Main pattern of associations between dog-directed parenting styles and owner/dog behaviours.

Main pattern of associations between dog-directed parenting styles and owner/dog behaviours.

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Dog-directed parenting is an aspect of the owner-dog relationship that describes the overarching emotional sphere in which the dog's guidance and training take place. How dog-directed parenting styles express in specific owner-dog interactions is presently unknown. However, such knowledge can help to advise dog owners on appropriate parenting of th...

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... highlight the main pattern(s) of associations between dogdirected parenting styles and owner/dog behaviours, we ran a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, N = 35) and here report the two explanatory components (Table 4) ...

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... Two styles related to an owner's need to dominate the dog or to humanize the dog, while the third seemed unhindered by such views (Van Herwijnen et al., 2020a). This third style related to the dog's looking at the owner more (Van Herwijnen et al., 2020b). This is of interest, as the dog's looking at the owner comes with attentiveness that may facilitate desired behaviours and/or prevent the development of undesired behaviours in the dog Payne et al., 2017). ...
... This is of interest, as the dog's looking at the owner comes with attentiveness that may facilitate desired behaviours and/or prevent the development of undesired behaviours in the dog Payne et al., 2017). The study that hinted on the thus beneficial dog-directed parenting style involved 41 owners which were likely highly engaged with their dog ownership (Van Herwijnen et al., 2020b). These owners navigated with their dogs a course with distractions and spent break-time together. ...
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Dogs need to adapt to a human environment to enhance their welfare and to avoid risks of undesired dog behaviour and relinquishment. Crucial to this adaptation may be how an owner interacts with the dog. Owner–dog interactions may be influenced by the human caregiving system with regard to how care, protection and resources are provided. This narrative review discusses how a consideration of the human caregiving system can benefit owner–dog interactions. Literature suggests that the human caregiving system and parenting styles could influence owner–dog interactions. Owner–dog education may improve these interactions. However, studies on owner–dog education present mixed outcomes for the dog. Also, only a few studies address owner outcomes, indicating a gap that needs filling. It is concluded that, when intervening in owner–dog interactions, more attention should be directed to aspects of human psychology. Dog-directed parenting styles can form one strategy as to improve owner–dog interactions and dog welfare.
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