Map of Chicago census tracts with (A) roof temperatures, (B) heat vulnerability index, and (C) AC consumption.

Map of Chicago census tracts with (A) roof temperatures, (B) heat vulnerability index, and (C) AC consumption.

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Green infrastructure, such as green roofs, is increasingly being used to reduce 'heat stresses' associated with urban heat island effects. This article discusses strategies to identify vulnerable neighborhoods in the City of Chicago, where green roofs could achieve multiple goals to mitigate urban heat-related challenges. Numerical simulations were...

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... Therefore, a comprehensive GI monitoring standard for the ECC is recommended to explore. Table 2 indicates that many studies have assessed indoor and outdoor air quality and thermal environments with modelling techniques on urban buildings and street canyons [153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163][164]. They found that idealised numerical models are able to describe quantitative relationships in the relevant topics. ...
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The elderly population is relatively vulnerable to air pollution and thermal stress due to their low mobility and high prevalence of chronic disorders. Appropriate green infrastructure (GI) deployment can improve both the indoor and outdoor air quality and thermal environments of elderly care centres (ECCs), yet a systematic review on this topic area is lacking. This review aims to fill this gap by investigating the impacts of GI on ECC building environment and presents the approaches for integrating GI into the building environment design. We discussed the significance of linking air quality with the thermal environment to ECCs and the effects of GI on the elderly's physical health. We investigated the key design considerations for GI in ECC buildings (e.g., spatial layout, species, aesthetics and fire prevention). Also, the diversity of monitoring and modelling approaches for evaluating the benefits of GI in indoor and outdoor environments was assessed. Finally, we evaluated the associated challenges and provided design recommendations for improving the environments in and around the ECC buildings (e.g., bedrooms, indoor gardens, green roofs and courtyards). The quantitative evidence for linking GI with indoor and outdoor air pollution and extreme heat around the ECC buildings are limited. However, this evidence-base is important for providing generic advice to the building designers and the elderly. Further studies such as the evaluation criteria and monitoring standard are required to develop holistic design recommendations for ECC buildings. The empirical research about the social and economic impacts is also necessary to facilitate the sustainable development of the ageing societies.
... Despite the emerging demand for interdisciplinary cooperation, and indications of a convergence of different disciplines addressing the same societal grand challenge, there are still gaps in research that need to be addressed properly. This includes more research on the interplay between climate change-adapted built environments and their effects and relation to health impacts [73,74]. New and adequate funding regimes as well as policy strategies are necessary for progress in this regard. ...
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Abstract: Climate change causes global effects on multiple levels. The anthropogenic input of greenhouse gases increases the atmospheric mean temperature. It furthermore leads to a higher probability of extreme weather events (e.g., heat waves, floods) and thus strongly impacts the habitats of humans, animals, and plants. Against this background, research and innovation activities are increasingly focusing on potential health-related aspects and feasible adaptation and mitigation strategies. Progressing urbanization and demographic change paired with the climate change- induced heat island effect exposes humans living in urban habitats to increasing health risks. By employing scientometric methods, this scoping study provides a systematic bird’s eye view on the epistemic landscapes of climate change, its health-related effects, and possible technological and nature-based interventions and strategies in order to make urban areas climate proof. Based on a literature corpus consisting of 2614 research articles collected in SCOPUS, we applied network-based analysis and visualization techniques to map the different scientific communities, discourses and their interrelations. From a public health perspective, the results demonstrate the range of either direct or indirect health effects of climate change. Furthermore, the results indicate that a public health-related scientific discourse is converging with an urban planning and building science driven discourse oriented towards urban blue and green infrastructure. We conclude that this development might mirror the socio-political demand to tackle emerging climate change-induced challenges by transgressing disciplinary boundaries.
... Despite the emerging demand for interdisciplinary cooperation, and indications of a convergence of different disciplines addressing the same societal grand challenge, there are still gaps in research that need to be addressed properly. This includes more research on the interplay between climate change-adapted built environments and their effects and relation to health impacts [73,74]. New and adequate funding regimes as well as policy strategies are necessary for progress in this regard. ...
... Several modeling studies have focused on testing the efficiency of different approaches to mitigating the UHI (Sun et al., 2016b;Zhao et al., 2017). Urban greening (more vegetative cover) has been found to be quite effective in various cit- Ketterer and Matzarakis, 2015;O'Malley et al., 2015;Sharma et al., 2018;Tsilini et al., 2015;De Munck et al., 2018;Zonato et al., 2021). Specifically, a significant reduction in surface temperature (5°C) and PET (average of 2.2°C) has been observed in Chania (Tsilini et al., 2015) and Stuttgart (Ketterer and Matzarakis, 2015), respectively. ...
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... Paradoxically, greening strategies can increase housing costs and property values (Ashley et al., 2018;Hamann et al., 2020), leading to gentrification and displacement of disadvantaged communities (Wolch et al., 2014). Installation of green roofs can increase rental prices in surrounding areas (Ichihara and Cohen, 2011) and the high cost of green roof construction and ongoing maintenance can mean that these projects do not benefit disadvantaged communities (Sharma et al., 2018). To avoid gentrifying processes and democratise the benefits of green infrastructure such as green roofs, a "just green enough" (Curran and Hamilton, 2012;Wolch et al., 2014) approach conceives greening projects based on socio-ecological need rather than normative design or species conservation outcomes. ...
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Green roofs have the potential to provide socio-ecological services in urban settings that lack vegetation and open space. However, implementation of green roofs is limited by high construction and maintenance costs. Consequently, green roof projects often disproportionately benefit wealthy communities and can further marginalise disadvantaged communities by increasing property values and housing costs. Vegetation cover on green roofs is crucial to their provisioning of socio-ecological services. Evidence suggests that green roof plantings change over time, especially with limited maintenance, and are replaced with spontaneous “weedy” species. This is often perceived as a failure of the original green roof design intent and spontaneous species are usually removed. However, where good coverage is achieved, spontaneous vegetation could provide beneficial services such as stormwater mitigation, habitat provision, and climate regulation. While social norms about “weediness” may limit the desirability of some spontaneous species, research suggests that their acceptability on green roofs increases with coverage. As spontaneous species can establish on green roofs without irrigation and fertiliser, reduced input costs could help facilitate adoption particularly in markets without an established green roof industry. Construction costs may also be reduced in hot and dry climates where deeper substrates are necessary to ensure plant survival, as many spontaneous species are able to colonise shallow substrates and can regenerate from seed. If implemented based on socio-ecological need, green roofs with spontaneous vegetation coverage may apply less pressure to property values and housing costs than conventionally planted green roofs, increasing the resilience of urban communities while limiting gentrification.
... Yang and Bou-Zeid (2019) simulated different scenarios of targeted cool roof implementation and found that cooling was modulated by the shape and location of the metropolitan area; however, they did not consider the spatial patterns of heat sensitivity and vulnerability in their simulations. Sharma et al. (2018) did directly consider spatial patterns of social vulnerability in simulations of green roofs in Chicago (Illinois)they simulated uniform green roofs and compared simulated roof surface temperatures and electricity consumption with a map of heat vulnerability to identify highpriority areas for green roof implementation. We build on these studies by directly accounting for spatial patterns of sociodemographically defined sensitivity when simulating targeted implementation of heat mitigation measures at the city scale. ...
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Cities are facing the twin pressures of greenhouse gas driven climatic warming and locally induced urban heating. These pressures are threatening populations that are sensitive to extreme heat due to sociodemographic factors including economic means. Heat-reducing infrastructure adaptation measures such as reflective “cool” materials can reduce urban temperatures. Here we examine the needs-based equity implications associated with heat-reducing cool roofing in Maricopa County, Arizona through application of high-resolution urban-atmospheric simulations. We simulate heatwave conditions and evaluate the air temperature reduction arising from uniform cool roof implementation (i.e., the entire urbanized county), and contrast results against simulated cooling impacts of needs-based targeted cool roof implementation in sociodemographically heat sensitive areas. We find that installing cool roofs uniformly, rather than in a targeted fashion, provides on average 0.66 °C reduction in the highest heat sensitivity area and 0.39 °C temperature reduction in the lowest heat sensitivity area due in part to a higher roof area density in the heat sensitive area. Targeting cool roof implementation yields 0.45 °C cooling in the most sensitive areas compared to 0.22 °C cooling in the least sensitive areas, meaning that need-based targeted cool roofs in high sensitivity areas provide more relief than cool roofs targeted at low sensitivity areas, thus providing more cooling where it is most needed. Needs-based targeted implementation has the dual benefits of concurrently producing more than twice as much cooling and reducing heat exposure for the largest absolute number of individuals in the densely populated, highly heat sensitive areas. Targeting cool roof implementation to high heat sensitivity areas, however, does not achieve thermally equal temperatures in Maricopa County because the high sensitivity areas were substantially warmer than low sensitivity areas prior to implementation. This study illustrates the utility of a new “Targeted Urban Heat Adaptation” (TUHA) framework to assess needs-based equity implications of heat-reducing strategies and underscores its importance by examining the impacts of cooling interventions across sociodemographically heterogeneous urban environments.
... Recent studies have also made useful advances in the literature, but they often focus on individual climate benefits (e.g. De la Sota et al., 2019;Nordman et al., 2018;Alves et al., 2019); or mainly focus on health co-benefits (Harlan and Ruddell, 2011;Venkataramanan et al., 2019); or a particular case study context (Baró et al., 2014;Derkzen et al., 2015); or specific GI types (Russo et al., 2016;Salmond et al., 2016;Sharma et al., 2018), mostly with little emphasis on trade-offs. As cities turn increasingly to GI and other 'nature-based solutions' for climate adaptation and mitigation, a more comprehensive understanding of the climate benefits, co-benefits and trade-offs of GI is needed in order to maximize synergies and avoid unintended adverse impacts. ...
... If climate benefits of GI are detached from social demand and access to the benefits, GI might result in increased social injustice by offering benefits to certain groups of society with relevance and accessibility (Rodríguez et al., 2006;Hansen et al., 2016). Thus, research should be conducted into incorporating environmental justice issues into planning climate-conscious GI schemes by prioritizing vulnerable communities (Sharma et al., 2018). ...
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Climate change increases risks to natural and human systems. Green infrastructure (GI) has been increasingly recognized as a promising nature-based solution for climate change adaptation, mitigation, and other societal objectives for sustainable development. Although the climate contribution of GI has been extensively addressed in the literature, the linkages between the climate benefits and associated co-benefits and trade-offs remain unclear. We systematically reviewed the evidence from 141 papers, focusing on their climate benefits, relevant co-benefits and trade-offs, and the GI types that provide such climate (co-)benefits. This study presents a comprehensive overview of the links between climate benefits, co-benefits and types of GI, categorized along a green-grey continuum so that researchers/practitioners can find information according to their topic of interest. We further provide an analysis of trade-offs between various GI benefits. ‘Bundles’ of major co-benefits and trade-offs for each climate benefit can be identified with recommendations for strategies to maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs. To promote climate-resilient pathways through GI, it is crucial for decision-makers to identify opportunities to deliver multiple ecosystem services and benefits while recognizing disservices and trade-offs that need to be avoided or managed.
... Modeling a variety of adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change has been explored for different cities (e.g., Sharma et al., 2016Sharma et al., , 2018. Common strategies reported at ICUC-10 were to improve indoor comfort, reduce heat stress, and reduce UHI effects. ...
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The Urban Climate and Resiliency-Science Working Group (i.e., The WG) was convened in the summer of 2018 to explore the scientific grand challenges related to climate resiliency of cities. The WG leveraged the presentations at the 10th International Conference on Urban Climate (ICUC10) held in New York City (NYC) on 6–10 August 2018 as input forum. ICUC10 was a collaboration between the International Association of Urban Climate, American Meteorological Society, and World Meteorological Organization. It attracted more than 600 participants from more than 50 countries, resulting in close to 700 oral and poster presentations under the common theme of “Sustainable & Resilient Urban Environments”. ICUC10 covered topics related to urban climate and weather processes with far-reaching implications to weather forecasting, climate change adaptation, air quality, health, energy, urban planning, and governance. This article provides a synthesis of the analysis of the current state of the art and of the recommendations of the WG for future research along each of the four Grand Challenges in the context of urban climate and weather resiliency; Modeling, Observations, Cyber-Informatics, and Knowledge Transfer & Applications.
... The 39 papers can be divided into 3 main groups, a first one focusing on climatic aspects and refined modelling of urban thermal characteristics (Levy et al., 2008;Górka-Kostrubiec et al., 2012;Krüger et al., 2013;Huang et al., 2014) and a second group with a focus on urban patterns, including analyses of selected spatial, building, and/or population distribution aspects (Wilhelmi and Hayden, 2010;Chow et al., 2012;Fischer et al., 2012;Gunawardena and Steemers, 2019;Khan et al., 2020). This group also comprises papers exploring the role of urban form on local thermal environments (Mehrotra et al., 2018;Voelkel et al., 2018;Xu et al., 2019) including recommendations on improved design (Cetin, 2015;Csete and Buzasi, 2016) or greening (Weber et al., 2015;Arnberger et al., 2017) and urban green infrastructure (Cetin, 2015;Arnberger et al., 2017;Sharma et al., 2018;Lewis et al., 2019). ...
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With climate change and socioeconomic trends expected to exacerbate the risk of urban heat stress, implementing adaptation measures is paramount to limit adverse impacts of heat on urban inhabitants. Identification of the best options needs to be based on sound, localised assessments of risk, understood as the interaction of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Yet a review of the literature reveals that minimal research to date considers the perceived impacts of heat among urban residents. Based on a household survey in Bonn, Germany, this paper adopts an integrated approach to assess how different socioeconomic groups are affected by heat stress and explores the connections between perceived impacts of heat and indicators of exposure and vulnerability across groups. Results indicate that all socioeconomic groups are at risk of urban heat stress, though to differing extents and for different reasons. Exposure was found to be lowest in groups typically considered to be of higher risk, such as older respondents, who at the same time have the highest susceptibility. Students and other younger respondents, on the other hand, face comparably high exposure and have the lowest coping and adaptive capacities. At the same time, each group has its own capacities with the potential to mitigate risk. The study shows that urban inhabitants beyond “classic risk groups” usually addressed in literature and policy are affected by heat stress in ways that may not be accounted for in current urban policy.
... Provision of public spaces and urban green areas including shaded parks and green belts (Potchter et al., 2006) can significantly improve heat stress scenario in compact low-rise and mid-rise zones (LCZ 3 and 3 2 ) (Akbari et al., 2001;Bowler et al., 2010;Song et al., 2020). A careful climate-sensitive roof design using green roofs (Sharma et al., 2018) and cool roofs (Rosenfeld et al., 1998) can help in reducing high indoor temperatures thus providing thermal comfort to the occupants (Armson et al., 2012;Jamei and Rajagopalan, 2017). In sparsely built areas, (LCZ 9), blue and green infrastructure is a feasible city level solution including the introduction of more vegetation and water bodies as multiple measures for evaporative cooling (Bowler et al., 2010;Demuzere et al., 2014;AlKhaled et al., 2020). ...
Article
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report highlights the projected increase in heat wave (HW) frequency, intensity, and duration. Globally, HW events have caused massive deaths in the past. India has also experienced severe HWs and thousands have reportedly died during the past decade. The study uses the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification developed by Stewart and Oke (2012) for evaluating heat stress at the city level during the summer period. Stationery surveys were conducted to collect micro-meteorological data in different LCZs. The study analyses the unique behaviour of mapped LCZs in Nagpur, a tropical landlocked Indian city using widely adopted heat indices (heat index and humidex). It investigates two kinds of probabilities, the distribution of heat stress levels in a particular LCZ and how vulnerable are various LCZs to a given heat stress level. It adopts a statistical approach fitting a predictive logit model to estimate the probability of heat stress in various LCZs. The results show that temperature regimes differ significantly across the LCZs. Secondly, heat stress varies greatly depending upon the LCZs. The mapping scheme and the corresponding heat stress provides indispensable information for targeted heat response planning and heat stress mitigation strategies in heat-prone areas.