This study determined the quantity, composition, the levels of remaining recyclable materials, and to evaluate treatment methods for commercial solid waste (CSW) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Waste samples were collected from 52 commercial sectors including hotels, restaurants, internet cafés, guesthouses, beer gardens, markets, schools, microfinance ag...
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Freshwater plastic pollution is critically understudied in Southeast Asia (SEA). Recent modelling studies indicate that SEA rivers contribute vast quantities of plastic to the world’s oceans, however, these fail to capture the complexity of individual systems. We determine the volume of mismanaged plastic waste (MPW) entering Tonle Sap Basin (TSB)—the largest freshwater lake–river system in SEA, between 2000 and 2030. Using economic, population and waste data at provincial and national levels, coupled with high resolution population and flood datasets, we estimate that ca. 221,700 tons of plastic entered between 2000 and 2020, and 282,300 ± 8700 tons will enter between 2021 and 2030. We demonstrate that policy interventions can reduce MPW up to 76% between 2021 and 2030. The most-stringent scenario would prevent 99% of annual MPW losses by 2030, despite substantially higher waste volumes and population. If successfully implemented, Cambodia will prevent significant losses in natural capital, material value and degradation in TSB worth at least US$4.8 billion, with additional benefits for the Mekong River and South China Sea.
Driven by economic development, population growth, change in life style, and consumption patterns, Cambodia is faced with equally rapid increase of solid waste, with MSW disposal amount attaining 1,709,379 tons/year in 2018. Various policy instruments and legislations have been developed over the years in response to this long-existing crisis, which effectively translated into tangible improvements on the ground. But municipalities continue to suffer from weak waste management system including collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal. Resource recovery almost entirely depends on informal sector while efforts for reduce and reuse are still weak, while presenting vast opportunity if effective policies are employed and implemented. The ongoing governance reform involving functional decentralization of waste management service is being implemented although at a slow pace.
The current study aims to analyze waste characteristics and management practices of the hotel industry in Hoi An, a tourism city in the center of Vietnam. Solid wastes from 120 hotels were sampled, the face-to-face interviews were conducted, and statistical methods were carried out to analyze the data. The results showed that the mean of waste generation rate of the hotels was 2.28 kg/guest/day and strongly correlated to internal influencing factors such as the capacity, the price of the room, garden, and level of restaurant. The differences in waste generation rate of the hotels were proved to be statistically significant. The higher the scale of hotels, the higher the waste generation rate. Moreover, the waste composition of the hotels was identified by 58.5% for biodegradable waste, 25.8% for recyclables and 15.7% for others. The relative differences in the waste composition of the hotels by climate, the features of hotels, and the types of the guest were explained. Whereby, the higher size of the hotels, the higher percentage of biodegradable and less proportion of recyclable waste. Also, this study revealed that the implementation status of waste management practices of the hoteliers initially reaped quite positive achievements with 76% for sorting, 39% for recycling, 29% for reduction, and 0.8% for composting. The rate of waste management practices was proportional to the scale of the hotel. This study provided information on waste management practice of hotel industry and contributed to the overall assessment of municipal solid waste management practices of Hoi An city.
This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Phnom Penh city, Cambodia, on the basis of commercial solid waste. The waste samples were collected from hotels, restaurants, internet cafés, guesthouses, beer gardens, markets, schools, microfinances and shops from 22 July–28 August 2013. The objectives of this research are to determine waste generation rate, physical composition, and the level of recyclables remaining in the residual of waste stream and to evaluate the appropriate technology for waste treatment. The waste from 52 commercial sectors were daily collected and segregated into 23 categories. The results show that composition of commercial waste consist of 56.70% (biodegradable), 19.32% (plastic), 14.84% (paper), 8.14% (inorganics), 1.25% (textiles & shoes), 0.25% (rubber/leather), and 0.01% (wax). Waste generation rate (kg/cap/day) is 1.31 (internet cafés), 1.04 (restaurants), 0.84 (beer gardens), 0.51 (guesthouses), 0.33 (hotels), 0.23 (markets-family marts), 0.19 (ministries), 0.13 (council of ministers) and 0.11 (stores-phone, grocery and small cloth shops). In addition, schools and microfinance agencies produce waste less than 0.1.The most sorted wastes by those sectors are food waste, followed by glass bottle, paper, PET bottle, aluminium can and steels. The most recyclable remaining in unsorted waste is plastic, followed by paper, steels and aluminium can. Finally, treatment options for organic waste from commercial sectors in Phnom Penh were discussed.