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Maximum Likelihood phylogram of species of subg. Entoloma based on ITS, rooted to E. festivum, bootstrap values above or below branches, bar = estimated changes/nucleotide

Maximum Likelihood phylogram of species of subg. Entoloma based on ITS, rooted to E. festivum, bootstrap values above or below branches, bar = estimated changes/nucleotide

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Entoloma (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is a species-rich genus with approximately 2000 species known worldwide. In Cen- tral America, however, information about the species of this genus is sparse, despite the generally high biodiversity in this region. Recently, 124 specimens of Entoloma were collected in Panama, Chiriquí Province. In the present pu...

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... 9.5-10.3-11.0 × 6.5-7.0-7.5 µm, Q = 1.30-1.48-1.65 (n = 53 spores of 2 specimens), heterodiametrical, with 5-6 pronounced angles in outline, weakly pigmented yellowish pink, somewhat thick-walled. Basidia 30-38 (40) × 8.5-11.0 µm, clavate to subclavate, hyaline, Fig. 33 Basidiocarp and cellular structures as seen by SEM of Entoloma caeruleomarginatum (KaiR535, holotype): a view from below, depicting lamellae with serrulatum structure; b view from above c basidiospore, bar = 10 µm; d cheilocystidia, bar = 10 µm 4-spored, with up to 5. Habitat: Basidiocarps solitary to scattered in a small group in ...

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... × 6.5-7.5 µm) and pileipellis a trichoderm but E. arcanum differs by its nontranslucently striate and nonhygrophanous, large pileus (3.0-4.5 cm), adnate to slightly decurrent lamellae, fusiform cheilocystidia and larger end cells in its pileipellis (40-140 × 10.5-19.0 µm) and habitat in Alnus-and Quercus-dominated forests (Reschke et al. 2022). ...
... Entoloma kumraticus is related to E. melleosquamulosum Reschke, Manz & Noordel. (2022: 133) molecularly (Fig.1), but E. melleosquamulosum differs morphologically by its honey-colored pileus with scaly surface with distinct scales at disc, sinuate, segmentiform, and ventricose lamellae, pale yellow to white stipe, larger lageniform cheilocystidia (23-64 µm), cutis type stipitipellis (Reschke et al. 2022) and habitat in tropical submontane forest dominated by oreomunnea mexicana (Standl.) J.-F.Leroy and Quercus species. ...
Article
Cedar towering forests of Kumrat Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were visited on several occasions to collect mushrooms and this resulted in the discovery of two novel species of Entoloma. Entoloma kumraticus is characterized by bluish-brown, centrally depressed pileus, serrulate lamellar edge, bluish-violet fibrillose stipe, dense clusters of cheilocystidia, and presence of abundant grayish-brown intracellular pigments in the terminal cells of pileipellis, and cheilocystidia. Entoloma dirensis is characterized by brownish olive to dull violet, finely fibrillose striate pileus with a violet-blue margin, slightly twisted violet-blue stipe, and blackish-brown lamellar edge, with groups of cheilocystidia which are often septate. The new species are presented based on the morphological and molecular study. Entoloma kumraticus and E. dirensis formed distinct phylogenetic lineages based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS and LSU gene regions. A key to the Pakistani species in sect. Cyanula is also provided.
... Phylogenetically, E. arcanum seems to be another closely related species to E. kumraticus but morphologically E. arcanum differs from E. kumraticus due to its non-translucently striate and non hygrophanous pileus with large pileus diameter (3.0-4.5 cm), adnate to slightly decurrent lamellae, fusiform cheilocystidia and much larger end cells of pileipellis (40-140 × 10.5-19.0 µm) and was found under Alnusand Quercus-dominated forests (Reschke et al. 2022). ...
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Cedar towering forests of Kumrat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were visited to collect mushrooms during several fungal forays, which revealed two interesting and novel species from genus Entoloma, subgenus Cyanula , both are characterized by clamp-less hyphae and bluish-violaceous tinges on their pilei and stipes. Entoloma kumraticus is characterized by its bluish brown centrally depressed pileus, serrulate lamellar edge, bluish violet fibrillose stipe, dense clusters of cheilocystidia and presence of abundant greyish brown intracellular pigments in terminal cells of pileipellis and in few cheilocystidia. The key characters of Entoloma swatica are light brownish olive pileus with violet-blue finely fibrillose covering, translucently striated with radial stripes, blackish brown lamellar edge with clusters of cheilocystidia which are often septate and scaly, fibrillose slightly twisted violet blue stipe. Both new species are described and illustrated here, based on morphological and molecular evidence. E. kumraticus and E. swatica formed distinct phylogenetic lineages based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal ITS and LSU gene regions.
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Nolanea is a well-known and long-established subgenus of the genus Entoloma traditionally defined mainly by the mycenoid basidiocarps of the included species. Until now, revisions of this subgenus including molecular data exist only on a regional scale. In this study, the phylogeny of species of Nolanea is analysed based on multi-gene DNA sequences including data of specimens from all continents. New primers are designed for the mitochondrial small subunit and RPB2. The performance of the DNA loci in reconstructing the phylogeny in subg. Nolanea is evaluated. An ancestral state reconstruction is used to infer the character state evolution as well as the importance and reliability of morphological characters used to define subclades below subgeneric rank. Based on the results, seven sections are recognised in Nolanea: the sections Holoconiota, Infularia, Mammosa, Nolanea, Papillata, Staurospora, and the newly described sect. Elegantissima. A large phylogeny based on the fungal barcode rDNA ITS with numerous type sequences is used to evaluate current species concepts. Several names are revealed to be synonyms of older names. Four species new to science are described, namely E. altaicum, E. argillaceum, E. cornicolor, and E. incognitum. Lectotypes, epitypes or neotypes are designated for E. cetratum, E. clandestinum, E. conferendum, E. cuspidiferum, E. hebes, E. minutum, E. nitens, and E. rhodocylix. The re-evaluation of the limits of subg. Nolanea leads to an altered concept excluding species with distinct, lageniform cheilocystidia. The section Ameides is placed in subg. Leptonia. For several species formerly accommodated in Nolanea, but excluded now, viz., E. lepiotoides, E. rhombisporum, E. subelegans, and E. velenovskyi the taxonomic position remains unclear, because of the yet unresolved phylogeny of the whole genus Entoloma.