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Martian Organisms? Discovered in Gale Crater, Mars, by Joseph

Martian Organisms? Discovered in Gale Crater, Mars, by Joseph

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Life-bearing meteors, asteroids, comets and frozen bodies of water which had been ejected from Mars or other planets via bolide impact may have caused the Cambrian Explosion of life on Earth 540 million years ago. Reviewed in support of this theory are historical and worldwide reports of blood, gore, flesh and a variety of organisms raining from cl...

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Relacionadas con el geobioevento global del límite Cretácico-Paleógeno (K-Pg) se reconocen variados depósitos, clástico-caóticos y megaturbiditas (Unidad Clástica Compleja-UCC), originados a consecuencia del impacto de Chicxulub, Yucatán (México). En Cuba se realizan investigaciones sistemáticas sobre este lapso cronoestratigráfico por más de dos d...

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... by solar and galactic winds (Joseph & Duvall, 2021;Joseph et al. 2019Joseph et al. , 2020a;. It is well documented that fungi (as well as algae, lichens, seeds, fish eggs, and a host of bacteria) can survive long term exposure to space (Novikova et al. 2016;Orlov et al. 2017). ...
... As noted, it has been proposed that upper atmospheric fungi and fungus found on the outside of the ISS, may have originated in space (Grebennikova et al. 2018); i.e. from other planets, including Mars (Joseph et al. 2019(Joseph et al. , 2020aJoseph & Duvall 2021). Fossilized fungi have been observed in meteorites and in rock samples dated to 3.7 bya (Pflug 1978(Pflug , 1984. ...
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Fungal reproductive behavior, the growth of hyphae and mycelium, and the production of spores, on Earth and Mars, are reviewed. Spherical specimens that nearly 70 experts have identified as fungal "puffballs" ("basidiomycota") have been photographed in the equatorial regions of Mars, within Meridiani Planum in particular. Over two dozen "puffballs" have been photographed emerging from beneath the ground and increasing in size. Networks of what appear to be fungal hyphae and mycelium, structural morphological changes associated with sporing, substances resembling clumps and carpets of white spores adjacent to these spherical "puffballs" and what may be embryonic fungi within these clumps of spores, have been observed. Although the authors have not proven that fungi are sporing on the Red Planet, the evidence coupled with comparative morphology supports the hypothesis that fungi are growing, generating spores, and reproducing on Mars.
... In the book "Astrobiology..." (Joseph 2000), the possibility was raised that the Cambrian Explosion was due to the interplanetary transfer of life; i.e. complex life forms, or their immediate ancestors--along with extraterrestrial bacteria and viruses--were deposited on Earth embedded in comets and asteroids that originated on Mars or other planets (Joseph 2000;Joseph & Duvall, 2021). In support of this theory, is evidence of fossilized metazoans on Mars (Armstrong 2021a;Joseph 2020bJoseph , 2021aSuamanarathna et al. 2021) and evidence that 800 million years ago, Earth (and presumably Mars) were struck by an armada of meteorites, which may have transferred innumerable viruses and other organisms to Earth (Joseph et al. 2020a, Joseph & Duvall, 2021. ...
... In the book "Astrobiology..." (Joseph 2000), the possibility was raised that the Cambrian Explosion was due to the interplanetary transfer of life; i.e. complex life forms, or their immediate ancestors--along with extraterrestrial bacteria and viruses--were deposited on Earth embedded in comets and asteroids that originated on Mars or other planets (Joseph 2000;Joseph & Duvall, 2021). In support of this theory, is evidence of fossilized metazoans on Mars (Armstrong 2021a;Joseph 2020bJoseph , 2021aSuamanarathna et al. 2021) and evidence that 800 million years ago, Earth (and presumably Mars) were struck by an armada of meteorites, which may have transferred innumerable viruses and other organisms to Earth (Joseph et al. 2020a, Joseph & Duvall, 2021. Even if Martian organisms were not transferred to Earth, the fact that specimens on Mars that resemble stromatolites, algae, fungus, lichens, and metazoan invertebrates are nearly identical to those of Earth (Joseph et al. 2020a,b;Joseph et al. 2021a,c;Armstrong 2021a,b;Elewa 2021Latif et al. 2021Bianciardi 2022); and that based on sequential photos fungi appear to be emerging from the soil, growing larger or smaller or moving to new locations (Joseph et al. 2021b), should be viewed as evidence that similar species evolved, possibly independently, on two worlds; and that the same viral genetic seeds fell upon both planets: repeated viral invasions that led to the metamorphosis of similar forms of life independently and in parallel on two different worlds. ...
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Astrovirology is the study of beneficial vs harmful viruses that originated from comets, meteors, solar winds, and ejecta from other planets, or which mutated when lofted by winds into the upper atmosphere. That these upper atmospheric and putative extraterrestrial viruses have contributed to the evolution of the biosphere and life on Earth, and caused disease and plague, is discussed, and the role of astro-viruses and endogenous retroviruses in the evolution of life and biosphere is reviewed. Evolution leading to the Cambrian Explosion and continuing to humans is characterized by repeated viral invasions and insertion of retroviral genes into host species' genomes. "Evolution" parallels the genetic-biological engineering of the environment (e.g. oxygen production), which activates inherited retroviral genes. Viral plagues are associated with comets, and have caused extinctions that served to promote evolution and eradicate those not "fit." Given evidence of life on Mars and association of plague with comets, extraterrestrial viruses may be commonplace. Extraterrestrial viruses may have acquired genes via interplanetary horizontal gene transfer which in turn have been transferred to the genomes of eukaryotes on Earth. "Evolution" may be the metamorphosis and replication of life and biospheres that evolved on other planets.
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Mars has been subject to repeated waxing and waning episodes of extreme chaotic obliquity (axial tilting) for at least four billion years. Obliquity is currently at 25.19 degrees and has exceeded 80◦. Each time obliquity exceeds 40◦ Martian atmospheric pressures and global temperatures increase causing the melting of glaciers and permafrost and subsurface ice, and resulting in oceans, lakes and rivers of water flooding across the surface then stabilizing and enduring for hundreds of thousands of years or longer. There is evidence that within these seas evolved stromatolite constructing cyanobacteria, green algae, acritarchs, foraminifera, seaweed, and marine metazoan invertebrates including sponges, tube worms, crustaceans, reef-building corals, bivalves, and those resembling Kimberella, Namacalathus and Lophophorates; almost all of which (with the exception of algae, fungi and lichens) may have become extinct. The last episode of extreme obliquity may have begun over a million years in the past and endured until 110,000 years ago. Subsequently, as axial tilting declined, the waters of Mars seeped back beneath the surface forming vast aquifers and glacial deposits of water-ice and the remainder froze at the poles and atop dusty layers of icy-sediment: the remnants of previous obliquity-driven freeze-thaw cycles that may have caused life to evolve and oceans and lakes to repeatedly form, stabilize, endure then freeze.