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Map of the study area: the Al Wathba Wetland Reserve in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.).

Map of the study area: the Al Wathba Wetland Reserve in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.).

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The taxonomic identity of an unknown Artemia population inhabiting the Al Wathba Wetland Reserve in Abu Dhabi, U.A.E., was determined using phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial marker Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 ( COI ). The results showed that the examined population belongs to an exotic invasive species, Artemia franciscana . Based on the...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) (24°15 15.59 N 54°36 38.57 E) is located at 40 km east of Abu Dhabi, has a 4.9 km 2 average surface area, with approximately 1.5 km in length and 0.5 km in width, and has a maximum depth of 2 m ( Brook et al., 2004;Al Dhaheri & Saji, 2013) (fig. ...
Context 2
... Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) (24°15 15.59 N 54°36 38.57 E) is located at 40 km east of Abu Dhabi, has a 4.9 km 2 average surface area, with approximately 1.5 km in length and 0.5 km in width, and has a maximum depth of 2 m ( Brook et al., 2004;Al Dhaheri & Saji, 2013) (fig. ...

Citations

... However, human commercial interests have also come along with disturbances in brine shrimp species distribution, even compromising the survival of some. The large demand of Artemia for fish farming triggered the introduction and invasion of the North American cultivated species Artemia monica Verrill, 1869 (= A. franciscana Kellogg, 1906) into coastal salterns all over the world (Triantaphyllidis et al. 1994;Amat et al. 2007;Mura et al. 2006;Ruebhart et al. 2008;Scalone and Rabet 2013;Saji et al. 2019). This species is displacing the Mediterranean native species Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Oscoz et al. 2010;Horváth et al. 2018) possibly due to its high adaptive potential and physiological plasticity that enhance its invasion range capacity (Dlugosch and Parker 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Brine shrimps ( Artemia ) have undergone geographic range and demographic expansions as a result of their interaction with humans since the beginning of salt harvesting. This interaction has favoured the expansion of some species but compromising the survival of others. Mediterranean native populations of Artemia salina from coastal salterns and lagoons are facing the presence and expansion of the introduced and invasive American species Artemia monica (= A . franciscana ). However, this species could not be the only threat. Parthenogenetic populations of the Asian species A . urmiana and A . sinica are widespread along the Mediterranean and other areas of the world. In this work, with the use of large cox1 and mitogenomic datasets, phylogenetic and phylogeographic inferences, and a time calibrated tree, we confirmed the Asian origin and recent arrival of the current Western Mediterranean parthenogenetic populations of Artemia . In addition, the replacement of Iberian populations of A . salina by Asiatic parthenogenetic populations lead us to recognize parthenogens as invasive. Current salterns development and commercial importance of Artemia make human-mediated introduction probable. These results demonstrate again the impact that changing human interests have on population expansion or decline of species adapted to anthropogenic habitats. Artemia salina decline makes urgent the implementation of conservation measures such as its use in fish farming and salt production or its inoculation in inland salterns.
... Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 is native to the Americas, but was widely introduced across Eurasia and threatens and/or outcompetes native Artemia populations (Amat et al., 2007;Mura et al., 2006;Muñoz et al., 2008). Records from the Arabian Peninsula include unidentified Artemia populations from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (Triantaphyllidis et al., 1998;Thiéry, 1996) and A. franciscana was recorded from the United Arab Emirates (Saji et al., 2019). Native or invasive forms could easily show up in appropriate saline habitat in Qatar. ...
... The mitochondrial markers, COX1 and 16S, have been successfully used in phylogeny of branchiopods [60][61][62][63][64][65]. To date only COX1 has been utilized for phylogenetic studies on Artemia, nevertheless mitogenomic results demonstrated significant difference in the nucleotide composition of ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the previously published mitochondrial genome sequence of Artemia urmiana (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), the taxonomic status of the examined Artemia had not been determined, due to partheno�genetic populations coexisting with A. urmiana in Urmia Lake. Additionally, NC_021382 [JQ975176] has been obtained with pooled cysts of Artemia (0.25 g cysts consists of 20,000–25,000 cysts), not a single specimen. With regard to coexisting populations in Urmia Lake, and intra- and inter-specific variations in the pooled samples, NC_021382 [JQ975176] cannot be recommended as a valid se�quence and any attempt to attribute it to A. urmiana or a parthenogenetic population is unreasonable. With the aid of next-generation sequencing methods, we characterized and assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of A. urmiana with defined taxonomic status. Our results reveal that in the previously published mitogenome (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), tRNA-Phe has been erroneously attributed to the heavy strand but it is encoded in the light strand. There was a major problem in the position of the ND5. It was extended over the tRNA-Phe, which is biologically incorrect. We have also identified a partial nucleotide sequence of 311 bp that was probably erroneously duplicated in the assembly of the control region of NC_021382 [JQ975176], which enlarges the control region length by 16%. This partial sequence could not be recognized in our assembled mitogenome as well as in 48 further examined specimens of A. urmiana. Although, only COX1 and 16S genes have been widely used for phylogenetic studies in Artemia, our findings reveal substantial differences in the nucleotide composition of some other genes (including ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3) among Artemia species. It is suggested that these markers should be included in future phylogenetic studies.
... Unintentional escapes caused by normal use in hatcheries and/or transmission by migratory waterfowl should be considered as a secondary factor in the distribution of A. franciscana in new habitats. At present, A. franciscana has been colonized in numerous regions across Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean (Amat et al., 2005;Mura et al., 2006;Van Stappen, 2008;Muñoz, 2009;Ben Naceur et al., 2010, Eimanifar et al., 2014Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Horvath et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019;Eimanifar et al., 2020) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018). ...
... Two Artemia sites have been reported in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Aspinall and Hellyer, 1999;Sivakumar et al., 2018). Saji et al. (2019) have documented the invasive A. franciscana in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR). Evidence that Artemia has been introduced intentionally into these localities for commercial activity is lacking (Saji et al., 2019). ...
... Saji et al. (2019) have documented the invasive A. franciscana in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR). Evidence that Artemia has been introduced intentionally into these localities for commercial activity is lacking (Saji et al., 2019). In 1998, before the introduction of the greater flamingos in Godolphin Lakes (GL), cysts of Artemia were distributed in those water bodies (Sivakumar et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized as non-indigenous population in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. We evaluated the effects of the colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in new environments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used the COI marker to determine the genetic structure and origins of exotic populations in the UAE. Results confirmed the colonization of A. franciscana in two localities. Invasive populations of A. franciscana had significantly lower genetic variation than native populations in the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results showed that the studied populations could not have colonized directly from natural American habitats, and they possibly were from secondary introduction events of other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis yielded different demographic patterns for the studied invasive populations. The population in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) demonstrated demographic expansion, whereas in Godolphin Lakes (GL), it reached a demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests showed an excess of recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia in the new environment. The results suggest that different ecological conditions in new environments can exert selective pressures during the introduction of an exotic population, which can affect genetic variation.
... The mitochondrial markers, COX1 and 16S, have been successfully used in phylogeny of branchiopods [60][61][62][63][64][65]. To date only COX1 has been utilized for phylogenetic studies on Artemia, nevertheless mitogenomic results demonstrated significant difference in the nucleotide composition of ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the previously published mitochondrial genome sequence of Artemia urmiana (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), the taxonomic status of the examined Artemia had not been determined, due to parthenogenetic populations coexisting with A. urmiana in Urmia Lake. Additionally, NC_021382 [JQ975176] has been obtained with pooled cysts of Artemia (0.25 g cysts consists of 20,000–25,000 cysts), not a single specimen. With regard to coexisting populations in Urmia Lake, and intra- and inter-specific variations in the pooled samples, NC_021382 [JQ975176] cannot be recommended as a valid sequence and any attempt to attribute it to A. urmiana or a parthenogenetic population is unreasonable. With the aid of next-generation sequencing methods, we characterized and assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of A. urmiana with defined taxonomic status. Our results reveal that in the previously published mitogenome (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), tRNA-Phe has been erroneously attributed to the heavy strand but it is encoded in the light strand. There was a major problem in the position of the ND5. It was extended over the tRNA-Phe, which is biologically incorrect. We have also identified a partial nucleotide sequence of 311 bp that was probably erroneously duplicated in the assembly of the control region of NC_021382 [JQ975176], which enlarges the control region length by 16%. This partial sequence could not be recognized in our assembled mitogenome as well as in 48 further examined specimens of A. urmiana. Although, only COX1 and 16S genes have been widely used for phylogenetic studies in Artemia, our findings reveal substantial differences in the nucleotide composition of some other genes (including ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3) among Artemia species. It is suggested that these markers should be included in future phylogenetic studies.
... Unintentional escapes caused by normal use in hatcheries and/or transmission by migratory waterfowl should be considered as a secondary factor in the distribution of A. franciscana in new habitats. At present, A. franciscana has been colonized in numerous regions across Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean (Amat et al., 2005;Mura et al., 2006;Van Stappen, 2008;Muñoz, 2009;Ben Naceur et al., 2010, Eimanifar et al., 2014Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Horvath et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019;Eimanifar et al., 2020) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018). ...
... Two Artemia sites have been reported in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (Aspinall and Hellyer, 1999;Sivakumar et al., 2018). Saji et al. (2019) have documented the invasive A. franciscana in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR). Evidence that Artemia has been introduced intentionally into these localities for commercial activity is lacking (Saji et al., 2019). ...
... Saji et al. (2019) have documented the invasive A. franciscana in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR). Evidence that Artemia has been introduced intentionally into these localities for commercial activity is lacking (Saji et al., 2019). In 1998, before the introduction of the greater flamingos in Godolphin Lakes (GL), cysts of Artemia were distributed in those water bodies (Sivakumar et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized as non-indigenous population in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. We evaluated the effects of the colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in new environments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used the COI marker to determine the genetic structure and origins of exotic populations in the UAE. Results confirmed the colonization of A. franciscana in two localities. Invasive populations of A. franciscana had significantly lower genetic variation than native populations in the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results showed that the studied populations could not have colonized directly from natural American habitats, and they possibly were from secondary introduction events of other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis yielded different demographic patterns for the studied invasive populations. The population in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) demonstrated demographic expansion, whereas in Godolphin Lakes (GL), it reached a demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests showed an excess of recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia in the new environment. The results suggest that different ecological conditions in new environments can exert selective pressures during the introduction of an exotic population, which can affect genetic variation.
... In Europe, A. franciscana was first detected in Portugal in the 1980s (Hontoria et al., 1987) and a decade later in France (Thiéry and Robert, 1992). Since then, it has progressively invaded most hypersaline ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin, including those of Spain and Italy (Amat et al., 2005(Amat et al., , 2007Horváth et al., 2018), North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia) (Amat et al., 2005(Amat et al., , 2007Naceur et al., 2010), and has reached the Middle East (Iran, Egypt, Arab Emirates) (Hajirostamloo and Pourrabbi, 2011;Sheir et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019). It is also present in Australia, Brazil, India, China and Kenya (Ruebhart et al., 2008;Camara, 2001;Zheng et al., 2004;Krishnakumar and Munuswamy, 2014;Ogello et al., 2014). ...
Article
In recent decades, brine shrimps of the genus Artemia has suffered a major biodiversity loss in the Mediterranean region due to the introduction of the highly invasive A. franciscana. Pollution has been proposed as an important factor limiting this global invasion. Contrary to the general acceptation that pollution tends to favour invasive species, it has been postulated that local adaptation of native Artemia to pollution may prevent or delay colonization by the exotic species. To provide insight into this “pollution resistance hypothesis”, we investigated the individual effect of acute toxicity of mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) on the survival of six different native and invasive Artemia populations from the Iberian Peninsula collected from areas with different levels of Hg- and Zn-pollution. The Hg and Zn 24 h-LC50 values for Artemia nauplii of the different populations varied between 20 and 70 mg Hg L⁻¹, and between 350 and 450 mg Zn L⁻¹, respectively. Native Artemia from Cabo de Gata (SW Spain) showed significantly higher survival at high Hg concentrations than other populations, which may be explained by the longer history of Hg-pollution in that area from mining activities, compared to the other sites. In contrast, differences between populations in response to high Zn levels were weak, and inconsistent with the environmental differences in Zn concentrations. Discussion of the results of this work was done in relation to the “pollution resistance hypothesis” and conclude that Hg pollution may limit the invasion by A. franciscana in some study sites for an uncertain length of time.
... Two Artemia sites have been reported from the United Arab Emirates 22,23 . Saji et al. 20 have documented invasive A. franciscana in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve. There is no evidence that Artemia had been introduced intentionally into these localities for commercial activity, but it has prepared a suitable habitat for the greater flamingos and other native shore birds 20 . ...
... Saji et al. 20 have documented invasive A. franciscana in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve. There is no evidence that Artemia had been introduced intentionally into these localities for commercial activity, but it has prepared a suitable habitat for the greater flamingos and other native shore birds 20 . In 1998, before introduction of the greater flamingos in Godolphin Lakes, cysts of Artemia were distributed in the water body 23 . ...
... Our results have also documented the colonization of same species in Godolphin Lakes locality.The San Francisco Bay (SFB) and Great Salt Lake (GSL) are the two main sources of Artemia that have usually been used to culture in other saline ecosystems for industrial aquaculture and fishery activates to produce Artemia cysts and biomass13,20,21,34 , for this reason these populations were considered in this analysis to find out the genetic alterations of the colonized populations in new non-native environments.Mitochondrial DNA represented some exceptional characteristics consisting rapid evolutionary rates, maternal origin, and lack of recombination35,36 . Then mitochondrial markers are important for apprehension the tracing and explanation the source of non-indigenous species in new habitats 20,21,37-40 . ...
Preprint
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized non-indigenous populations in Eurasia, Mediterranean regions and Australia. In present we sought to evaluate the potential effects of colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in the new environments in UAE. We used the COI marker to determine population genetic structure and identify the origins of exotic populations in UAE. Our findings have confirmed the colonization of both localities by A. franciscana. Genetic variation of invasive A. franciscana were exclusively lower than native population in Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results have showed the studied population could not possibly have colonized directly from natural American localities, perhaps resulting from secondary introduction events from other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis have yielded different demographic patterns for invasive studied populations. Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) population have represented demographic expansion. In contrast, Godolphin Lakes (GL) population was at demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests have documented the excess of both recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia throughout establishment in the new environment.
... Generally, the long-distance translocations of the American species Artemia franciscana to other non-indigenous regions have occurred as a result of commercial activities, which have been fully documented previously [2,[15][16][17][18]. Artemia franciscana is a successful invader in saltwater ecosystems due to its faster filter-feeding rate, a high potential of reproduction [15,19], and a better physiological immune system, which is associated with nutritional behavior against cestode parasites [15] than the native species. ...
... Previous studies on A. franciscana have documented that invasive populations demonstrated genetic variations relative to the native American source populations [2,17,18,[22][23][24]. The low genetic diversity in the non-indigenous populations has been attributed to the founder effect [22] or population bottleneck due to the decreasing of population size in introduced populations during the process of establishment [17]. ...
... A partial sequence of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was utilized to identify the taxonomical status of the studied populations using phylogenetic analyses as implemented in the MEGA X program (Temple University, Philadelphia, USA) [2,17,18]. To identify the taxonomical status of the studied populations, the COI reference sequences from the recognized bisexual species and parthenogenetic populations were downloaded from GenBank (Table 2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the rapid developments in the aquaculture industry, Artemia franciscana, originally an American species, has been introduced to Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In the present study, we used a partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (mt-DNA COI) gene and genomic fingerprinting by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Artemia populations (indigenous and introduced) from 14 different geographical locations in Western Asia. Based on the haplotype spanning network, Artemia urmiana has exhibited higher genetic variation than native parthenogenetic populations. Although A. urmiana represented a completely private haplotype distribution, no apparent genetic structure was recognized among the native parthenogenetic and invasive A. franciscana populations. Our ISSR findings have documented that despite that invasive populations have lower variation than the source population in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), they have significantly revealed higher genetic variability compared to the native populations in Western Asia. According to the ISSR results, the native populations were not fully differentiated by the PCoA analysis, but the exotic A. franciscana populations were geographically divided into four genetic groups. We believe that during the colonization, invasive populations have experienced substantial genetic divergences, under new ecological conditions in the non-indigenous regions.
... Brine shrimp Artemia franciscana ( Saji et al. 2019): Brine shrimp have the following three main life cycle stages -cysts, juvenile and adult. Cysts are usually found during the hot summer months (May -October) when water levels are low. ...
Article
Wetlands play an important role in ecosystem function, and are known to support rich biodiversity, this becomes even more pronounced in hyper-arid climates. The Al Wathba Wetland Reserve in Abu Dhabi Emirate is a wetland mosaic that boasts both brackish and freshwater pools. The levels of nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and total organic carbon is much higher and this can be attributed to various factors such as the lake not having a water outlet, seepage of untreated waste water from an adjacent sewage treatment plant and various industries in the surrounding areas that could lead to these high values. A twenty-year biodiversity assessment and monitoring program, has documented a total of 354 invertebrate species, 16 reptile and amphibian species, 262 bird species, 10 mammalian species, and 39 plant species. These represent 21% of Abu Dhabi Emirate’s terrestrial animal and plant species. Out of a total of 44 marine and terrestrial habitats identified within Abu Dhabi Emirate, 6 of these are represented within AWWR.