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Map showing spring migratory route of Russian breeding barnacle geese with distances between staging sites and observation points. Dark grey shaded areas indicate wintering/staging grounds in the Wadden Sea and Baltic, and breeding grounds in Russia.

Map showing spring migratory route of Russian breeding barnacle geese with distances between staging sites and observation points. Dark grey shaded areas indicate wintering/staging grounds in the Wadden Sea and Baltic, and breeding grounds in Russia.

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1. Since the early 1990s, an increasing proportion of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, bound for breeding sites in the Russian Arctic delay their departure from the wintering quarters in the Wadden Sea by 4 weeks. These late-migrating geese skip spring stopover sites in the Baltic traditionally used by the entire population. 2. Individual geese fr...

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... birds (Black et al . 2007). After pre-migratory fattening in the Wadden Sea, the geese migrate via stopovers in the Baltic, most notably in western Estonia and on the Swedish Island of Gotland (Ebbinge, Van Biezen & Van der Voet 1991; Leito, Renno & Kuresoo 1991), and stopovers in the White Sea to their breeding grounds on the Barents Sea coast (Fig. 1). Traditional breeding areas of this population were restricted mainly to the islands of Novaya Zemlya and Vaygach in the eastern Barents Sea. Through expansion since the 1980s, arctic breeding occurs now down to the eastern White Sea coast 650 km westwards ( Ganter et al . 1999). Barnacle geese feed predominantly on coastal salt ...
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... by-passed or not and whether the Dvina River or Kanin Peninsula is chosen as next fuelling site. The costs of by-passing the Baltic are expressed as additional fuel load and as percentage extra fuel needed relative to not by-passing the Baltic assuming that the geese leave for their next target site as soon as fuel loads permit to fly there. See Fig. 1 schedules and fitness of arctic geese have been demonstrated by Bauer et al. (2008b) for the pink-footed goose. This species has discovered a new staging site in mid-Norway and increas- ingly use it in response to a warming climate (Fox et al. 2005). Furthermore, Pistorius, Follestad & Taylor (2006) suggested that increasingly warmer ...
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... by the inaccessibility of sites further north along the route (which are still snow bound at that time), the geese con- centrate on pre-migratory sites. It is important to note that most of the Wadden Sea sites where barnacle geese now- adays concentrate in spring have only come in use since the early 1990s, for example the Dollard estuary (Fig. 1) at the Dutch-German border (Aerts, Esselink & Helder 1996). In other words, the new delayed strategy involves exploitation of new spring staging resources in the Wadden Sea as well as a change in ...

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... Although greater white-fronted goose advanced their departure from some wintering grounds in western Europe (Fox et al., 2012;Gunnarsson & Tómasson, 2011), barnacle goose were found to delay their departure from the Wadden Sea Region by almost 4 weeks (Eichhorn et al., 2009). By this delayed departure, the impact of geese on grassland persists over a longer period, and earlygrowing crops become more vulnerable to foraging geese as well (Fox et al., 2016). ...
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... While we do not have data to explore whether the onset or rate of premigratory fueling has been subject to change in recent years, no advances in migration departure have been observed for barnacle geese (Tombre et al. 2008;Eichhorn et al. 2009;. Optimal conditions for reproduction in the Arctic breeding grounds are generally advancing Fjelldal et al. 2020), but large annual stochasticity in the onset of spring (Box et al. 2019;Lameris et al. 2019), as well as contrasting effects of earlier springs on early and late stages of reproduction , may not yet drive geese to advance their migratory departure from the wintering grounds. ...
... Optimal conditions for reproduction in the Arctic breeding grounds are generally advancing Fjelldal et al. 2020), but large annual stochasticity in the onset of spring (Box et al. 2019;Lameris et al. 2019), as well as contrasting effects of earlier springs on early and late stages of reproduction , may not yet drive geese to advance their migratory departure from the wintering grounds. Nevertheless, in contrast to barnacle geese, which currently use few temperate staging sites and almost make a "jump" migration to the Arctic coast (Eichhorn et al. 2009), larger species that use a chain of temperate and Arctic stopover sites have in recent decades advanced their migration departure (Nuijten et al. 2020). Possibly, the inability of birds such as barnacle geese to predict conditions on distant staging sites hampers adjustments in the timing of energy deposition and migratory departure (Kölzsch et al. 2015). ...
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