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Male attractiveness ranking by age (R 2 =0.551).  

Male attractiveness ranking by age (R 2 =0.551).  

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This study investigated male attractiveness rankings in a small-scale Amazonian society. In the rural community of Conambo, Ecuador, men and women practice self-sufficient horticulture, men hunt, and, traditionally, men have experienced a high rate of mortality due to homicide. We tested whether male attractiveness rankings would be related to male...

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... strong negative relationship was found between male age and attractiveness (r=−.683, N=29, pb.01) in a bivariate correlation (Fig. 1). Females showed a preference for younger men, with the highest preferences between the ages of 25 and 30 years. While data showed that females have a preference for men of high status, and older males have the highest status, this preference is only secondary to ...
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... strong negative relationship was found between male age and attractiveness (r=−.683, N=29, pb.01) in a bivariate correlation (Fig. 1). Females showed a preference for younger men, with the highest preferences between the ages of 25 and 30 years. While data showed that females have a preference for men of high status, and older males have the highest status, this preference is only secondary to ...

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... Male athletes in competitive sports achieve higher financial status and access to women, relative to men who do not engage in sports (Faurie et al., 2004;Lombardo, 2012;Schulte-Hostedde et al., 2008). Both athletes and warriors are desired by women (Escasa et al. 2010;Miller et al., 1998;Schulte-Hostedde et al., 2008) and have more sexual partners (Chagnon, 1988;Macfarlan et al., 2014;Glowacki & Wrangham, 2015) by means of increased social status and power (Furley, 2019;Glowacki & Wrangham, 2013;Hames, 2020;Shavers et al., 2015;Thirer & Wright, 1985). ...
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Objectives The male warrior hypothesis suggests that men have evolved psychological mechanisms to form aggressive coalitions against members of outgroups, which may explain men’s propensity to engage in warfare, as well as team sports. We examined gender differences in skin conductivity and attitudes toward war after exposing participants to video imagery depicting sports and war from a sample of young adults from Slovakia. Methods We measured skin conductivity responses using electrodermal activity (EDA) when participants watched three short videos: Football, World War II, and Control. Then, implicit and explicit attitudes toward war and subjective arousal of the three videos were examined using questionnaires. Results Men showed higher maximal skin conductivity when watching a team sport video, compared to a control video. Skin conductivity during a war video did not significantly differ from a sport or control video. In contrast, women showed highest maximal skin conductivity when watching a war video, followed by the sport and control videos, but these differences were not statistically significant. When the videos were subjectively rated by the same participants, men rated team sports and war as similarly arousing, but ratings of these videos were not significantly different for women. Conclusions These results suggest that visual cues of warfare and team sports influence skin conductivity, but we did not find support for the hypothesis that sport is a substitute for war. Because this study was based exclusively on visual cues, we discuss additional possibilities that could influence future investigations.
... This could be explained by men's perception that displaying dead snakes online will be viable means of showing off, boost their masculine egos and online profiles in a bid to increase their biological attractiveness to the female members of the online discussion community. Escasa et al. (2010)'s study of male attractiveness rankings in a small-scale Amazonian society showed that females were attracted to male traits such as status, gallantry and hunting ability. However, the finding of this study cannot be generalized to other study settings, especially in a complex and ever-changing world. ...
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The internet is a useful tool for obtaining data needed to study factors that hinder snake conservation especially in resource-limited settings. There is a paucity of peer-reviewed research on the use of online communities in the study of factors contributing to undesirable human-snake conflicts in Nigeria. A 12- month dataset (August 2016-July 2017) on human-snake encounters shared on Nairaland®- a popular online community forum in Nigeria - was retrieved and analyzed. Morphological characteristics observed in the snake photographs posted on the platform were used for species identification. A total of 203 human-snake encounters were recorded from 32/37 States of Nigeria. Men (n=133) reported more human-snake encounters than women (n =11) while “reporters of unspecified gender (n =59) accounted for the rest. Most postings were from the southern part of Nigeria with the highest number of postings from Lagos State (n =34). Of the 24 snake species reported in the study, the African Rock Python was the most encountered. The months of May to July recorded the highest number of snake species reported by the respondents. ‘Fear’ and ‘food’ were the major perceptions elicited by people during snake encounters. The outcome of human-snake conflicts resulted in snake deaths (n =182) irrespective of snake venomosity. Only 1.0% (n=2) of the snakes were protected from harm. This study revealed that data from online community forums are useful for retrospective studies of the perceptions and outcomes of human-snake encounters; the output of which policymakers and conservationists may find useful.
... More generally, it has repeatedly been shown that not only objectively visible traits but also contextual variables can influence how people's physical attractiveness is rated by others (e.g., Faust, Chatterjee & Christopoulos, 2018;Kniffin & Wilson, 2004). For example, factors unrelated to physical features such as membership in a common social group (Escasa, Gray & Patton, 2010) or feelings toward other people (Kniffin, Wansink, Griskevicius & Wilson, 2014) have been shown to have an impact on the perception of others' attractiveness. In sum, there is the strong tendency that people rate a familiar individual that they also like as more attractive than would someone who is unfamiliar with that individual. ...
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Past research has shown that how people rate their physical attractiveness is only moderately correlated with how they are rated by others, suggesting that at least some people have little insight into their true level of attractiveness. The present research tests the hypothesis that unattractive people are not aware of their unattractiveness. In fact, six studies (overall N = 1,180) showed that unattractive participants considerably overestimated their attractiveness compared to ratings by strangers. In contrast, attractive participants were more accurate. If anything, they underestimated their attractiveness. It was also examined why unattractive people overestimate their attractiveness. As expected, unattractive participants differentiated less between attractive and unattractive stimulus persons than did attractive participants. They were also more likely than attractive participants to select unattractive stimulus persons to compare themselves to. However, these tendencies did not account for why unattractive participants overestimated their attractiveness, nor did affirming participant’s self‐worth. Limitations and avenues for future research are discussed.
... Additionally, although there were divisions of labor by age and sex and variations in skill and specialization, everyone had some familiarity with many of the skills and tasks necessary for survival, including tool-making, food production, and caregiving. One of the consequences of such interconnectedness is that there is a high degree of consensus in small-scale populations regarding the relative social status and the particular strengths and weaknesses of others in the community: who is the best hunter, who is the best mother, who has the best garden, who is the strongest fighter, who is the worst liar, who is the biggest cheater (Bird et al., 2001;Gurven and von Rueden, 2006;Pillsworth, 2008;Escasa et al., 2010). In addition, there is strong consensus about the value of these various traits, including which traits matter most in a reproductive partner. ...
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Evolutionary mismatch concepts are being fruitfully employed in a number of research domains, including medicine, health, and human cognition and behavior to generate novel hypotheses and better understand existing findings. We contend that research on human mating will benefit from explicitly addressing both the evolutionary mismatch of the people we study and the evolutionary mismatch of people conducting the research. We identified nine mismatch characteristics important to the study of human mating and reviewed the literature related to each of these characteristics. Many of the people we study are: exposed to social media, in temporary relationships, relocatable, autonomous in their mating decisions, nulliparous, in groups that are socially segmented, in an educational setting, confronted with lots of options, and young. We applied mismatch concepts to each characteristic to illustrate the importance of incorporating mismatch into this research area. Our aim in this paper is not to identify all potential mismatch effects in mating research, nor to challenge or disqualify existing data. Rather, we demonstrate principled ways of thinking about evolutionary mismatch in order to propel progress in mating research. We show how attending to the potential effects of mismatch can help us refine our theoretical and methodological approaches and deepen our understanding of existing patterns in the empirical record. We conclude with specific recommendations about how to include consideration of evolutionary mismatch into research on human mating.
... In the Tsimane of Bolivia, successful male hunters have more attractive wives, higher levels of fertility, and are rated as more influential than those who are unsuccessful (Gurven et al. 2009; cf. similar results in an Amazonian society: Escasa et al. 2010). Interestingly, following predictions from assortative mating in Western societies (Buston and Emlen 2003;Robinson et al. 2017), productive Tsimane men are paired with productive women, with these pairs having higher in-pair fertility and their children showing higher survivorship than children in other families (Gurven et al. 2009). ...
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[Target Article.] Objectives: Sexual selection typically centers on bodily and psychological traits. Non-bodily traits ranging from housing and vehicles through art to social media can, however, influence sexual selection even in absence of the phenotype proper. The theoretical framework of human sexual selection is updated in this article by unifying four theoretical approaches and conceptualizing non-bodily traits as extended phenotypic traits. Methods: Existing research is synthesized with extended phenotype theory, life history theory, and behavioral ecology. To test population-level hypotheses arising from the review, ecological and demographic data on 122 countries are analyzed with multiple linear regression modelling. Results: A four-factor model of intelligence, adolescent fertility, population density, and atmospheric cold demands predicts 64% of global variation in economic complexity in 1995 and 72% of the variation in 2016. Conclusions: The evolutionary pathways of extended phenotypes frequently undergo a categorical broadening from providing functional benefits to carrying signalling value. Extended phenotypes require investments in skills and bioenergetic resources, but they can improve survival in high latitudes, facilitate the extraction of resources from the environment, and substantially influence sexual selection outcomes. Bioenergetic investments in extended phenotypes create individual- and population-level tradeoffs with competing life history processes, exemplified here as a global tradeoff between adolescent fertility and economic complexity. The merits of the present model include a more systematic classification of sexual traits, a clearer articulation of their evolutionary-developmental hierarchy, and an analysis of ecological, genetic, and psychological mechanisms that modulate the flow of energy into extended phenotypes and cultural innovations.
... If natural selection designed mental adaptations to navigate the selection pressures inherent in ancestral warfare, then such mechanisms should regulate an individual's support for war as a function of variables thatancestrallypredicted the reproductive consequences of advocating for war in that individual and their kin. In the small-scale, technologically-sparse world of ancestral warfare, men with superior fighting ability would have been more likely to survive a war, to lead his side to victory, and to receive a sizeable portion of the spoils of war (Chagnon, 1988;Escasa, Gray, & Patton, 2010;Van Vugt et al., 2007). Therefore, men who are better physical fighters today should still favor war as a tactic in resolving group disputes more so than men who are poor fighters (prediction #1). ...
Article
There is substantial evidence from archaeology, anthropology, primatology, and psychology indicating that humans have a long evolutionary history of war. Natural selection, therefore, should have designed mental adaptations for making decisions about war. These adaptations evolved in past environments, and so they may respond to variables that were ancestrally relevant but not relevant in modern war. For example, ancestrally in small-scale combat, a skilled fighter would be more likely to survive a war and bring his side to victory. This ancestral regularity would have left its mark on modern men's intergroup psychology: more formidable men should still be more supportive of war. We test this hypothesis in four countries: Argentina, Denmark, Israel, and Romania. In three, physically strong men (but not strong women) were significantly more supportive of military action. These findings support the hypothesis that modern warfare is influenced by a psychology designed for ancestral war.
... Indeed, both adults (Langlois et al., 2000) and infants (e.g., Rubenstein et al., 1999) seem to show a preference for attractive rather than unattractive faces. Attractiveness, also, provides information relevant for reproduction, including mates' health (Boothroyd et al., 2013;Lee et al., 2013); mate quality (Pisanski and Feinberg, 2013;Doll et al., 2014); strength and dominance (e.g., Re et al., 2013); personality (e.g., Penton-Voak et al., 2006;Welling et al., 2009); intelligence (e.g., Kanazawa and Kovar, 2004;Denny, 2008); success (Lerner and Lerner, 1977); income (Frieze et al., 1991;Escasa et al., 2010) and emotional state (Adams and Kleck, 2003). Thus, being attractive seems to be advantageous to maximize reproductive success. ...
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Little research has examined what happens to attention and memory as a whole when humans see someone attractive. Hence, we investigated whether attractive stimuli gather more attention and are better remembered than unattractive stimuli. Participants took part in an attention task - in which matrices containing attractive and unattractive male naturalistic photographs were presented to 54 females, and measures of eye-gaze location and fixation duration using an eye-tracker were taken - followed by a recognition task. Eye-gaze was higher for the attractive stimuli compared to unattractive stimuli. Also, attractive photographs produced more hits and false recognitions than unattractive photographs which may indicate that regardless of attention allocation, attractive photographs produce more correct but also more false recognitions. We present an evolutionary explanation for this, as attending to more attractive faces but not always remembering them accurately and differentially compared with unseen attractive faces, may help females secure mates with higher reproductive value.
... There are, however, some notable exceptions that are at odds with the above findings. For example, a study examining a population from Ecuador documented a pattern in which women preferred younger as opposed to older men (Escasa, Gray, & Patton, 2010). Similarly, examining a Swedish population, one study found that while younger women preferred men older than themselves, the majority of women who were postreproductive preferred younger partners (Gustavsson et al., 2008). ...
Article
Heterosexual age preferences have been extensively studied by evolutionary psychologists, social psychologists, and demographers. Much less is known about such preferences in homosexual men and women. Around two decades ago, D. T. Kenrick, R. C. Keefe, A. Bryan, A. Barr, and S. Brown (1995) examined heterosexual and homosexual mating preferences for age in men and women. Our study aimed to replicate these findings by examining age preferences in a larger UK online dating sample. Dating advertisements of 996 male and female heterosexuals and homosexuals were coded. Age preferences were assessed via generalized linear models with robust standard errors and bootstrapping. Results showed that the relation between own age and preferred age differed substantially between the groups. With increasing age, heterosexual men preferred younger partners. Older heterosexual men (>50years) exclusively sought (much) younger women than themselves, whereas younger heterosexual men sought both older and younger women. Male and female homosexuals followed this general trend of preferring increasingly younger mates with increasing age. However, they displayed a higher upper age tolerance and greater range of acceptable ages than both heterosexual men and women. Female heterosexuals' age preferences were distinct from the other groups, in that they displayed a male older norm with no substantial interest expressed in males younger than themselves. Our findings thus largely corroborate those of Kenrick et al. with some exceptions, such as a larger tolerance of age ranges in homosexual men and women compared to heterosexual men and women. Results are discussed with reference to the current literature on similarities and differences in heterosexual and homosexual mate preferences.
... With regards to age, evolutionary psychologists have specifically argued that youth is a cue to fertility in women, and therefore important to men; on the other hand, age may be a cue to status and access to resources for males, and therefore of importance to women (e.g., Buss & Barnes, 1986;Buss & Schmitt, 1993;Buss, 1989). Research tends to support the existence of age preferences in line with predictions derived from evolutionary psychology (e.g., Davis, 1998;Dunn, Brinton, & Clark, 2010; but also see Escasa, Gray, & Patton, 2010). Studies from evolutionary and social psychology have also suggested that heterosexual mate choice can be conceptualized as a "trade," whereby, for example, men offer wealth in exchange for female youth (e.g., Pawłowski & Dunbar, 1999;Pawłowski & Koziel, 2002;Baumeister & Vohs, 2004). ...
Article
Prior research has shown that a sample of super-wealthy men tended to marry (and remarry) younger women than the general U.S. population (Pollet, Pratt, Edwards, and Stulp; 2013). This relationship has been argued to fit with a notion of a mating market, whereby wealthy men offer access to resources in exchange for female youth. The present research examines whether or not a similar exchange relationship potentially also exists in a sample of U.S. politicians, as it is expected that male politicians might also offer resources in exchange for youth. Using data collected via Wikipedia and online news sources on ranking U.S. politicians, our data show that the difference in age between a male politician and his wife does not differ significantly from the current estimate of the general U.S. population. Male U.S. Politicians do show significantly smaller age gaps than the estimate for men from the Forbes 400, however. These results suggests that, at least in terms of the age-gap in marriage, U.S. politicians resemble the general population more than they do the economic elite, perhaps due to a pressure to conform to social norms.
... In order to assess the level of men's investments in their families, we employed a photograph ranking method. This commonly used method relies on the collective knowledge of communities rather than observational measures (Escasa et al. 2010;Koster 2011;von Rueden et al. 2008). In this method, participants rank photographs of known individuals along some variable of interest. ...
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Men's investments in parenting and long-term reproductive relationships are a hallmark feature of human reproduction and life history. The uniqueness of such male involvement among catarrhines has driven an extensive debate surrounding the selective pressures that led to and maintain such capacities in men. Three major pathways have been proposed through which men's involvement might confer fitness benefits: enhancing child well-being, increasing couple fertility, and decreasing likelihood of partner desertion. Previous research has explored the impact of father involvement on these factors individually, but here we present novel research that explores all three pathways within the same population, the Mayangna/Miskito horticulturalists of Nicaragua. Furthermore, we expand the traditional dichotomous measure of father presence/absence by using a continuous measure of overall male investment, as well as two continuous measures of its subcomponents: direct care and wealth. We find that men's investments are associated with children's growth and possibly with wife's marital satisfaction; however, they are not associated with couple fertility.