Map of the Sinamangal slum area, Kathmandu. The study area is shown as the shaded area (yellow) along the banks of the river (grey) across the middle of the map.

Map of the Sinamangal slum area, Kathmandu. The study area is shown as the shaded area (yellow) along the banks of the river (grey) across the middle of the map.

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There has been a rapid rise in the burden of noncommunicable diseases in low-income countries like Nepal. Political and economical instability leading to internal migration give rise to haphazard urbanization in Nepal. This, coupled with negative effects of globalization, is largely responsible for changing lifestyle and developing risky behaviour...

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... Many existing studies of NCD risk factors done in urban areas do not disaggregate the population's health data by slum and non-slum status to allow for the detection of intraurban health disparities that are due to neighbourhood effects rather than individual socioeconomic status. [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Understanding how the global challenges of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and rapid unplanned urbanisation intersect, by investigating whether the up to 1 billion people residing in slums 23 are succumbing to these important metabolic risk factors for NCD, will inform priorities for health services and health policy in LMICs. To fill this research gap, we therefore systematically gathered all the publications that relate to the burden of hypertension among slum residents to (1) assess the contemporary prevalence estimates of hypertension among slum residents; (2) compare the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in slums with those in two other types of settlement, that is, non-slum urban and rural areas; and (3) assess the proportion of those with hypertension who were aware of their hypertensive status, those on treatment and those with blood pressure (BP) under control. ...
... South AsiaBangladesh: four studies from Dhakan slums reported prevalence of hypertension. The reported prevalence of hypertension ranged from 11.6% (95% CI 9.7% to 13.8%) in 2012 to19.56% (95% CI 17.85% to 21.37%) in 2018. ...
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Objective First, to obtain regional estimates of prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in urban slums; and second, to compare these with those in urban and rural areas. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria Studies that reported hypertension prevalence using the definition of blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Information sources Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE from inception to December 2020. Risk of bias Two authors extracted relevant data and assessed risk of bias independently using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. Synthesis of results We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool prevalence estimates. We examined time trends in the prevalence estimates using meta-regression regression models with the prevalence estimates as the outcome variable and the calendar year of the publication as the predictor. Results A total of 62 studies involving 108 110 participants met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in slum populations ranged from 4.2% to 52.5% and 0.9% to 25.0%, respectively. In six studies presenting comparator data, all from the Indian subcontinent, slum residents were 35% more likely to be hypertensive than those living in comparator rural areas and 30% less likely to be hypertensive than those from comparator non-slum urban areas. Limitations of evidence Of the included studies, only few studies from India compared the slum prevalence estimates with those living in non-slum urban and rural areas; this limits the generalisability of the finding. Interpretation The burden of hypertension and type 2 diabetes varied widely between countries and regions and, to some degree, also within countries. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017077381.
... This area comprises mostly disadvantaged Janajatis (43.3%), twofifths of residents do not have any formal education, more than twothirds are self-employed with one-third having a monthly income of <5000 Nepalese Rupees. A map of the Sinamangal slum area is provided in Figure 1 (19). ...
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Background Early adolescence is an important period of the life cycle wherein the food system plays a critical role in protecting the food security as well as the nutritional needs essential for a healthy transition from childhood to adulthood. Despite the surging concerns regarding the food and nutrition security of adolescents throughout the nation, people in the poor neighborhood are often neglected and considered the most vulnerable. Objectives This research aims to assess the status of household food security and nutritional status among early adolescents living in a poor neighborhood of Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, data was collected with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) tool. Nutritional status was measured using the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standard Reference 2007 Statistical Software for Social Science (SPSS) macro package based on BMI-for-age z-score, Height-for-age z-score, and Weight-for-age z-score respectively. Data were entered in a predetermined format of SPSS version 20.0 and imported into STATA version 13.1 for univariate and bivariate analyses. Ethical approval was sought from the Ethical Review Board of Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) prior to the study. Results More than one-fifth (21%) of the households were food insecure. Based on BMI-for-age, 5.5% of the adolescents were found to be moderately undernourished and 2.6% of them were severely undernourished. The percentage of moderately and severely stunted adolescents were 8.4% and 5.8% respectively based on Height-for-age. Based on Weight-for-age, moderately and severely underweight adolescents accounted for 13.0% and 1.3% of the total. Conclusion The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting among early adolescents was high. The households in the poor neighborhood were also experiencing some form of food insecurity. This calls for targeted efforts to address malnutrition and improve the nutritional status of early adolescents, particularly in poor neighborhood.
... [17]. However, it is lower than the studies done in slum area of Kathmandu, Nepal (35.6%) [18], Bhutan (24.8%) [19], Darjeeling, India (69.8%) [20], and Pakistan (48.2%) [21]. This highlights the expedient need to control smoking and tobacco use as such activities are extremely injurious to human health. ...
... Only 3.3% of the study population was free from all the studied NCD risk factors, 65.3% of the respondents had 1-2 risk factors and 31.4% of the respondents with 3-5 risk factors. The findings is pertinent to the study conducted in Kathmandu where 2.0% of the respondents had 0 risk factors, 63.1% had 1-2 risk factors and 34.8% had 3-5 risk factors [18]. The concentration of the risk factors, individually and as clusters increases the risk for cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes and cancer. ...
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Background According to WHO, the deaths due to NCDs in Nepal have soared from 60% of all deaths in 2014 to 66% in 2018. The study assessed the prevalence and determinants of non-communicable disease risk factors among adult population of Kathmandu. Materials and methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 among 18–69 years adults residing in municipalities of Kathmandu district. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 245 subjects who were interviewed using WHO NCD STEPS instrument. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were done to explore the determinants of NCD risk factors. Results The prevalence of current smoking, alcohol consumption, low intake of fruits and vegetables and low physical activity was found to be 22%, 31%, 93.9% and 10.2% respectively. More than half (52.2%) of the participants were overweight or obese and the prevalence of raised blood pressure was 27.8%. Smoking was associated significantly with male gender (AOR = 2.37, CI: 1.20–5.13) and respondents with no formal schooling (AOR: 4.33, CI: 1.50–12.48). Similarly, the odds of alcohol consumption were higher among male gender (AOR: 2.78, CI: 1.47–5.26), people who were employed (AOR: 2.30, CI: 1.13–4.82), and those who belonged to Chhetri (AOR: 2.83, CI: 1.19–6.72), Janajati (AOR: 6.18, CI: 2.74–13.90), Dalit and Madhesi, (AOR: 7.51, CI: 2.13–26.35) ethnic groups. Furthermore, respondents who were aged 30–44 years (AOR: 5.15, CI: 1.91–13.85) and 45–59 years (AOR: 4.54 CI: 1.63–12.66), who were in marital union (AOR: 3.39, CI: 1.25–9.13), and who belonged to Janajati (AOR: 3.37, CI: 1.61–7.04), Dalit and Madhesi (AOR: 4.62, CI: 1.26–16.86) ethnic groups were more likely to be associated with overweight or obesity. Additionally, the odds of raised blood pressure were higher among people who were of older age (AOR: 6.91, CI: 1.67–28.63) and those who belonged to Janajati ethnic group (AOR: 3.60, CI: 1.46–8.87) after multivariate analysis. Conclusion The findings of the study highlighted high prevalence of behavioral and metabolic risk factors, which varied on different socio-demographic grounds. Thus, population specific health promotion interventions centered on public health interests is recommended to reduce risk factors of NCDs.
... (32) Extremely poor urban households can spend more than half of their household budgets on food and often have low diet quality. (22,33) These trends are concerning from a health equity perspective, particularly for poor urban populations who are often more dependent than rural populations on purchased foods. (19) History has shown that recent economic crises, notably the 2007-2008 global financial crisis and the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis, have had significant impacts on food and nutrition security as incomes, food prices, and poverty reduction and nutrition programs were impacted. ...
... The volume of water bodies flowing into each other allows for a rapid spread of contamination due to sewage and wastewater runoffs from one water source to another (Joshi & Maharjan, 2003). According to a 2011 census, there were 63 slum and squatter settlements in Kathmandu especially along the Bishnumati, Bagmati, and Manohara rivers (Oli et al., 2013). National statistics reveal a 3.8% urban population growth rate in Kathmandu after the earthquake in 2015 (UN DESA, 2019). ...
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... Finally, we conducted both a forward and a backward citation search of the included articles using Google Scholar and the reference list of the included articles, respectively. e searched records were sent to EndNote X8 (Clarivate Analytics, Philadelphia, PA, USA) and Rayyan QCRI [22] to carry out screening and data extraction. ...
... We then used the raw data from four of those eligible studies to reproduce results for our purpose instead of extracting information from the published article [12,15,29,34]. Out of 37 excluded articles, 11 studies, including May Measurement Month Campaigns, applied convenient or other nonprobability sampling methods to select the participants [22,[36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. In addition, we identified seven reports published on government and international agency websites [17][18][19][20][45][46][47]. ...
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Background: Understanding the burden and trend of hypertension and the associated care cascade can provide direction to the development of interventions preventing and controlling hypertension. This study aimed to assess prevalence and trends of hypertension and its awareness, treatment, and control in Nepal. Methods: We systematically searched CINAHL, Embase, ProQuest, PubMed, Web of Science, WorldCat, and government and health agency-owned websites to identify studies reporting prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control in Nepal between 2000 and 2020. We applied the random-effects model to compute the pooled prevalence in the overall population and among subgroups in each 5-year interval period between 2000 and 2020. We used linear meta-regression analysis to predict hypertension from 2000 to 2025. Results: We identified 23 studies having a total of 84,006 participants. The pooled prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control for 2016-2020 was 32% (95% CI: 23-40%), 50% (95% CI: 30-69%), 27% (95% CI: 19-34%), and 38% (95% CI: 28-48%), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension varied by age, gender, education, and geographical area. Hypertension increased by 6 percentage points (pp), awareness increased by 12 pp, treatment increased by 11 pp, and control increased by 3 pp over the 20 years studied. Since 2000, the rate of increment of hypertension has been 3.5 pp per decade, where 44.7% of men are expected to suffer from hypertension by 2025. Conclusion: The markedly increased prevalence of hypertension and relatively poor progress in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in Nepal suggest that there is a need for hypertension preventive approaches as well as strategies to optimize hypertension care cascade.
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The arrangement of the slum settlement area is still a problem faced by the Makassar City Government. There are 740.10 hectares of slum areas in Makassar City, one of which is the Untia coast. This study aimed to analyze the advocacy coalition in slum area management. The research method used was a qualitative method. The results showed that at the beginning of 2019, Untia had become a light slum area from the previous heavy slum. This happened because Untia received many programs from the government for a relatively long time. This activity was a collaborative activity of several government institutions and Kotaku government agencies that are members of the Working Group (Pokja). Therefore, Untia is still in the category of a slum area, not because of a lack of assistance from the government, but rather because the programs implemented are not integrated. So, the result was that the settlements that receive the program only come out of the slum indicator partially. In addition, the institutions involved in the Working Group (Pokja) often overlap programs due to a lack of face-to-face communications.
... Only half of the population living in slums have toilet 10 while most have inadequate access to safe drinking water 11 and health services 12 and exhibit behavioral risk factors (physical inactivity, dietary diversity, alcohol consumption) making them more vulnerable to NCDs. 13 As a result, these areas are prone to epidemics in Nepal, particularly affecting the poor and marginalized the most. 14 On 13 Jan 2020, WHO announced COVID-19 as public health emergency of global concern after evaluating the cases reported from China. ...
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... 4,7,16,17,19,44 Also, prevalence was higher among students with better household assets, 20 those with extravagant parents 36 and those living in substandard accommodation. 49 ...
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Tobacco consumption is one of the major public health problems in the world. Annually, 27 100 premature deaths are attributed to tobacco-related diseases in Nepal. Despite enacting different policies and strategies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption is still high. This study aims to synthesize prevalence, factors associated with its consumption and the policy initiatives for prevention and control in Nepal. This review includes peer-reviewed studies retrieved from two databases (PubMed and EMBASE) and published from 2000 to 2018, and policy initiatives on tobacco prevention and regulations in Nepal. A total of 32 studies and 5 policy documents were reviewed. Findings suggest that tobacco consumption was higher among men, illiterates, older people, people living in rural and mountainous areas and those who initiated smoking as adolescents. Peer pressure and parental/family smoking were major contributing factors for tobacco initiation. Policy analysis showed that low excise tax, weak monitoring mechanisms, poor compliance to bans on the advertisement and promotion of tobacco, smoke-free zones and insufficient programs on tobacco cessation were the major factors behind weak implementation of tobacco-control policies. Hence, targeted and high-risk group tobacco-cessation interventions, increasing taxation and strict policy implementation are crucial for effective tobacco prevention and control in Nepal.
... High blood pressure was observed in 282 (41.2%) [Male (50.9%) & female (36.5%)] and this difference was statistically significant in present study. The prevalence of blood pressure was more than that [13][14][15][16][17][18][19]21] observed by all other researchers. ...
... In the present study, increased waist hip ratio was observed more in females (94.5%) in comparison to that of males (85.4%) and this difference were statistically significant. While in studies conducted by [21] [22] Oli N et al and Htet AS et al though the waist hip ratio was reported to be more in females' subjects but no statistically significant gender difference was found. ...
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Introduction: Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of adult mortality and morbidity world-wide. NCDs currently cause more deaths than all other causes combined and NCD deaths projected to increase from 38 million in 2012 to 52 million by 2030. Objectives : 1.To know the sociodemographic profile of the study participants. 2. To study the behavioural and physiological risk factor's profile for non-communicable disease of the participants. Methods : A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among the urban population in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. Data collected was coded and entered into Microsoft excel sheet and was analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi square test was used to test the association and p value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results : Tobacco (current) and Alcohol (current) consumption was seen in 14.5% and 14.6% respectively. < 5 servings of fruits and vegetables was observed in 98% while 94.8% were taking ≥5gm/day salt. 50.3% were physically inactive. 41.2% and 15.6% of the study participants respectively were having raised blood pressure and raised blood glucose level. In 76% of the study subjects, central obesity was present while 49% were having body mass index of ≥ 25kg/m2. There was statistically significant difference between male & female gender in regards to different behavioural and physiological risk factors. Conclusion : The prevalence of risk factors for non communicable is high. Since behavioural and physiological are modifiable risk factors, health education and awareness regarding life style modification is required.