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Main features of perspectives 

Main features of perspectives 

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Sustainability is a key concept in international, national and local policymaking for the coming decades. However, the concept is also highly normative, value loaded, and subject to many interpretations. Yet, the various definitions have in common that they emphasise the need to address human development and environmental imperatives simultaneously...

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... the Cultural Theory ( Thompson et al., 1990) a typology of perspectives is given to express pluralism. In this theory that is based on anthropological research, five perspectives are distinguished: hierarchist or controllist, egalitarian or environmental worrywart, individualist or market-optimist, fatalist and hermit (Figure 4). The first three are active perspectives as they share an action oriented worldview and management style. ...


... Beyond the national EEZs lie the High Seas, comprising 38% of ocean space (VLIZ, 2011). Here the notion of the Common Heritage of Mankind is applicable (Borgese, 1998;Stel and Loorbach, 2003). In practice however, the open access approach as pleaded for by Grotius still persists for the High Seas of ocean space. ...
Jules Verne’s life was framed by the second phase of the British Industrial Revolution. In his nineteenth-century world, a transition to steam occurred. It was a time of rapid technological developments and explorations of every corner of the Earth’s surface. Then the world population clock ticked slowly and was well below 1.3 billion. Today, more than 7.8 billion people live in the fourth phase of that revolution, and the world population clock is ticking faster and faster. To solve our urgent demand for resources, we will shortly exploit the unknown treasure troves of deep ocean space. However, only some 15% of the ocean floor is mapped in detail, and less than 0.0001% of the deep-sea is explored. Since the 1990s a transition to global operational oceanography is occurring, with advanced monitoring systems, new technology like Argo floats, gliders and state-of-the-art ocean modelling. A new wave of ocean exploration is urgently needed, as is an adaptation of the prevailing international legislation, to keep up with the coming sustainable exploitation of ocean space. Blue resources discussed in this chapter are: fisheries, bioprospecting and deep-sea mining. In a low-carbon society, citizens should be aware of and be involved in this through ocean literacy.