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... with granitic plutons and shields, it was enriched with the most diffusive granite minerals (e.g. rare earth elements; alkaline metals like lithium, rubidium, and cesium) and formed pegmatite pockets, veins, seams, and cor- dons that spread around and radially from the granitic block they escaped from before hardening (Fig. 7). Aside granite-bordering pegmatite hard-rock minerals, lithium can also be found in two “soft”-rock silicates also called evaporates for they are assumed to result from salar evaporation and sedimentation: hectorite is a white soft greasy clay whereas jadarite comes in white chalk-like powder-aggregate form. Salt lake brines and evaporates result from the complex geological mechanism of endorheism based on the hydrological closure of freshwater or seawater areas. These newly formed retention and drainage basins were enriched with minerals through the bleaching and dissolu- tion of the bordering rocks. Two different phenomena led to their current aspect: sedimentation, resulting from the deposition of non-drained alluvia carried along by rainfalls; evaporation, resulting from combined effects of sun and wind. Hectorite is by the way a special case of evaporite since it is assumed to originate from the alteration of volcanic ash and tuff into alkaline lakes which were confined and heated by hot springs. Last but not least, lithium can be extracted deep in the ground from geothermal and oilfield brines. Contained in water pockets and saline aquifers, these brines were enriched with lithium at the contact with underground granitic massifs. As it could be an energy- free by-producing technology, for their main goal is to produce heat and electricity and respectively oil and gas, lithium extraction from such resources stands out very promising. On the one hand, new processes were found to eliminate silica from geothermal fluids, silica being a major ordeal as a source of scaling and corrosion of the circuits; on the other hand, oilfield-based lithium extraction gives the opportunity for oil industry to find an unprecedented interest in EVs, which may help unlocking EV industry and market. Now that we have depicted the whole structure of lithium industry and listed all kinds of resources, it is time to analyze at the planet scale the global availability and the local repartition of these resources. The total amount of world lithium resources was already assessed by some researchers, organizations or firms who actually did not reach an agreement neither on figures nor on the way to calculate them (Table 4 [24]). In 2005, the United States Geology Service (USGS) stated that there were some 15 million tons (Mt) of lithium reserve base and 6.8 Mt of reserves. In 2008, Clarke and Harben [25] mentioned 39.4 Mt of resources and 27.7 Mt of reserve base. The global resource estimate is indeed stated in terms of sev- eral different quantities: “resource”, “reserve base”, and “reserves”. The resource is the gross concentration of lithium occurring nat- urally in the Earth’s crust with a form and amount that make it currently or potentially feasible to extract. Reserve base is the part of lithium resource that meets specified physical and chemical cri- teria related to mining and production practices (e.g. grade, quality, thickness, and depth). As such, it is the in situ demonstrated (mea- sured plus indicated) resource from which reserves are estimated. It includes the resources that are currently economic (reserves), marginally economic (marginal reserves), and even currently sube- conomic (sub economic resources). The reserve is the part of reserve base which could be economically extracted or produced at the time of determination. Extraction facilities are not necessarily in place and operative. When synthesizing all the available data and adding to them new ones about recently found deposits, mostly in China and Rus- sia, we found out that there were between 37.1 Mt and 43.6 Mt of lithium-rich resources (Table 5). Amidst all of them, 62% consist of brines and 38% of rock minerals. The recent discoveries however mostly concern rock deposits. When compared to the lithium specific needs of an EV LIB, those 37.1–43.6 Mt of lithium (=197.4–231.9 Mt of Li 2 CO 3 ) appear to guarantee resources for a maximum of 12.3–14.5 billion electric vehicles, i.e. ten times the current world number of automobiles. Although we are now talking about resources, not about reserve base and reserves, this is a very reassuring figure that comforts us in the idea that there is globally enough lithium on Earth to supply the EV market with LIBs. Considering a global figure makes sense when you want an order of magnitude of the potential market extent. But if you need to compare it to the concrete consumption of end-users like the EV industry, regional influences may have a great importance in a context of free market and competitiveness. In this respect, it is interesting to examine lithium resources geographic distribution (Fig. 8). The biggest amount of lithium is located in the ABC triangle made by Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. With 43.6% of presence in this part of the world, lithium mostly comes from salt lake brines available in South America. North America and Australasia represent almost all the rest of the resources shares with around 25% for each. Although it is expected to become one of the world biggest lithium end-users, for many car manufacturers openly involved in EVs are settled in Germany, the UK, and France, Europe appears to be the poor relation to lithium owners world ranking with less than 3% of resources. As far as brines are concerned, those lying in North America come from geothermal and oilfields whereas those located in China are all salt lakes. As a whole, brines resources are very concentrated in places far from the usual centers of consumption, except in some places of United States and Canada. Rock minerals resources are way more homogeneously distributed on Earth with deposits located on each continent. But still, only a few sites are currently producing in Canada, Australia and China. From such information display, we can infer that the distribution of lithium resources is very polarized and a great trade imbalance is to be expected in the near future. It will be all the more the case since some of the producing countries are sensitive areas susceptible to nationalize lithium exploitation (e.g. Bolivia) or likely to have coordinated actions on lithium prices, for example through a hypothetical “organization of lithium-exporting countries”. Europe will be the greatest victim of this geostrategic bottleneck for she is the expected first-rank consumer of lithium but has more or less no resource. South America will obviously come out on top in this lithium deal for its lack of inner consumption will turn her into a full exporter of a low-cost salt-lake brine-based lithium carbonate. Australia, Asia, and North America will presumably have a balanced trade between their production and own need. The vicinity of Russian hard rock minerals deposits will be a matchless advantage for China whose striking advance in EV industry with cars as well as batteries makes it all ready for electromobility. Recent agreements were already signed between both countries at the time of this publication [33]. The synthesis of the current context for lithium industry is now easier. The cheapest lithium extraction is made with salt lake brines, representing the majority of the currently produced lithium carbonate and the majority of the known world resources. Though, those same salt lake brines are geographically concentrated in South America, so they are submitted to geostrategic and geoe- conomic bottlenecks. Besides, the process durations of salt lake brines extraction and treatment are very long and inadequate to follow and adapt the production to any short-term increase of the lithium demand. As a result, and independently from the business as usual predictive evolution we made before, the most presum- able scenario that we can foresee for lithium market is a sudden raise of lithium price to levels that are bound to unblock the yet abandoned, interrupted or non-started projects of hard-rock minerals mining. Once this is done, the following few years will be a difficult transition to a calmer and flatter evolution of lithium price, waiting for the hard-rock mining companies to run their plants. To avoid or smooth over this difficult transitional period, exploration efforts must be done right now to identify, assess and exploit the two big categories of lithium resources available in nature: on the one part, pegmatite-based resources with hard-rock lithium- containing minerals as well as the geothermal and oilfield brines which got enriched with lithium at their contact, deeply in the ground; on the other part, seawater-based resources with salt lake brines as well as the evaporites soft-rock minerals which are the result of their sedimentation. Given the geological origins of their formation, we looked for possible common ways to identify lithium deposits and we found the following results. When superposing the pegmatite-based hard-rock deposits site locations on the map which displays the various world geologic provinces, almost all of them appear located on or at the fringe of cratons, i.e. old and stable parts of the continental crust, mainly made of granitic plutons (Fig. 9). Cratons can be described as shields, in which the basement rock crops out at the surface, and as platforms, in which the basement is overlain by sediments and sedimentary rock. Both parts are susceptible to host deposits of lithium-rich minerals; the difference will only be the difficulty to access them. The same observation was done with the map of endorheic basins (Fig. 10), would they be at the surface like any lake or under the ground like oilfield saline aquifers. The main difference is that all endorheic basins are not at the same ...
Context 2
... this respect, it is interesting to examine lithium resources geographic distribution (Fig. 8). The biggest amount of lithium is located in the ABC triangle made by Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. With 43.6% of presence in this part of the world, lithium mostly comes from salt lake brines available in South America. North America and Australasia represent almost all the rest of the resources shares with around 25% for each. ...

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... Released Li from kerogen thermal decomposition can accumulate in geologic systems either as immediately fixed on minerals or as dissolved in brines and transported. In the arid and highly alkaline environment with abundant clay, Li is well known to replace alkaline earth-metals and form Li-bearing smectite, or substitute into octahedral sites to form non-expandable illite (Burton and Vigier, 2012;Grosjean et al., 2012;Kesler et al., 2012;Kloprogge et al., 1999;Peiro et al., 2013;Penniston-Dorland et al., 2017;Starkey, 1982;Williams and Hervig, 2005). At the same time, the small ionic size of Li makes it easily dislodged from minerals through common cations as well as effortlessly dissolved in the brines of geologic systems (Vine, 1975). ...
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... From the figure, we can see that China dominates natural graphite production, and cobalt production is largely dominated by the democratic republic of Congo. This material mining and production concentration pose a serious supply concern as supply disruptions from one country can significantly impact the entire supply chain and might cause severe price swings [152,153,155]. ...
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... The lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are considered best for energy storage applications; however, due to the lack of lithium resources and nonuniform distribution, there is need to search for alternative [4,5]. In recent years, sodium-ion batteries (SIB) are considered to be a better alternative to LIBs, owing to the uniform natural arXiv:2208.10911v1 ...
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