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Map showing rare earth mineral occurrences in Sierra Leone.

Map showing rare earth mineral occurrences in Sierra Leone.

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... field-work located more monazite in heavy mineral concentrates from drainage systems in the north, east and south of the country rising in the Sula Mountains-Kangari Hills, and the Nimini, Gori, Kambui, and Imperi-Gbangbama Hill ranges shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1. Monazite frequently co-occurred with zircon, ilmenite, rutile, garnet, gold, diamonds, columbite-tantalite and sphene (Andrew-Jones, 1966;Holman, 1956;James, 1965;Mackenzie, 1963;Marmo, 1962;Mather, 1962;SL Govt., 1930, 1939Wilson and Marmo, 1958;Wilson, 1965). Monazite also occurred in alluvial and lateritic deposits, ...
Context 2
... Britain's AED played an important role in providing assistance for exploration in Sierra Leone's territory with specialists and new methods of analysis to enhance existing efforts. The division loaned four Panax type TR 56 ratemeters, state-of-the-art equipment to detect radioactivity on extended free loan to the SLGS (SL Govt., 1959b). Further, Dr. K. C. Burkes of the division flew to Sierra Leone to supervise an airborne magnetometer and scintillometer survey over the complex carried out by Canadian Aero Service Limited in 1959 (SL Govt., 1960). ...
Context 3
... formed an association with Columbia-Southern Chemical Corporation (CSCC) of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1958, the latter sold its interest to Pittsburg Plate Glass (PPG) Company Ltd. (UNESC-ECA, 1968b). By mid-1958, 300 tons of ore from the lease area had been shipped to the United States for pilot plant tests . ...
Context 4
... example: "the Company may request and shall be granted…. [or] shall be entitled to the grant of a Mining Lease… (UNECA, 1969, 9, 11). These clauses persist in later versions of the agreement (SL Govt., 2003). ...
Context 5
... field-work located more monazite in heavy mineral con- centrates from drainage systems in the north, east and south of the country rising in the Sula Mountains-Kangari Hills, and the Nimini, Gori, Kambui, and Imperi-Gbangbama Hill ranges shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1. Monazite frequently co-occurred with zircon, ilmenite, rutile, garnet, gold, diamonds, columbite-tantalite and sphene (Andrew-Jones, 1966;Holman, 1956;James, 1965;Mackenzie, 1963;Marmo, 1962;Mather, 1962;SL Govt., 1930, 1939Wilson and Marmo, 1958;Wilson, 1965). Monazite also occurred in alluvial and lateritic deposits, de- ...
Context 6
... Britain's AED played an important role in providing assistance for exploration in Sierra Leone's territory with specialists and new methods of analysis to enhance existing efforts. The division loaned four Panax type TR 56 ratemeters, state-of-the-art equipment to detect radioactivity on extended free loan to the SLGS (SL Govt., 1959b). Further, Dr. K. C. Burkes of the division flew to Sierra Leone to super- vise an airborne magnetometer and scintillometer survey over the complex carried out by Canadian Aero Service Limited in 1959 (SL Govt., 1960). ...
Context 7
... formed an association with Co- lumbia-Southern Chemical Corporation (CSCC) of Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- vania. In 1958, the latter sold its interest to Pittsburg Plate Glass (PPG) Company Ltd. (UNESC-ECA, 1968b). By mid-1958, 300 tons of ore from the lease area had been shipped to the United States for pilot plant tests . ...
Context 8
... example: "the Company may request and shall be granted…. [or] shall be entitled to the grant of a Mining Lease… (UNECA, 1969, 9, 11). These clauses persist in later versions of the agreement (SL Govt., 2003). ...

Citations

... Thus, they were not regulated in terms of environmental quality and human health (Gwenzi et al., 2018) and received little attention regarding their possible toxic effects . In Brazil, soil and water guideline values established by the National Council for the Environment (CONAMA, 2009) do not include REEs, which remain unregulated by public agencies in the country, even with the proven risks from high concentrations of these elements in the environment (Akiwumi and D'Angelo, 2018;Gwenzi et al., 2018;Tyler, 2004). ...
... The ecological risks of REEs include reduced nutrient uptake, root growth, photosynthesis and flowering of plants, changes in biogeochemical cycling and macrofauna diversity, in addition to the radioactive potential (Akiwumi and D'Angelo, 2018;Gwenzi et al., 2018;Li et al., 2010;Tyler, 2004). In the present study, despite the contamination and enrichment by REEs, the results (RF and RI) indicate that these elements are not currently causing risks to the biota from their total concentrations (Ngole-Jeme and Fantke, 2017; Pereira et al., 2020). ...
Article
Artisanal gold (Au) mining may have increased the concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in the Serra Pelada mine (southeastern Amazon, Brazil), which has not been evaluated so far. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentrations of cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La), scandium (Sc), and yttrium (Y) in the surroundings of the Serra Pelada mine, as well as the environmental risks associated with these elements. Therefore, 27 samples were collected in agricultural, forest, mining, and urban areas, and submitted to chemical and particle size characterization. The concentrations of REEs were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and used to estimate pollution indices and environmental risks of the studied elements. All REEs had higher levels in the anthropized areas when compared to the forest area, except Sc in the mining and urban areas. Pollution load indices revealed that all areas are contaminated (>1) by the combined effect of REEs, especially the agricultural areas (index of 2.3). The element of greatest enrichment in the studied areas was Y, with enrichment factors of 18.2, 39.0, and 44.4 in the urban, agriculture, and mining areas, respectively. However, the potential ecological risk indices were low (<150) in all areas, indicating that there are no current environmental risks by the studied REEs.
... As in previous cases, the metal detector was a recent innovation when Calkins carried out her fieldwork between 2009 and 2010. Here, the basic issue is a little bit different: understanding how mining technology contributes to resource-making (see also Akiwumi and D'Angelo 2018;de Rijke 2018;Kama 2020). More precisely, Calkins examines how the metal detector used by Sudanese miners contributes to the emergence of a specific local mineralogical category, the so-called "clean gold", which is a type of gold recoverable in the most superficial layers of soil and which has a high degree of purity. ...
... A reduction in macrofaunal diversity was observed in insect groups such as Carabidae and Dermaptera, but other orders and species such as Formicidae and Stibaropus formosanus, respectively, appeared tolerant (Li et al., 2010). REEs may also pose ecological risks through radioactivity potential (Akiwumi and d'Angelo, 2017). ...
Chapter
Anthropogenic rare earth elements widely used in high-technology applications are prevalent in the aquatic environment, thus constituting emerging contaminants. Yet reviews on the anthropogenic sources, behavior, and potential health risks of rare earth elements remain limited. The current chapter seeks to (1) highlight anthropogenic sources, behavior, and human intake pathways of rare earth elements, (2) discuss the human and ecological health and exposure risks of rare earth elements, (3) present a conceptual outline for assessing and mitigating health risks, and (4) identify the key thematic areas for further research.
Article
“Mining (in) Capitalism” considers struggles over large-scale mining projects amid the multi-scalar politics of capitalism, bringing together articles analysing the articulation of national sovereignty over resources, protests over land, jobs and development projects, and individual and collective projects of life-making. This introductory article provides conceptual context, situating the collection within a discussion of what Nancy Fraser (2014) terms an “expanded conception” of capitalism, one that pays attention to multiple hidden abodes of “non-economic” processes and recognizes long-lasting legacies of variegated histories of extraction. The article begins by reviewing shifts in transnationally promoted blueprints for governing mineral extraction. It traces how, while mining projects power capitalism, they undermine its conditions of possibility, provoking struggles and requiring work to maintain extraction. Secondly, it calls for a contextualization of extractivist geographies of frontiers and enclaves that pays attention to older and intersecting projects of confiscation, domination, exploitation and neglect. Thirdly, it argues that such contextualization opens avenues for understanding diverse life projects and lived contradictions in the shadow of extraction. Contextualizing extraction within an expanded conception of capitalism helps illuminate the planetary politics that drive extraction while emphasizing place-specific trajectories of corporate power, distributive projects, protest and accommodation.
Chapter
Recent developments in high technology have witnessed a rapid increase in the mining and industrial production of rare earth elements (REEs) and their subsequent applications in high-technology products. The 17 REEs are made up of 15 lanthanides and 2 other elements (yttrium and scandium) with similar physicochemical properties. Anthropogenic REEs have been detected in environmental systems including soils, aquatic systems, atmosphere, and biota, and were recently classified as emerging contaminants. Earlier reviews on REEs have been dominated by studies on their environmental occurrence, behaviour, and fate. Until now, the environmental and ecological health risks of REEs have only received a cursory research attention. Therefore, the present chapter presents a comprehensive review of the environmental and ecological health risks of REEs in environmental systems. To achieve this, the eco-hierarchical or ecosystem cascade framework is applied to assess evidence on the levels or hierarchies of biological organization that have been well-studied and those that have received limited research attention. First, the evidence on the ecological impacts of REEs on terrestrial and laboratory animals is discussed. Second, the biouptake, bioaccumulation, and ecological impacts in soil organisms and terrestrial plants and crops are discussed. In addition, biouptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, including fish, crustaceans, and plants are presented. In summary, evidence on ecological health risks of REEs is dominated by studies on aquatic organisms whilst those on soil ecology and physicochemical and (micro)biological properties are still limited. Finally, future research directions, including key knowledge gaps, and the reasons accounting for the under-representation of low-income countries in the global literature on ecological impacts of REEs are discussed.