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Map of Uganda Showing Major Lakes, Rivers and Regions of the Country (2) . 

Map of Uganda Showing Major Lakes, Rivers and Regions of the Country (2) . 

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Providing sources of sustainable and quality potable water in Uganda is a significant public health issue. This project aimed at identifying and prioritizing possible actions on how sustainable high quality potable water in Uganda’s water supply systems could be achieved. In that respect, a review of both the current water supply systems and govern...

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... the existence of a vast number of lakes (about 27 in total), rivers and streams ( Figure 1 ), Uganda continues to face the issue of limited accessibility to potable water, par- ticularly in rural and poor urban communities. Uganda ' s surface water sources cover 15.4% of the total land area (236,040 km 2 ) and these provide domestic water supply to both urban and rural populations (3) . ...

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... Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to determine the low concentration of organics due to their high sensitivity . The WHO standards of groundwater quality parameters are listed in Table 4.3 (Burri et al. 2019;Herschy 2012;Nayebare et al. 2014). ...
Book
Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are ubiquitous with concentrations from ng/L to µg/L in the aquatic environment posing a potential threat to the ecosystem and the human life across the globe. The discharge of untreated and semi-treated sewage from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is the main point source of these compounds, trapping the contaminants in various matrices resulting in a continuous flow into the aquatic system. PPCPs are the prime group of Emerging Pollutants (ECs). The literature indicates increasing contaminant load by ECs lead to an increasing number of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in microorganisms and humans due to horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Recent risk assessment studies have successfully overcome limitations such as including the chronic effect of a single compound, but have failed to include studies on the mixture of compounds. Biological remediation is a cost-effective approach with the effective degradation of PPCPs depending on their complexity. Furthermore, the influence of ARGs on the microbial cultures is lacking. The present study will give a comprehensive understanding of the source and fate of different groups of PPCPs in the aquatic environment. The details in the book chapter will help assess, compare, and identify gaps in risk assessment and treatment strategies for these emerging pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem.
... Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to determine the low concentration of organics due to their high sensitivity (Yu et al. 2017). The WHO standards of groundwater quality parameters are listed in Table 4.3 (Burri et al. 2019;Herschy 2012;Nayebare et al. 2014). Colour 5 ...
Chapter
Growing population overstating on limited water resources of the universe. Groundwater represents significant water storage capacity, prone to less contamination than surface water, and accessible with good quality for a long time but highly overexploited to meet the demand of urban areas and industrial development. Natural contamination recuperates within the carrying capacity of the water body. However, the intense anthropogenic activities often exceed the carrying capacity of the resource, accelerate deterioration of water quality, and eventually affect human health and ecosystem, where high-resistant contaminants can elongate impacts. Generally, groundwater pollution sources are categorized as point and nonpoint sources. The point source pollutants are highly concentrated, located near the origin, easily identifiable, and less likely to pollute if identified and well managed through proper treatment. The nonpoint sources move through various polluted areas/ sources, polluting activities and are difficult to control or monitor. Proper planning, suitable techniques development, and careful implementation of antipollution policy can protect groundwater quality. Preventive measures are more appreciated than remediation to enhance the quality of groundwater. This is achieved by advance/ accurate prediction of pollutants sources and path to water table. This chapter describes different potential sources, their effects, and various realistic approaches followed to prevent groundwater pollution.
... Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to determine the low concentration of organics due to their high sensitivity . The WHO standards of groundwater quality parameters are listed in Table 4.3 (Burri et al. 2019;Herschy 2012;Nayebare et al. 2014). ...
... Uganda's population; like other developing countries still experiences an inadequate supply of potable water for consumption and sanitary purposes. A majority of the populace resort to water originating from eutrophic surface water sources and untreated groundwater [8], [9]. Poor solid waste management and inadequate spring protection lead to contamination of generally accepted spring water sources with pathogenic bacteria of clinical significance [10]. ...
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The presence of water is a prerequisite condition for the existence and sustainability of life on the planet. Potable water is that which is fit for human and animal consumption, cooking, and sanitary purposes. In Uganda, there is still an inadequate supply of potable water for the population. The objective of this study is to perform a quality analysis of water obtained from Kitagata Hot Springs, Sheema District, Western Uganda. The temperature at water source points was measured and an average temperature of 62.3 0 C was obtained. Standard procedures and equipment as recommended by American Public Health Association were adopted for the analysis. Physical, Chemical and Biological parameters of water quality considered for the analysis include electrical conductivity, turbidity, colour, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, pH, iron, sulfates, nitrates, hardness, alkalinity, faecal coliforms, and e. coli. The result of the quality analysis of water samples showed average values as follows: electrical conductivity-427.6 µS/cm, turbidity-7 NTU, colour-37.7 ptco, total suspended solids-4.3 mg/l, total dissolved solids-273.7 mg/l, pH-5.63, iron-0.4 mg/l, sulfates-45 mg/l, nitrates-4.1 mg/l, hardness-86.3 mg/l, alkalinity-58.3 mg/l, faecal coliforms-2 CFU/100ml and e.coli-0.67 CFU/100ml. The quality analysis revealed that 70% of the parameters had values that were not acceptable when compared to the Ugandan National Standards for potable water. From the foregoing, it is safe to conclude that water obtained from Kitagata hot springs does not satisfy the requirements to be considered as potable water. The study recommends the erection of physical barriers around the water source and the application of water treatment procedures to remediate the water and make it suitable for human consumption.
... Besides, water resources management is increasingly difficult due to climate change and inadequate infrastructure facilities to access clean water and manage wastewater, which results in water resources being polluted due to anthropogenic activities, as well as high dependence on groundwater and flows due to land used changes becomes residential land [4]. Therefore, various developing countries are competing to find alternative water resources to ensure water resources' sustainability, one of which is rainwater harvesting. ...
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This research was raised based on water resource problems, which are currently becoming a global obstacle to overcome. Population growth impacted the demand for water resources, changed the hydrological cycle pattern in an area, and worsened with climate change, impacting season disaster. This research was conducted to see the profile of Bekasi City on rainwater harvesting so that the results of this study are expected to provide a big picture in the context of applying rainwater harvesting. Rainfall analysis uses dependable rainfall to cut down rainfall uncertainty and grant opportunities for a higher harvestable rainfall volume. Besides, a community approach was carried out to observe society’s water use patterns and their behavior towards rainwater harvesting. This study found that the volume of water demand in Bekasi varied in each District, which is 3.57-7.08 m ³ /person/month, and harvested rainwater can cover up 2.27%-12.73% of their needs during the wet season (December-April). The community has collected their rainwater at their homes by 49%. A comprehensive approach should have taken to attract people to harvest rainwater.
... Fresh food producing farms were also located close to the study site posing additional risk from the faecal contamination of their products [30]. Additionally, contamination of roof tops by the faecal droppings of the birds could lead to contamination of harvested rain water leading to further transmission through usage of rain water [31], which is common in this environment due to water shortage. Also concerning is the mingling of egrets with cattle at abattoirs, cattle markets and grazing fields through which the birds can spread the bacteria and/or resistance determinants to cattle with the potential of ultimately entering the food chain. ...
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Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global health concern reducing options for therapy of infections and also for perioperative prophylaxis. Many Enterobacteriaceae cannot be treated anymore with third generation cephalosporins (3GC) due to the production of certain 3GC hydrolysing enzymes (extended spectrum beta-lactamases, ESBLs). The role of animals as carriers and vectors of multi-resistant bacteria in different geographical regions is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the occurrence and molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) in wild birds and slaughtered cattle in Ibadan, Nigeria. Cattle faecal samples ( n = 250) and wild bird pooled faecal samples (cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis , n = 28; white-faced whistling duck, Dendrocygna viduata, n = 24) were collected and cultured on cefotaxime-eosin methylene blue agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar diffusion assays and all 3GC resistant isolates were genotypically characterised for AMR genes, virulence associated genes (VAGs) and serotypes using DNA microarray-based assays. Results All 3GC resistant isolates were E. coli : cattle ( n = 53), egrets ( n = 87) and whistling duck ( n = 4); cultured from 32/250 (12.8%), 26/28 (92.9%), 2/24(8.3%), cattle, egrets and whistling duck faecal samples, respectively. bla CTX-M gene family was prevalent; bla CTX-M15 (83.3%) predominated over bla CTX-M9 (11.8%). All were susceptible to carbapenems. The majority of isolates were resistant to at least one of the other tested antimicrobials; multidrug resistance was highest in the isolates recovered from egrets. The isolates harboured diverse repositories of other AMR genes (including strB and sul2 ), integrons (predominantly class 1) and VAGs. The isolates recovered from egrets harboured more AMR genes; eight were unique to these isolates including tetG , gepA , and floR . The prevalent VAGs included hemL and iss ; while 14 (including sepA ) were unique to certain animal isolates . E. coli serotypes O9:H9, O9:H30 and O9:H4 predominated. An identical phenotypic microarray profile was detected in three isolates from egrets and cattle, indicative of a clonal relationship amongst these isolates. Conclusion Wild birds and cattle harbour diverse ESBL-producing E. coli populations with potential of inter-species dissemination and virulence. Recommended guidelines to balance public health and habitat conservation should be implemented with continuous surveillance.
... Samples with high nitrate concentrations predominantly occur in groundwater with high CFC-12 concentrations and short (<20 m) borehole-screens, all samples with CFC-12 concentrations above 150 pg kg − 1 (n = 6) have nitrate concentrations above 6 mg L − 1 . This indicates widespread contamination of nitrate in young groundwater, but at concentrations that are low relative to reported values in surface water and urban areas (Nayebare Shedrack et al., 2014;Withers and Lord, 2002). E. coli was measured as present in approximately 65% of samples, twice the rate measured using TTCs in a recent larger survey in Uganda (Lapworth et al., 2020), but none were classed as high risk. ...
Article
In sub-Saharan Africa, shallow aquifer systems are relied on as the main safe and secure water resource available to rural communities. Information on the sustainability and vulnerability of groundwater abstraction is becoming increasingly important as groundwater development increases. As part of the UpGro Consortium Project- Hidden Crisis, 150 hand pumped boreholes (HPBs), ranging between 15 to 101 m depth were investigated to examine the resilience of aquifer systems in the Ethiopian Highlands, and the crystalline basement rocks of Uganda and Malawi. Environmental tracers (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), SF6, chloride and the stable isotopes of water), water quality indicators (nitrate and E. coli), and groundwater-level time series data were used to estimate groundwater residence time and recharge at a regional scale (100-10,000 km2) and investigate the risks to water quality and water supply over different timeframes, and geological and climatic environments. Average estimated recharge rates using three different techniques (CFCs, chloride mass balance, water table fluctuation method) were between 30–330, 27–110 and 30–170 mm y-1, for sites in Ethiopia, Uganda and Malawi, respectively. These estimates of recharge suggests abstraction from dispersed low-yielding HPBs is sustainable. Comparison of stable isotopes in rainfall and groundwater indicates that there is little evaporation prior to recharge, and recharge events are biased to months with greater rainfall and more intense rainfall events There was a weak correlation between nitrate and CFCs within all three countries, and no correlation between E. coli and CFCs within Ethiopia or Malawi. The presence of E. Coli at a large proportion of the sites (Ethiopia = 38 %, Uganda = 65 % and Malawi = 47 %) suggests rapid transit of contaminated surface water into the borehole and its presence in groundwater that has CFC-12 concentrations less than 75 pg kg-1 indicates mixing of very young water with water more than 40 years old. The rapid transit pathways are most likely associated with damaged HPB headworks and poor construction. In several monitored HPBs, daily drawdown due to pumping, drew the groundwater levels close to the base of the HPB, indicating that these HPBs were located in parts of the aquifer with low permeability, or were poorly designed, offering limited capacity for increased demand. Improved HPB siting and construction, coupled with groundwater level monitoring are required to capitalise on the more resilient groundwater within the shallow aquifers and safeguard adequate and good quality water supply for rural communities.
... Stormwater quality has become an increasingly important topic across the agricultural, urban, and construction sectors [1]. Construction sites, in particular, have the potential to create the greatest sources of sediment pollutants that can have profound impacts on the downstream environment [2]. ...
Article
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Stormwater quality management has become an increasingly important topic. Pollutants from construction, urban, and agricultural runoff sources create adverse water quality impacts to receiving water bodies. Among these sources, suspended sediment has a significant influence on water quality and further acts as a media for transporting pollutants. Current stormwater treatment practices remove large, rapidly settable, soil particles; however, fine soil particles tend to remain suspended and contribute to elevated turbidity conditions. A need exists for an economical and passive treatment mechanism for the removal of suspended solids. Lamella settlers have been shown to enhance soil particle capture by increasing surface area and reducing settling distance. The objective of this research was to identify and optimize design configurations for a lamella settler system in treating a variety of synthetic soils. Five types of synthetic soils suspended in simulated stormwater at 500, 1000, and 5000 mg/L concentration were treated using system configurations of three lamella settler reactors at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5-h residence times. Statistical analyses through a full factorial method followed with a regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test suggested that there was a significant difference exists between these experimental variables and turbidity levels. An optimized lamella settler reactor providing 1.8 cm (0.7 in.) settling space with 1.5-h residence time reduced turbidity by up to 90% when compared to a control reactor without lamella plates and a 0.5-h residence time. In addition, particle size distribution analysis indicated a decrease in the D90 by up to 84%, which showed that the optimized reactor was effective in capturing larger diameter soil particles.
... As a short-term solution, the installation of filters against major heavy metals would improve the safety of the consumer [29,41]. In Uganda, major drinking water sources are borehole water, bottled water, open well water, spring water, and tap water [8,10,42]. erefore, for Uganda to maintain her path to attain Goal 6 of the SDGs, there was a need to ensure that drinking water in rural communities met international standards. e scarcity of information regarding the levels of heavy metals in drinking water from major water sources in Uganda indicated a knowledge gap that necessitates the concerned bodies such as the Uganda National Water and Sewerage Cooperation (UNWSC) and the Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) to take action [9,20]. ...
... At the time of the study, Bushenyi district was in the process of replacing the old pipes with PVC (personal observation in the community); however, information on the efficiency of these pipes in reducing heavy metal concentrations was limited in Uganda. Information in the study also showed no significant differences (ANOVA, P > 0.05) in heavy metal concentrations for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd showing their importance to the general public due to the threat of bioaccumulation following chronic exposure [42,49]. ...
... Furthermore, bottled, spring, and tap water all had significantly higher THQs in children for Pb > Cd than in adults (Table 4). is re-emphasized previous finding in central Uganda that drinking water in Uganda was contaminated with Pb [10,11]. Access to safe drinking water is a universal human right; thus, findings in this study cannot be taken for granted by the authorities in Uganda [1,2,42]. is would help reduce on the health burden associated with oral ingestion of these elements, thus promoting public health [37,43]. e study also showed that Pb and Cd toxicities are very important in children of Southwestern Uganda (Figure 3), probably due to their smaller body weights relative to adults. is is because Pb has been associated with gastrointestinal irritation which would lead to vomiting and diarrhea while Cd has been associated with brain and kidney damage in humans [24,50]. ...
Article
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Background: There is scarcity of information about the quality and safety of drinking water in Africa. Without such vital information, sustainable development goal number 6 which promotes availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation remains elusive especially in developing countries. The study aimed at determining concentrations of inorganic compounds, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and identify safe drinking water source sources in Southwestern Uganda. Methods: This was an observational study in which 40 drinking water samples were collected from georeferenced boreholes, springs, open wells, bottled, and taps within Bushenyi district of Southwestern Uganda. Water samples were analyzed for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Water safety measures (EDI, HI, and ILCR) were established for each water source and compared with local and international water permissible standards for each analyte. A spatial map was drawn using qGIS®, and analysis of quantitative data was done using MS Excel 2013 at 95% significance. Results: Heavy metals were present in the following order: 11.276 ppm > 4.4623 ppm > 0.81 ppm > 0.612 ppm > 0.161 ppm for Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively, while Cr was not detected. Fe was the primary water heavy metal in the order of open well > borehole > tap > spring > bottled water. This was followed by Zn levels in the order of tap > bottled > spring > borehole > open well. All compounds were within international water safety standards except Pb. Hence, there is need for the government of Uganda to establish water filtration systems, particularly for Pb to improve the quality of water for the general public. The EDI was similar (P > 0.05) for water consumed from spring, bottled, and tap sources for Fe and Zn levels. Similarly, no differences were found in the EDI for children and adults (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the HI showed an absence of noncarcinogenic risk associated (HI < 1), although the ILCR was higher in adults than children (P < 0.05) due to high Cd concentrations. Conclusion: The current identified Fe is a major heavy metal in drinking water of Uganda, and boreholes were the major safest sources of drinking water identified in this study.
... Factor III has high positive and negative loadings on gender and occupation respectively while factor IV shows high loading on wastewater network and moderate loading on stagnant water. A previous study by Nayebare et al. (2014) noted that potable water quality is negatively affected by the disposal of sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and surface run-off. ...