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Map of New Zealand and Chatham Island showing the study area where rattail fish were collected. 

Map of New Zealand and Chatham Island showing the study area where rattail fish were collected. 

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Article
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New Zealand rattail fish are of great interest both to biologists who study their phylogenetics and in fisheries. In contrast, their morphological evolution is little studied and poorly understood. Geometric morphometric methods based on scale shape were applied in this study to determine differences among species and genera. Scale shapes were desc...

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Context 1
... specimens were collected from waters around Chatham Island, New Zealand (Figure 1) as part of the Ocean Survey 20/20 Chatham/Challenger Biodiversity and Seabed Habitat Projects, jointly funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries, Land Information New Zealand, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and the Department of Conservation. Since the specimens were allocated for projects other than the scale morphology study, species identification was made prior to the process of scale extraction by Peter McMillan, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand. ...
Context 2
... specimens were collected from waters around Chatham Island, New Zealand (Figure 1) as part of the Ocean Survey 20/20 Chatham/Challenger Biodiversity and Seabed Habitat Projects, jointly funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries, Land Information New Zealand, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and the Department of Conservation. Since the specimens were allocated for projects other than the scale morphology study, species identification was made prior to the process of scale extraction by Peter McMillan, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand. ...
Context 3
... specimens were collected from waters around Chatham Island, New Zealand (Figure 1) as part of the Ocean Survey 20/20 Chatham/Challenger Biodiversity and Seabed Habitat Projects, jointly funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries, Land Information New Zealand, the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and the Department of Conservation. Since the specimens were allocated for projects other than the scale morphology study, species identification was made prior to the process of scale extraction by Peter McMillan, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand. ...

Citations

... Morphometric analyses have been used for inter-and intraspecific identification/distinction of many freshwater and marine fish species. such as Rastrelliger kanagurta from peninsular India (Jayasankar et al. 2004), Clarias gariepinus from Turkey (Turan et al. 2005), Pomatomus saltatrix from the Aegean, Black, and Mediterranean seas (Turan et al. 2006), the genus Puntius from Assam, India (Choudhury et al. 2011), Catla catla from India (Ujjainia and Kohli 2011), rattail fish from New Zealand (Ibáñez and Jawad 2018), Barbonymus spp. from Aceh, Indonesia (Batubara et al. 2018) and Macrognathus pancalus from Bangladesh (Mahfuj et al. 2019a). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to discriminate five Scorpaena species and populations of each species according to morphometric characters. A total of 1865 fish specimens were collected from the eight locations in the four Turkish seas: Antalya, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Hatay, İzmir, Marmara Ereğlisi, Ordu and Şile. In the study, 26 morphometric traits were measured for intra- and interspecific discrimination of five Scorpaena species. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, principal components analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis. As results of the PCA, 10 traits for S. maderensis and S. scrofa, 12 traits for S. elongata and 13 traits for S. notata and S. porcus were found to be important for intraspcific discrimination. The overall classification scores of intraspecific discrimination were determined as 94.6% for S. elongata, 90.5% for S. maderensis, 96.7% for S. notata, 96.5% for S. porcus and 92.2% for S. scrofa. The PCA indicated that 13 morphometric measurements among the 26 traits are important in the interspecific discrimination of five Scorpaena species. The cross-validated canonical discriminant analysis was correctly classified as 97.4% at the Scorpaena species level. The discrimination of correctly classified species ranged from 94.8% to 100%. Finally, we demonstrated that the morphometric characters examined in the present study can be used successfully in the intra- and interspecific discrimination of Scorpaena species from different habitats.
... We also collected scaled georeferenced photographic information of species occurring in the São Francisco River from the Bold Systems database (5 species) (Supplementary material 3). Anatomical landmarks were chosen for the morphometric analyses based on homologous characters and diagnoses of the group, following standard methodologies in studies with fish (Vasconcellos et al. 2008;Kerschbaumer and Sturmbauer 2011;Bichuette et al. 2014;Ibáñez and Jawad 2018). Ten anatomical landmarks were used in the present study (Fig. 2), and were digitized by a single person (Alisson Calazans) to reduce judgemental variations, using TPSDig2 software (Rohlf 2010b). ...
Article
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The order Characiformes is one of the most diverse and widely distributed groups of fishes in cis-Andean basins. That diversity is reflected in the São Francisco River (Brazil), where approximately 1/3 of all described species belong to that order, with many being endemic and/or considered endangered. The great morphological diversity observed in this group has been the focus of several systematic, ecomorphological, and evolutionary studies. Here, we evaluated the morphological patterns of 39 species of Characiformes from the São Francisco River using geometric morphometric and comparative phylogenetic techniques to better understand how ecological factors can modulate morphological diversity. Our data produced a highly supported topology revealing two promoters that drive the diversity of the analyzed forms, one is associated with phylogenetic inheritance, while the other is modulated by habitat, generating similarities between phylogenetically distant species. The absence of any observed relationship between body shape and trophic niche may reflect phylogenetic inertia of food preferences and morphological characteristics. Our data highlights the importance of combined analysis of all available evidences for understanding the evolutionary routes of diverse groups, as is the case of the Characiformes of the São Francisco River.
... Our results indicated that PhACs can influence fish body shape and scale shape in natural environment and habitats. There are several studies that showed shape differences between fish stocks in natural waters (Ibáñez & Jawad, 2018;Takács et al., 2016). These studies usually explain the variations by different genetic background (Lõhmus et al., 2010;Staszny et al., 2013), phenotypic plasticity (Vasconcellos et al., 2008), or some basic environmental differences, such as food availability (Currens et al., 1989 Hutchings, 2006; Park et al., 2001), temperature (Lõhmus et al., 2010;Šumer et al., 2005), flow-regime (Haas, Blum & Heins, 2010). ...
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Background In recent years, there are growing concerns about pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in natural ecosystems. These compounds have been found in natural waters and in fish tissues worldwide. Regarding their growing distribution and abundance, it is becoming clear that traditionally used risk assessment methodologies and ecotoxicological studies have limitations in several respects. In our study a new, combined approach of environmental impact assesment of PhACs has been used. Methods In this study, the constant watercourses of the suburban region of the Hungarian capital (Budapest) were sampled, and the body shape and scale shape of three fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus , chub Squalius cephalus , gibel carp Carassius gibelio ) found in these waters were analyzed, based on landmark-based geometric morphometric methods. Possible connections were made between the differences in body shape and scale shape, and abiotic environmental variables (local- and landscape-scale) and measured PhACs. Results Significant connections were found between shape and PhACs concentrations in several cases. Despite the relatively large number of compounds (54) detected, citalopram, propranolol, codeine and trimetazidine significantly affected only fish body and scale shape, based on their concentrations. These four PhACs were shown to be high (citalopram), medium (propranolol and codeine), and low (trimetazidine) risk levels during the environmental risk assessment, which were based on Risk Quotient calculation. Furthermore, seven PhACs (diclofenac, Estrone (E1), tramadol, caffeine 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17α-Estradiol (aE2), Estriol (E3)) were also categorized with a high risk level. However, our morphological studies indicated that only citalopram was found to affect fish phenotype amongst the PhACs posing high risk. Therefore, our results revealed that the output of (traditional) environmental/ecological risk assessment based on ecotoxicological data of different aquatic organisms not necessarily show consistency with a “real-life” situation; furthermore, the morphological investigations may also be a good sub-lethal endpoint in ecotoxicological assessments.
... The methods used for such studies are generally based on morphometric measurements, meristic data, and morphological characteristics of some parts of the fish, genetics, and karyotype (Caputo et al., 1998;Bektas & Belduz, 2009;Bani et al., 2013;Oliveira et al., 2019). The morphology of hard parts of the fish species, such as bones, otoliths, and scales have proved to be useful tools for identification and discrimination of the species (Bostanci et al., 2015;Ibáñez & Jawad, 2018;Purrafee Dizaj et al., 2020a). Otoliths are acellular biominerals composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that is found in the inner ears of teleost fish (Campana & Neilson, 1985). ...
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The current shift of fishery efforts towards the deep sea is raising concern about the vulnerability of deep-water sharks, which are often poorly studied and characterized by problematic taxonomy. For instance, in the Mediterranean Sea the taxonomy of genus Centrophorus has not been clearly unravelled yet. Since proper identification of the species is fundamental for their correct assessment and management, this study aims at clarifying the taxonomy of this genus in the Mediterranean Basin through an integrated taxonomic approach. We analysed a total of 281 gulper sharks (Centrophorus spp.) collected from various Mediterranean, Atlantic and Indian Ocean waters. Molecular data obtained from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) and a portion of a nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA gene region (28S) have highlighted the presence of a unique mitochondrial clade in the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric results confirmed these findings, supporting the presence of a unique and distinct morphological group comprising all Mediterranean individuals. The data strongly indicate the occurrence of a single Centrophorus species in the Mediterranean, ascribable to C. cf. uyato, and suggest the need for a revision of the systematics of the genus in the area.
Article
The scale morphology of a native goby, Awaous jayakari (Gobiidae) was studied using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The morphological descriptions were based on the scale's type, shape, and features of the anterior, posterior, and lateral fields. Further characteristics of the focus, circuli, radii, lepidonts, and cteni, were investigated. Morphometric indices were calculated for some scales. Shape variability of scales was high in different regions. However, the majority of scales displayed a polygonal shape (hexagonal and pentagonal). Both ctenoid and cycloid scales were observed in the studied fishes. The ctenoid scale of A. jayakari was peripheral and characterized by the presence of one row of marginally located spines in two completed and uncompleted subtypes. The focus was positioned posteriorly or postero-centrally. The microscopic examinations revealed the presence of lepidonts of different sizes being very tiny, small, or prominent performing flat, blunt, pointed, short, or truncated shapes. The rostral margin of the scales was convex to moderately flattened and represented striate, scalloped, or waved types. Lateral fields were often flattened in all regions, while convex in the lateral fields of the scales of some individuals. The posterior field showed variations in different regions, for example, tapered and flattened ends. The anterior–posterior axis presented a laterally expanded or an elongated extension. The considerable morphological variation in the scales of various body regions makes it difficult to nominate a typical scale to be used in taxonomic studies. However, the key scales can be used for the comparison of different Awaous species.
Article
Aphanius hormuzensis is an endemic tooth-carp found in the Hormuzgan drainage in S-Iran. This study aimed to investigate the size-dependent alternations of scale surface ornamentation in this species by conducting scanning electron microscopy and morphological analysis. A total of 50 wild fish individuals were captured from Shur River, and were classified into five size classes based on the standard length; SC-I (SL = 10-20 mm), SC-II (SL = 21-30 mm), SC-III (SL = 41-50 mm), SC-IV (SL = 51-60 mm), and SC-V (SL = 61-70 mm), and their scales were removed from below the dorsal fin (key scale) and caudal peduncle regions. The results revealed a clear trend of scale structural development in A. hormuzensis. The scale of small-sized (TL < 30 mm) and large-sized fishes (TL > 30 mm) differed, respectively, in the following characters; the overall shape (often circular vs. polygonal), relative focus size (large, FL/SL = 440-610 μm vs. intermediate and small, FL/SL = 100-330 μm), types of radii (only primary vs. three types), relative radii length (short, RL/SL = 100-180 μm vs. long, RL/SL = 320-450 μm), lepidont (absent or undeveloped vs. present and developed), and the relative lepidont length (short, LL/SL = 0.83-0.90 μm vs. intermediate and long, LL/SL = 1.2-2.2 μm). These character alternations could explain certain developmental stages in this species. The size-dependent changes in the surface micro-ornamentations as shown in this study suggest that these characters should be used cautiously for taxonomic studies of the aphaniid fishes.
Article
Full-text available
Fish scale investigation has been used in many ways. Recently several species’ scale shape was used to differentiate species, populations or stocks. Effects of allometric growth on scale shape proved to be a common phenomenon in case of numerous species, however there is no information regarding the impact of temporal (ontogenetic timescale) changes. In this study the effect of intrapopulation age distribution on the scale shape was tested. Seven age groups of a gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) population were identified and analyzed using landmark-based geometric morphometric methods. The results indicated a clear trend of ontogenetic-driven shape change of gibel carp scales: the adult fish specific scale shape occurs at the age of 3+, along with sexual maturation, the alterations among the older age classes show no significant differences. These results suggest that the asymmetric age distribution of fish populations should be taken into consideration during scale morphometric analyses.