and physiological traits (Pyankov et al. 2001;Voznesenskaya et al. 2002). Based on phylogenetic relationships and unclear generic boundaries of Gamanthus Bunge, Halanthium K.Koch, Halotis Bunge, and Halimocnemis C.A.Mey., Akhani et al. (2007) considered recognition of all these genera within Halimocnemis s. l. which comprises 27 annual species primarily distributed in the central and eastern parts of the Irano-Turanian region, 8 of which occur in Iran (Assadi, 2001). ...
... 59°25′24.6′′E, Atashgahi & Jafari Polgerd 9732 (FUMH).Notes on distribution, habitats, and taxonomy:Halimocnemis commixta was spelled byAkhani et al. (2007) as a new combination of "H. commixtus". ...
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Halimocnemis commixta is recorded as a new species for the flora of Iran from Pistacia vera woodland remnants in NE Iran. It grows on open salty soils with several typical halophytic plants. The new species record is illustrated and compared with the closely related species. It can be distinguished from H. gamocarpa by its clustered flowers and irregularly horned fruits and differs from H. pilosa by its entirely short and adpressed hairs. We provide some additional notes on the distribution, ecology, and conservation status of the newly recorded species.
... Also both pollen grain identification and classification are very important for palynologists and systematists. Pollen morphology is not affected by environmental conditions, so it has been used as a reliable and important diagnostic key in taxonomic research.This species of halophytic plant bears salt as well as harsh climatic conditions [3,4]. It was noted that this plant could be used as livestock feed in the future, as it is a promising animal feed source in semi-arid regions as well as dry areas in various regions of the world [5]. ...
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... e genus Anabasis belongs to the family Amaranthaceae [2]. In fact, the Anabasis genus comprises approximately 29 species, which are distributed from southwest Europe and North Africa to the Red Sea coast (Ethiopia) and southwest and central Asia [3]. ...
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... From the taxonomic perspective, Salsola belongs to tribe Salsoleae of subfamily Salsoloideae in family Amaranthaceae [16]. It includes about 64 species (Table 1) but, due to the physical similarity between many species, this genus is generally regarded as exceedingly tough [17,18]. ...
... Constipation and indigestion are two of the most frequent ailments. Constipation affects up to 27% of the population, while indigestion affects [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29].2% of the population [85,113]. There is growing evidence that several compounds present in medicinal plants have the ability to treat gastrointestinal diseases such as indigestion and constipation in a synergistic manner [114,115]. ...
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... succulent and fruiting subshrub with extreme xerophyte and resistance to wind and cold (Akhani et al. 2007). Its populations are fragmentedly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang, as well as in southern Mongolia and Central Asia at elevations ranging from 1000 to 3000 m (Gao et al. 2009). ...
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... Nomenclature is mostly based on Flora Iranica (Rechinger, 1963). Recent generic names were applied for some groups such as Chenopodiaceae (Akhani et al., 2007;Akhani, 2015;Hernández-Ledesma et al., 2015;Rudov et al., 2020;Chatrenoor and Akhani, 2021). ...
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Salt marshes are unique habitats between sea or saline lakes and land that need to be conserved from the effects of global change. Understanding the variation in functional structure of plant community along environmental gradients is critical to predict the response of plant communities to ongoing environmental changes. We evaluated the changes in the functional structure of halophytic communities along soil gradients including salinity, in Iranian salt marshes; Lake Urmia, Lake Meyghan, Musa estuary, and Nayband Bay (Iran). We established 48 plots from 16 sites in four salt marshes and sampled 10 leaves per species to measure leaf functional traits. Five soil samples were sampled from each plot and 30 variables were analyzed. We examined the changes in the functional structure of plant communities (i.e., functional diversity [FD] and community weighted mean [CWM]) along local soil gradients using linear mixed effect models. Our results showed that FD and CWM of leaf thickness tended to increase with salinity, while those indices related to leaf shape decreased following soil potassium content. Our results suggest that the variations in functional structure of plant communities along local soil gradients reveal the effect of different ecological processes (e.g., niche differentiation related to the habitat heterogeneity) that drive the assembly of halophytic plant communities in SW Asian salt marshes.