Map of Democratic Republic of Congo showing where Bukavu town (study area) is located 

Map of Democratic Republic of Congo showing where Bukavu town (study area) is located 

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Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in eastern Congo dating to 1971. A study was conducted to find out the linkage between climate variability/change and cholera outbreak and to assess the related economic cost in the management of cholera in Congo. This study integrates historical data (20 years) on temperature and rainfall with the burden o...

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... study was conducted at Bukavu town and at Katana health zone (45 km far ways from Bukavu Town). Historical data on deaths and cases of cho- lera infection were acquired from the South-Kivu provincial inspection at Bukavu town ( Fig. 1). The main source of secondary health data in this study was obtained from the weekly epidemiologi- cal review as supplied by local hospitals to the provincial health inspection of South-Kivu Prov- ince that has reliable patients' health records. Two data sets were available. One data set covering cho- lera cases throughout Bukavu town on a monthly basis between 1992 and 2011, while a second data set for cholera cases were available on a monthly basis for Katana rural health zone (1992 to 2011), death data was not used since across years, there were rare cases of death due to Cholera ...
Context 2
... interviews were also conducted and aimed at assessing household perceptions of envi- ronmental and diseases-related to climate change and variability. An integrated approach using both quantitative and qualitative techniques was em- ployed in assessing the vulnerability of communi- ties. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a household survey of >1000 people was conducted at three cholera sites in the 3 different municipali- ties of Bukavu town (Fig.1a). These primary data were complemented with key informant inter- views and participatory stakeholder meetings. The survey sample was stratified to ensure that communities living at various distances (0. 5,1,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40,45, 50 km) from Lake Kivu edge (50 km) to deep inside the country are included in the study. Thereafter, households in each of these strata were further stratified by gender, profession, age, and socio-economic sta- tus. The survey sought to establish the health (prevalence of cholera and related diarrheal dis- eases), demographic (sex and age mostly affected) and socio-economic (type of activity, tribe, reli- gion, low to high income earners, employed to non employed people) characteristics of the af- fected communities living in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. The key issues identified by the household survey regarding vulnerability and adaptability to cholera were probed in greater depth in the focus group ...

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Background: Rapid control of cholera outbreaks is a significant challenge in overpopulated urban areas. During late-2017, Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, experienced a cholera outbreak that showed potential to spread throughout the city. A novel targeted water and hygiene response strategy was implemented to quickly...

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... Studies on the relationship between the urban climate and human health found an association of thermal stress to pollution, thereby affecting children, elderly, and people in socioeconomic vulnerability with chronic disease (Gabriel and Endlicher, 2011;Scherer et al., 2013;Larsen, 2015). Also, studies pointed to the spread of infectious diseases as a consequence of climatic conditions of the cities (Munyuli et al., 2013;Ribeiro et al., 2016). According to the previous report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014), which examined the negative effects of UHI on the population, this phenomenon might aggravate and become more frequent in a near future. ...
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... Studies on the relationship between the urban climate and human health found an association of thermal stress to pollution, thereby affecting children, elderly, and people in socioeconomic vulnerability with chronic disease (Gabriel and Endlicher, 2011;Scherer et al., 2013;Larsen, 2015). Also, studies pointed to the spread of infectious diseases as a consequence of climatic conditions of the cities (Munyuli et al., 2013;Ribeiro et al., 2016). According to the previous report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014), which examined the negative effects of UHI on the population, this phenomenon might aggravate and become more frequent in a near future. ...
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... Au Sud-Kivu, à l'est de la RDC, les effets combinés du changement climatique et de COVID-19 risquent d'aggraver les conditions de vie de la population rurale déjà fragilisée par les conflits armés et l'insécurité ayant contraint de nombreux ménages agricoles à l'exode rural (Murhula et al., 2020 ;Bele et al, 2014 ;Buchekuderhwa et Mapatano, 2013). 5 L'étude de Munyuli et al. (2013) a déjà établi un lien significatif entre la variabilité des paramètres climatiques (température et précipitation) et la recrudescence des infections de cholera à Bukavu. Des pluies irrégulières et abondantes ainsi que des températures à tendance montante enregistrées dans le territoire de Kabare, de Walungu et à Uvira s'accompagnent de la dégradation des sols, de la destruction des champs, ainsi que des dégâts matériels et de perte en vies humaines (Heri-Kazi et Bielders, 2020 ;USAID, 2020 ;Bele et al., 2014). ...
... Cependant, la mise en place de ces stratégies varie d'un système de production à l'autre, des opportunités, des facteurs socio-économiques ainsi que de la perception des agriculteurs du changement climatique (Asayehegn et al., 2017 ;Abid et al., 2015 ;Ofuoku, 2011). 8 Dans la zone d'étude, alors que les recherches antérieures ont mis en évidence les impacts du changement climatique sur les communautés locales et leurs moyens d'existence (Cirimwami et al., 2019 ;Bele et al., 2014 ;Munyuli et al., 2013), l'analyse des déterminants de la perception des agriculteurs du changement climatique et de leurs stratégies d'adaptation fait encore défaut. Pourtant, de telles informations peuvent orienter les pouvoirs publics ainsi que les acteurs engagés dans le développement agricole à définir un programme de renforcement des capacités d'adaptation et de résilience des agriculteurs face au changement climatique, en formulant de nouvelles stratégies basées sur les savoirs endogènes (Kabore et al., 2019). ...
... Cette situation perturbe non seulement le calendrier agricole (Kosmowski et al., 2015 ;Assani, 1999 ), mais aussi défie les connaissances endogènes des agriculteurs de leur environnement. Par exemple, dans le site de Kabirundu en avril 2020, une agricultrice âgée de 47 ans indique : Munyuli et al. (2013) qui ont confirmé la tendance montante des températures et en ont déterminé l'impact sur la propagation du choléra dans la région. Bien que nombreux de ces agriculteurs ignorent que la température influence la croissance des cultures (Sourisseau et al., 2015 ;Kondinya et al., 2014), des températures journalières élevées conduisent à l'évaporation d'eau (Faye et al., 2019b ;Kolawole et al., 2014) sécheresses récurrentes perturbent les périodes de semis et affectent négativement des rendements des cultures et des fourrages. ...
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Smallholder farming vulnerability to climate change results from its direct dependence on climatic factors (rainfalls, temperatures, solar radiation). In the DR Congo, where 3/4 of the population depends on this type of agriculture, the combined effects of climate change and COVID-19 have been added to existing structural issues (example : persistent insecurity, impassable agricultural feeder roads ) to exacerbate threats to livelihoods of rural and periurban communities. Farmers ‘interviews within swamps of South Kivu reveal that the disruption of climatic elements such as rainfall and temperature patterns upsets farmers' endogenous knowledge of the climate. These farmers experience heavy and short rainfall (76 %), rising temperatures and a dry season likely long. Results from the binary logistic regression show that the appearance of new pests and the irregularity in rainfall patterns increase significantly farmers' conviction of climate change in the study area. Perceived impacts of climate change that farmers fear include the decline of soil fertility, decreasing yields, crops failure due to floods. Farmers’ adaptation strategies include the cleaning up streams, mulching as well as the application of manure, crop diversification and use of chemical pesticides that is currently farmers ‘preferred option to control pests. This paper provides valuable information that can guide policy makers as well as those involved in agricultural development to define a program that aims at strengthening farmers ’capacity to adapt to climate change by formulating new strategies based on existing local knowledge.
... Au Sud-Kivu, à l'est de la RDC, les effets combinés du changement climatique et de COVID-19 risquent d'aggraver les conditions de vie de la population rurale déjà fragilisée par les conflits armés et l'insécurité ayant contraint de nombreux ménages agricoles à l'exode rural (Murhula et al., 2020 ;Bele et al, 2014 ;Buchekuderhwa et Mapatano, 2013). 5 L'étude de Munyuli et al. (2013) a déjà établi un lien significatif entre la variabilité des paramètres climatiques (température et précipitation) et la recrudescence des infections de cholera à Bukavu. Des pluies irrégulières et abondantes ainsi que des températures à tendance montante enregistrées dans le territoire de Kabare, de Walungu et à Uvira s'accompagnent de la dégradation des sols, de la destruction des champs, ainsi que des dégâts matériels et de perte en vies humaines (Heri-Kazi et Bielders, 2020 ;USAID, 2020 ;Bele et al., 2014). ...
... Cependant, la mise en place de ces stratégies varie d'un système de production à l'autre, des opportunités, des facteurs socio-économiques ainsi que de la perception des agriculteurs du changement climatique (Asayehegn et al., 2017 ;Abid et al., 2015 ;Ofuoku, 2011). 8 Dans la zone d'étude, alors que les recherches antérieures ont mis en évidence les impacts du changement climatique sur les communautés locales et leurs moyens d'existence (Cirimwami et al., 2019 ;Bele et al., 2014 ;Munyuli et al., 2013), l'analyse des déterminants de la perception des agriculteurs du changement climatique et de leurs stratégies d'adaptation fait encore défaut. Pourtant, de telles informations peuvent orienter les pouvoirs publics ainsi que les acteurs engagés dans le développement agricole à définir un programme de renforcement des capacités d'adaptation et de résilience des agriculteurs face au changement climatique, en formulant de nouvelles stratégies basées sur les savoirs endogènes (Kabore et al., 2019). ...
... Cette situation perturbe non seulement le calendrier agricole (Kosmowski et al., 2015 ;Assani, 1999 ), mais aussi défie les connaissances endogènes des agriculteurs de leur environnement. Par exemple, dans le site de Kabirundu en avril 2020, une agricultrice âgée de 47 ans indique : Munyuli et al. (2013) qui ont confirmé la tendance montante des températures et en ont déterminé l'impact sur la propagation du choléra dans la région. Bien que nombreux de ces agriculteurs ignorent que la température influence la croissance des cultures (Sourisseau et al., 2015 ;Kondinya et al., 2014), des températures journalières élevées conduisent à l'évaporation d'eau (Faye et al., 2019b ;Kolawole et al., 2014) sécheresses récurrentes perturbent les périodes de semis et affectent négativement des rendements des cultures et des fourrages. ...
... Au Sud-Kivu, à l'est de la RDC, les effets combinés du changement climatique et de COVID-19 risquent d'aggraver les conditions de vie de la population rurale déjà fragilisée par les conflits armés et l'insécurité ayant contraint de nombreux ménages agricoles à l'exode rural (Murhula et al., 2020 ;Bele et al, 2014 ;Buchekuderhwa et Mapatano, 2013). 5 L'étude de Munyuli et al. (2013) a déjà établi un lien significatif entre la variabilité des paramètres climatiques (température et précipitation) et la recrudescence des infections de cholera à Bukavu. Des pluies irrégulières et abondantes ainsi que des températures à tendance montante enregistrées dans le territoire de Kabare, de Walungu et à Uvira s'accompagnent de la dégradation des sols, de la destruction des champs, ainsi que des dégâts matériels et de perte en vies humaines (Heri-Kazi et Bielders, 2020 ;USAID, 2020 ;Bele et al., 2014). ...
... Cependant, la mise en place de ces stratégies varie d'un système de production à l'autre, des opportunités, des facteurs socio-économiques ainsi que de la perception des agriculteurs du changement climatique (Asayehegn et al., 2017 ;Abid et al., 2015 ;Ofuoku, 2011). 8 Dans la zone d'étude, alors que les recherches antérieures ont mis en évidence les impacts du changement climatique sur les communautés locales et leurs moyens d'existence (Cirimwami et al., 2019 ;Bele et al., 2014 ;Munyuli et al., 2013), l'analyse des déterminants de la perception des agriculteurs du changement climatique et de leurs stratégies d'adaptation fait encore défaut. Pourtant, de telles informations peuvent orienter les pouvoirs publics ainsi que les acteurs engagés dans le développement agricole à définir un programme de renforcement des capacités d'adaptation et de résilience des agriculteurs face au changement climatique, en formulant de nouvelles stratégies basées sur les savoirs endogènes (Kabore et al., 2019). ...
... Cette situation perturbe non seulement le calendrier agricole (Kosmowski et al., 2015 ;Assani, 1999 ), mais aussi défie les connaissances endogènes des agriculteurs de leur environnement. Par exemple, dans le site de Kabirundu en avril 2020, une agricultrice âgée de 47 ans indique : Munyuli et al. (2013) qui ont confirmé la tendance montante des températures et en ont déterminé l'impact sur la propagation du choléra dans la région. Bien que nombreux de ces agriculteurs ignorent que la température influence la croissance des cultures (Sourisseau et al., 2015 ;Kondinya et al., 2014), des températures journalières élevées conduisent à l'évaporation d'eau (Faye et al., 2019b ;Kolawole et al., 2014) sécheresses récurrentes perturbent les périodes de semis et affectent négativement des rendements des cultures et des fourrages. ...
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Smallholder farming vulnerability to climate change results from its direct dependence on climatic factors (rainfalls, temperatures, solar radiation). In the DR Congo, where 3/4 of the population depends on this type of agriculture, the combined effects of climate change and COVID-19 have been added to existing structural issues (example : persistent insecurity, impassable agricultural feeder roads ) to exacerbate threats to livelihoods of rural and periurban communities. Farmers ‘interviews within swamps of South Kivu reveal that the disruption of climatic elements such as rainfall and temperature patterns upsets farmers' endogenous knowledge of the climate. These farmers experience heavy and short rainfall (76 %), rising temperatures and a dry season likely long. Results from the binary logistic regression show that the appearance of new pests and the irregularity in rainfall patterns increase significantly farmers' conviction of climate change in the study area. Perceived impacts of climate change that farmers fear include the decline of soil fertility, decreasing yields, crops failure due to floods. Farmers’ adaptation strategies include the cleaning up streams, mulching as well as the application of manure, crop diversification and use of chemical pesticides that is currently farmers ‘preferred option to control pests. This paper provides valuable information that can guide policy makers as well as those involved in agricultural development to define a program that aims at strengthening farmers ’capacity to adapt to climate change by formulating new strategies based on existing local knowledge.
... While 15 of the 19 papers identified in the review reported strong connections between heat exposure and cases of diarrhoea, [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] 4 found negligible or even negative associations. [18][19][20][21] This inconsistency illustrates the complexity of pathways between temperature and infectious diseases. ...
... [18][19][20] Risks of cholera outbreaks are clearly raised by flooding, and interruptions and breakdowns in water and sanitation services, as is presently unfolding in the neighbouring countries of South Africa following Cyclone Idai, but can also be raised during periods of warm weather. [14,16,18] For example, a study in Zambia found that a 1°C rise in temperature 6 weeks before the onset of a cholera outbreak explained 5.2% of the increase in number of cholera cases. [5] The authors of a Tanzanian study reported that an increase of 1°C would raise cholera cases by 29%, considerably more than estimates in studies elsewhere. ...
... The transmission is linked to poor management of environmental determinants such as sanitary conditions, access to quality drinking water, population density and lack of hygiene. The areas at greatest risk are those lacking basic infrastructure where the minimum requirements for clean water and sanitation are not met [5,6]. In the genus Vibrio twelve of the 66 species are considered pathogenic for humans. ...
... Climate changes bring new health challenges. As temperature increase, cholera and diarrheal diseases such as malaria and Dengue fever and other infections which are coming with the vectors and also food poisoning spread more (36,37). In addition, studies show that climate changes effect on physiological functions of the body and cardiovascular system and kidneys, which increase the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (38). ...
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... Epidemias de cólera (Munyuli et al., 2013) Epidemias de cólera são associadas a elevada pluviosidade, que favorece multiplicação da Vibrio Cholerae e contaminação de fontes de água em áreas densamente povoadas e sem condições de higiene e infraestrutura de saneamento. ...
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Foi feita revisão sistematizada de 67 artigos sobre o tema Clima Urbano e Saúde a partir de busca nas plataformas Web of Science e Pub Med. Os artigos foram organizados por data de publicação, país de realização do estudo, por temas: metodologias; evidências de riscos à saúde por estresse térmico e por doenças infecciosas relacionadas ao clima; mitigação dos extremos do clima urbano por vegetação e outras formas; cobenefícios e articulações políticas.
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Objective The outbreak of COVID-19 in South Kivu (DRC) raised the fear of added morbidity and mortality. Updating these indicators before a second wave seems essential to prepare for additional help. Methods From mid-May to mid-December 2020, weekly surveys in sampled streets from ten Health Areas quantified the application of barrier measures and analyzed questionnaires about sickness and death cases in interviewees’ households. Crude death rates (CDRs) were estimated. Results Little or no masking was observed in at least half of the streets. From May to December, the number of people presumably sick with Covid-19 increased sixfold (p < 0.05). Within 30 days before the interviews, 20% of deaths were presumably due to COVID-19. The monthly CDR at the beginning and end of the study were respectively close to 5 and 25 per 1000 people (p < 0.05); that is, annual CDRs of 60 and 260 per 1000, respectively. Thus, during the first epidemic wave, the estimated mortality rate increased by 50% vs. previous years and, by the end of 2020, it would have increased fourfold or more. Conclusion Despite possible overestimations, the excess mortality in South Kivu is extremely concerning. This profound crisis calls for rapid responses and increased humanitarian assistance.