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Main components of iPhone 5. Source: IHS iSuppli Research, 2012 4 .

Main components of iPhone 5. Source: IHS iSuppli Research, 2012 4 .

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Article
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This article shows how the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is significantly affected by the redeployment of transpacific specialized value chains and production networks. More specifically , our study looks at the repositioning of NAFTA partners with new transnational production networks which point to the need for new trading schemes r...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... example, within an iPhone 5 (2012), among the twenty-two main parts (processor, touch- screen, memory, etc.), Japan and the United States are the two main countries of origin of components. It is only through the intermediary of the Foxconn that the participation of China appears ( Table 5). We can thus summarize the production of the iPhone in four steps: 1) product design in the United States; 2) purchase of components among US, Japanese, Korean and European suppliers; 3) assembly of components at Foxconn factories in China; 4) export of finished products worldwide. ...

Citations

... Hence the need not only to increase the participation of small and medium-sized agricultural producers in the most dynamic agro-industrial chains (Rioux et al., 2015) but also to expand the process of generating jobs and non-agricultural income in rural areas. In addition to improving education, health and other public services (CAF/FAO, 2006), the impact and importance of periodic diagnoses throughout the value chain using key indicators (Amjath et al., 2020;Bhattacharjee & Lisauskaite, 2020;Noboa Salazar et al., 2022), should be a regulated governance factor in the functioning of food production systems. ...
Book
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This book presents four essays starting from searching key pieces to deepen and analyse the structure and actors involved in the interaction of models and supply chains. Estimating a documentary and numerical review for decision-makers, and estimating economic relations at the national level and the foreign sector. Thereafter, strengthening the right to food sovereignty as a prevailing factor or mainstay for people. The first chapter analyzes a knowledge gap to expand the cognition of agriculture value chains through bibliometric analysis, in which the review of multiple scientific works investigative, and methodological development is evaluated. A point to consider in the research is that local governments develop agricultural policies with regulations based on socioeconomic results, management systems improvement and food sovereignty promotion. The second chapter deepens the analysis of the current structures from the value chains in Ecuadorian territory, regarding dry hard corn and its relationship with the actors that guide the various models in the food supply chain. It incorporates decision-makers for evaluating economic systems under the Food Sovereignty approach in synergy with the social and ecological process. The third chapter critically reviews the information in documents and national statistics in high-impact databases, as well as specialized institutions at the international and national levels. It describes the agricultural raw material markets performance, especially the Corn Value Chain in Ecuador under the Food Sovereignty approach. The fourth chapter estimates possible imports of products, such as fertilizer, oil derivates, agricultural chemicals, telephone, and communication equipment; related to agriculture for a defined short-term objective committed in guaranteeing food Sovereignty in Ecuador. It will be analyzed using homogeneous time series models with adjustments for partial periods such as AR, MA and ARMA.
... Still, the recent renegotiation of NAFTA, now called the United States Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA), requires an increase in the regional content, from 62.5 percent to 75 percent 5 . According to Rioux et al. (2015) and Barajas (2019), instead of reinforcing regional content, a better approach would be to link to the Transpacific Trade Partnership (TPP) to gain from the already established GVCs in the region. The Bank of Mexico (2017) uses a different database, WIOD, to estimate trade in value-added to the U.S. and Mexico. ...
... When analyzing the effects of NAFTA on the U.S. economy, technological change and China's participation in world trade since 2001 are two elements that are not always considered. Rioux et al. (2015) analyze the influence that trade with China has had in the NAFTA region. For instance, Mexico was the primary source of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products for the U.S. in 2001. ...
... For instance, Mexico was the primary source of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products for the U.S. in 2001. Ten years later, bilateral trade flows in this industry fell by 50 percent due to increased ICT imports from China (Rioux et al., 2015). The ICT industry is an example of a setting in which Mexico has developed links to GVCs. ...
Article
Mexico's participation in the global manufacturing production began with the in-bond or maquiladora industry in the mid-60s. Since then, the manufacturing industry has positioned itself in the Global Value Chains (GVCs). However, the analysis of foreign trade in global manufacturing production requires a different measurement that accounts for trade in value-added. In this article, we examine the global manufacturing production as well as the determining factors of trade in value-added for the 2003-2018 period. This analysis becomes relevant for designing an industrial policy focused on improving Mexico's participation in the creation of added value linked to GVC. We corroborate the significance of the U.S. industrial activity as a determinant of the trade in value-added. The Mexican industrial activity becomes a significant determinant as well as the gross fixed capital formation. However, we found that traditional variables, such as foreign direct investment, are not significant. These results led us to believe that more efforts in constructing a theoretical framework are needed to explain the trade in value-added.
... Pour toutes ces raisons, plusieurs n'hésitent pas à dire que l'ALENA est à la fois un accord du passé, soit du XX e siècle, et un accord dépassé pour répondre aux défis du XXI e siècle (Arès et Loiseau, 2015 ;Arès, Huang et Rioux, 2015et Arès et Laberge, 2015, Fast cité par Radio-Canada, 2014). Dans ce contexte, une nouvelle génération d'accords apparaît comme on peut le constater avec les projets de Partenariat transatlantique et de Partenariat transpacifique (Jacobs, 2016) qui sont maintenant remis en cause par l'administration Trump. ...
Article
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While NAFTA is explicitly challenged by the United States, the principal partner in the agreement, it is interesting to consider how state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the social economy have evolved over the past decade. These two forms of enterprise have often been presented as vectors of economic democratization, at least by the supporters of social democracy. Our contribution consists of three parts. In the first section, we will outline the three countries that have been together since 1994 in a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which will provide a glimpse of the context in which the social economy and SOEs. In a second section, we give an overview of the social economy in the three countries and highlight some issues and challenges. In the third section, we proceed in the same way for state-owned enterprises. Finally, in a general conclusion, we identify the elements of convergence and divergence between these two types of enterprises, while recognizing the specificities of the three countries concerned.
Chapter
North America has been an experimental and influential model of trade and economic integration. Clarkson studied, analyzed, and discussed North America as a region and how it shaped and influenced Canadian foreign policy as well as Canadian politics and society. This chapter explores three topics that I consider central to several of his scientific contributions. The first one is the singular importance of the world economic system and the emergence of powerful multinational corporations as pivotal actors in the world economy. The second is the growth in social inequality associated with free trade agreements in North America. The third is the transformative impact of regional economic integration models on the dynamics of state sovereignty that also integrate a comparative perspective in the political economy of regionalism and inter-regionalism.
Chapter
Against deflation and stagnant growth in 2013 Abe and his ministers launched a mix of fiscal and monetary policy and structural reforms but these do not appear of successful for the principal economic indicators. Japan recorded a negative GDP trend rate range from 1.6% by 2013 to -0.1 in 2014. Some of the major competitiveness indices of the World Bank showed a negative trend. Nevertheless, the abenomics represents an important development not only for Japan and East Asia but an example of different way for the entire world. The adoption of a Keynesian approach represents a breaking political, intellectual and economic with the opinions that have dominated public discourse in recent years, especially in Europe. Japan is performing rearmament; this could mean that Japan would employ a new international role. The aim of this study is focus on the economic and geopolitical impact that could have the new Abe's “active pacifism”. Objective of this analysis is examine the economic prescription by Abe and his possible long-term impacts on the international economy.
Chapter
With a population of 127 million of people, Japan is ranked third in the world behind the United States and China for Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Its economy remains one of the most solid and developed in the world. The Shinzo Abe government has promoted a growth policy aimed at bringing the country out of a long period of economic stagnation. Although there are still different tariff and non-tariff barriers-to-entry, that make Japan an atypical protectionist country, the local legal system does not provide restrictive or discriminatory law against foreign entrepreneurs except for a few sectors (e.g., agriculture, leather, and mining sectors strategic for national security). A very high number of non-written laws governing trade relationship ensures the high solvency of loans, offering prospects for long-term growth. The gradual relocation of activities to trans-border promotes policies that are intended to boost Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), allowing domestic growth for the Tohoku reconstruction. The “Special Reconstruction Areas” provide tax breaks and streamline bureaucracy for companies which can count on the rest of the national territory on an excellent infrastructure network and efficient services and highly qualified local staff.