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Map of Italy by regions and subnational areas 

Map of Italy by regions and subnational areas 

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This article studies convergence across Italian regions by means of two composite indicators of socio-economic progress reflecting the multidimensional nature of human well-being. The first composite indicator includes, other than household disposable income in Italy, two sub-indicators regarding health and edu-cation; the second composite indicato...

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... in which per-capita output rose remarkably. Finally, in the last period, from 1972 onwards regional trends were quite variegated, so the authors found neither convergence nor divergence. However, many indicators de- scribe the persistence of the North-South divide in Italy. One third of the Italian population lives in the Mezzogiorno regions (see Fig. 1), but 45 % of the Italian unemployed and more than two thirds of the poor are concentrated in the South (Franco 2010). The Mezzogiorno regions as a whole produce just one fourth of the overall GDP and exports are only 10 % of the Italian exportations. The gap is mirrored by the difference in labour productivity which is lower than 20 % ...

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... First, material WB is met by achieving a certain level of material satisfaction or utility; it includes material needs for a life basis and safety, such as sufficient food, access to ecosystem service (e.g., clean air and water), and material conditions and possessions (D'Acci, 2011;Loring et al., 2016). Second, social WB is attained through meeting social needs which contribute to a person's social life, such as social-connection and relationships, participation, educational conditions, and freedom; and collective needs, including social cohesion, civil engagement, social equity, collective association, and political representation (Barrington-Leigh & Escande, 2016;Bertin, Carrino, & Give, 2018;Ferrara & Nisticó, 2013;Nissi & Sarra, 2018;Raudsepp-Hearne et al., 2010;Villamagna & Giesecke, 2014). In contrast, subjective WB is addressed through an individual's perception, experience, feelings, or level of satisfaction with life circumstances and attained by meeting perceived and psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem); it is frequently used interchangeably with similar concepts, such as quality of life, life satisfaction, or happiness (D'Acci, 2011;Diener & Sue, 1997;King et al., 2014;Moser, 2009;Wang et al., 2018). ...
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