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Lynch's mental maps  

Lynch's mental maps  

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Purpose This paper aims to present an experience-based learning framework that provides a bottom-up, student-centered entrance point for the development of systems thinking, normative and collaborative competencies in sustainability. Design/methodology/approach The framework combines mental mapping with exploratory walking. It interweaves mappin...

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... activities include drawing and conducting questionnaires to capture five elements that people perceive of their city: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks (Lynch, 1960). All elements have distinctive features and can be analyzed on their own ( Figure 2). Yet, the overall image of the city emerges from their interconnection. ...

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... • Interpersonal: Capacidad de motivar, habilitar y facilitar la investigación de sostenibilidad colaborativa y participativa y la resolución de problemas. Caniglia et al. (2016) consideran que un marco de aprendizaje basado en la experiencia y la acción hace operativo el pensamiento sistémico, las competencias normativas y de colaboración que son objetivos específicos de aprendizaje en la etapa inicial del desarrollo de capacidades y formación de competencias, en el siguiente sentido: ...
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Nuestra sociedad actual se caracteriza por un estado de crisis civilizatoria, donde la pobreza, la inequidad y los conflictos conforman un sistema de problemáticas de las relaciones sociedad-naturaleza, que hacen que la formación ambiental se haga necesaria y urgente en nuestro sistema educativo. El desarrollo de capacidades y formación de competencias ambientales de los docentes, particularmente de ciencias, son determinantes para permitir que en las instituciones educativas los estudiantes tengan una formación ciudadana, crítica y democrática para participar en la toma de decisiones responsables frente a los problemas ambientales locales. Este artículo, a partir de la conceptualización de las relaciones capacidades/competencias, presenta las competencias ambientales para la acción, como base de las propuestas para la sostenibilidad ambiental frente a las demandadas actuales como criterio de idoneidad en los currículos de todos los niveles educativos, en particular de la educación superior. Por último, se propende por unas competencias ambientales integradas, relacionadas con las transiciones/progresiones de aprendizaje, que hacen parte de los estándares de ciencias, en la formación de los estudiantes, lo que hace necesario procesos formativos del profesorado en enfoques de enseñanza, como las cuestiones sociocientíficas y cuestiones socioambientales agudas.
... Though approaches to sustainability education are diverse, often influenced by context and values and adaptable to the needs of complex teaching and learning situations and objectives (Bianchi, 2020), there are a few common themes that define the boundaries of the field. Sustainability education often emphasizes experiential learning (Dieleman & Huisingh, 2006), employing approaches such as project-based learning (Lehmann et al., 2008), place-based education (Caniglia et al., 2016), participatory action research (Burmeister & Eilks, 2012), and transdisciplinary collaboration (Scholz et al., 2006). These approaches aim to be transformative and transgressive (Lotz-Sisitka et al., 2015), enabling learners to think critically and develop new perspectives oriented towards sustainability. ...
Conference Paper
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... Though approaches to sustainability education are diverse, often influenced by context and values and adaptable to the needs of complex teaching and learning situations and objectives (Bianchi, 2020), there are a few common themes that define the boundaries of the field. Sustainability education often emphasizes experiential learning (Dieleman & Huisingh, 2006), employing approaches such as project-based learning (Lehmann et al., 2008), place-based education (Caniglia et al., 2016), participatory action research (Burmeister & Eilks, 2012), and transdisciplinary collaboration (Scholz et al., 2006). These approaches aim to be transformative and transgressive (Lotz-Sisitka et al., 2015), enabling learners to think critically and develop new perspectives oriented towards sustainability. ...
Conference Paper
“The entrepreneurial mystique? It’s not magic, it’s not mysterious, and it has nothing to do with the genes. It’s a discipline. And, like any discipline, it can be learned” (Drucker, 1985). It is an established concept today that the behaviour of entrepreneurship is a learned phenomenon. Substantiated by enough literatures, this study advocates that a well-designed education system can generate effctive and desired entrepreneurship behaviour. There is a pressing need to pay due attention to the teaching-learning methodologies adopted for imparting lessons on the subject. On the backdrop of the existing imbalance in demand and supply of entrepreneurs in developing economies like India, the study primarily focuses on examining the role of higher education in creation of entrepreneurs. Being the supreme authority of education, the Universities need to usher the fundamental role of developing an entrepreneurial economy where the individuals possess an entrepreneurial state of mind. The paper extensively discusses about entrepreneurship pedagogy as to a check on the gap that exists between what should be taught and what is being taught to the prospective entrepreneurs. Taking cue from several studies on global entrepreneurship programs and courses, the study also throws light upon the expected outcomes from an entrepreneurship educational curriculum. After a clear review of the outcomes and the teaching mechanisms globally pursued for entrepreneurship courses and programs, the paper shifts the focus to the existing approaches of deliberating entrepreneurship education in Assam, a state in the North-eastern part of India. The study attempts to provide a critical outlook on the current course contents and methods employed for teaching entrepreneurship courses in three premier Universities of Assam viz., Gauhati University, Dibrugarh University and Tezpur University. For this purpose, an in-depth review of entrepreneurship syllabi of these three institutes has been carried out. Moreover, personal interviews have been conducted of the teachers who are engaged in imparting lessons on entrepreneurship courses in the aforesaid educational institutes in order to gain insight into their respective teaching approaches for the subject. The prime observation made in this regard is that the curricula are mostly based on texts and theories, without a pragmatic approach to it. They are basically engaged in what Linan (2007) regarded as ‘Entrepreneurial Awareness Education’, rather than creation of entrepreneurs. Identifying this lacuna in the existing teaching-learning practices, this paper, thus, puts forward a model which is suggestive of the idea that a well-designed and balanced entrepreneurship program must be a convergence between textual learning and off-the-classroom practice-based learning. The ultimate aim of proposing such a blended and heuristic approach to entrepreneurship education is generation of noticeable entrepreneurship behaviour among the participants of such programs. Keywords Teaching-learning methodologies, higher education, entrepreneurship pedagogy, entrepreneurship education, off-the-classroom, heuristic approach
... students' competence development in PBL activities across various courses. The challenge of this is that competencies are a set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes(Wiek et al., 2011) which cannot be assessed through traditional content-knowledge based activities(Caniglia et al., 2016). The framework found inWiek et al. (2015) provides a base rubric for activities which demonstrate competence, but using this would assume that this rubric is both relevant to the course at hand and ...
Purpose This research aims to investigate the role of project-based-learning within graduate sustainability curricula through the lens of key competence development. Project-based learning has become a widely recommended pedagogy for sustainability education. It is hypothesized that through collaboration, student autonomy and real-world application, students develop key competencies for sustainability. This paper also aims to examine the connection between project-based learning and competence development on a program level from the student perspective. Design/methodology/approach This two-year comparative case study follows the project-based-learning journeys of nine graduate sustainability students from three programs: the Master’s of Sustainability at Arizona State University, the Master’s of Sustainability Science at Leuphana University of Lüneburg and the Global Sustainability Science Master’s, an ASU and Leuphana collaboration. Over four semesters, the students each took part in four competence-oriented self-assessments and interviews to map their perceived learning throughout their programs. Additional contextual information was gathered from program and course materials and descriptions, instructor interviews and in vivo observations. Findings The defining aspects of project-based learning including collaboration, student autonomy and real-world connection do contribute to students’ self-perceived competence development. Student-driven and program-driven project-based learning experiences equally foster this result, as long as the pedagogical challenges of balancing support and student independence associated with each are mitigated through instructor actions, program design or individual student coping skills. Originality/value The results of this research can support higher education institutions in designing sustainability programs aimed at competence development through project-based learning. The focus on the curricular and program level combined with repeated overtime student-reported attribution to specific courses and activities bridges the gap between individual course case studies and theoretical recommendations for curriculum design. In addition to length and depth, this study also forefronts student experience of curricula as delivered.
... Balsiger [35] describes a transdisciplinary research project explored by students in a classroom setting, commenting on how to move from soft transdisciplinarity-based on shallow integration and narrow collaboration-and moving towards inclusive transdisciplinarity by increasing the number of stakeholders, for example. Caniglia et al. [36] propose an experience-based, student-centered learning framework for early-stage (novice) sustainability competency development in higher education programs that highlights the value of experiential learning and bottom-up approaches in developing competencies for sustainable development. Still, their research does not report on participatory evaluations at the program level. ...
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While learning competencies in education for sustainable development are increasingly recognized as important, few empirical studies consider competencies delivered at a program level. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a program evaluation can be approached through a participatory approach, and what this means for learning competencies for sustainability. The innovative method chosen was to implement a student-led evaluation of the program or a form of practice-based learning whereby students engaged in a participatory evaluation of their own program. This evaluation involved a mixed-methods research design and engaging with different actors—from other students and teachers in the program to alumni, administrators and employers. Students agreed on what competencies to evaluate against, then designed their assessment to gauge how and in what way five key competencies were being delivered. The program delivers competencies for sustainable development, yet there was some discrepancy between what students experienced in the program and what teachers believed to be delivering in the classroom. The learning-by-doing approach suggests that a sixth competency—implementation skills—is relevant to teaching for sustainable development. A participatory, student-led approach to evaluating a Master program is a novel contribution to the literature, which in itself led to the development of competencies for sustainability, particularly strategic, interpersonal and implementation skills.
... This includes a rapidly growing need for new approaches capable of working with highly interconnected, contested, and ethical issues ( Table 2), as well as new modes of knowledge creation-methodologically, conceptually, empirically, and pedagogically-to support learning about how effective stewardship might be developed. New training and learning that enhance "know how" capacities are also then needed, including helping students develop practical and experiential knowledge about working with change (Box 1) (Caniglia et al., 2016Fazey et al., 2018). Such capacity development will gain increasing and rapidly growing demand from what are now a climate change aware and solution hungry student demographic. ...
... Large lecture halls designed for mass delivery of information and teaching in quantities, for example, has been enabled by assumptions that education is possible as a process of transmission rather than, for example, competence development (Wilhelm et al., 2019). Instead, students need to develop practical experiential knowledge and opportunities for more co-creative learning so they can be more effective changemakers (Caniglia et al., 2016;Wilhelm et al., 2019). Imagine an alternative to the transmission model: empowering students from different programmes to collectively and creatively establish low-carbon practices within a university. ...
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This paper outlines climate emergencies facing universities and, by drawing on research on system transition, provides insights about how change to overcome the challenges might be stewarded. Climate change brings three interconnected and urgent emergencies for universities: (1) Manifest emergencies such as risks to operations and business models; (2) Conceptual emergencies that arise because assumptions, ideologies, systems and structures cannot match the scale of the manifest challenges; and (3) Existential emergencies where current identities and sense of purpose are incapable of supporting the changes needed to overcome the conceptual challenges. To be viable leaders in the world, universities will need to renew their commitments to serving the public good, be dedicated to an unwavering challenge-orientation, create post-disciplinary structures, and be the change one seeks to see in the world. Importantly, universities will need to overcome the emergencies on the inside if they are to help society address the scale of the challenges on the outside, to which both universities and human capacity are seriously cognitively and emotionally ill-prepared. Fortunately, new insights from research on system transition provide helpful advice on how to steward transformational change. This work highlights that successful transformation requires strong adherence to transformational intent and, in the case of universities, working with all three emergencies simultaneously. Successful transformation will also require harnessing opportunities to disrupt the status quo; supporting an interplay of different forms of management and orientations to the future; developing appropriate infrastructure to support transformation; and rapidly accelerating the development of capacities for transformational change. By actively developing capacities for transformation on the inside universities will then be in a much better position to help and lead others beyond the halls of the academy.
... Wiek, Withycombe, and Redman 2011), and program and course design for various forms of experiential learning (e.g. Ban et al. 2015;Caniglia et al. 2016;Michel 2019). However, with some exceptions (e.g. ...
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Institutions of higher education play an important role in training citizens who can thoughtfully and critically make decisions that impact the sustainability of our planet. While researchers have determined competencies that students need as environmental and sustainability professionals, less is understood about how to achieve these outcomes within complex learning environments, such as experiential learning settings. We apply a learning landscape framework to conceptualize connections among curricular and programmatic features and student learning outcomes on Dartmouth College’s Environmental Studies Africa Foreign Study Program. We describe the results of 31 semi-structured interviews with alumni of the program. Results demonstrate that program design and pedagogical strategies, coupled with student activities, influence both cognitive and affective student learning outcomes, and that all learning elements are mutually influencing. Further, we identify two emergent learning outcomes, appreciation for reflection and introspection and capacity to engage with complexity, identified by considering learning at a landscape scale.
... Context and process are often absent in commonly used analytical frames. However, opening up the "black box" of learning (Van Poeck et al., 2018) facilitates the creation of knowledge with contextual awareness for "scaling" pedagogies and activities that are meaningful for student learning and in support of sustainability transformations (Caniglia et al., 2016;Macintyre et al., 2018;Mickelsson et al., 2019). In-depth qualitative research into how students participate in and experience their learning processes when engaging with societal challenges is considered key towards such ends (Lotz-Sisitka et al., 2015;Macintyre et al., 2018;Tilbury, 2016). ...
... In sustainability-oriented education, engagement with authentic sustainability challenges in society can enable meaningful learning if adequate support is provided (Brundiers et al., 2010;Caniglia et al., 2016;Lönngren et al., 2019). C-Lab builds on a methodology combining "outside-in" and "inside-out" dimensions of learning and change (Holmberg, 2014), where "outside-in" is oriented towards engaging with the external world and "inside-out" towards understanding and leading oneself together with others. ...
Article
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Purpose While sustainability-oriented education is increasingly placing importance on engaging students in inter- and transdisciplinary learning processes with societal actors and authentic challenges in the centre, little research attends to how and what students learn in such educational initiatives. This paper aims to address this by opening the “black box” of learning in a Challenge Lab curriculum with transformational sustainability ambitions. Design/methodology/approach Realist evaluation was used as an analytical frame that takes social context into account to unpack learning mechanisms and associated learning outcomes. A socio-cultural perspective on learning was adopted, and ethnographic methods, including interviews and observations, were used. Findings Three context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations were identified, capturing what students placed value and emphasis on when developing capabilities for leading sustainability transformations: engaging with complex “in-between” sustainability challenges in society with stakeholders across sectors and perspectives; navigating purposeful and transformative change via backcasting; and “whole-person” learning from the inside-out as an identity-shaping process, guided by personal values. Practical implications The findings of this paper can inform the design, development, evaluation and comparison of similar educational initiatives across institutions, while leaving room for contextual negotiation and adjustment. Originality/value This paper delineates and discusses important learning mechanisms and outcomes when students act as co-creators of knowledge in a sustainability-oriented educational initiative, working with authentic challenges together with societal actors.
... These competencies combine a specific focus on sustainability knowledge with the ethical imperative to act upon that knowledge, addressing aspects such as systems thinking, anticipatory thinking, ethics, critical thinking, interdisciplinary work and collaboration, among others (Lozano et al., 2017;Wiek et al., 2011). The sustainability competency literature has focused primarily on defining the appropriate competencies, determining how to assess mastery of those competencies and identifying the role of different pedagogical strategies in achieving the competencies (Barth et al., 2007;Brundiers and Wiek, 2017;Caniglia et al., 2016;Engle et al., 2017;Levesque and Blackstone, 2020;Remington-Doucette et al., 2013;Rieckmann, 2012;Wiek et al., 2015). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine how the process of creating and implementing sustainability competencies across a university illuminate dynamics of organizational change. The push to advance education for sustainable development in higher education will likely require transformation of existing policies and practices. A set of shared sustainability competencies could guide the integration of sustainability throughout an institution. Design/methodology/approach This paper reports on a case study of one US university, the University of New Hampshire (UNH) that developed institutional-level sustainability competencies. The process used to create and implement sustainability competencies is outlined, and key factors that influenced the associated organizational change are identified. Findings Very few US universities have institutional-level sustainability competencies. At UNH, drivers of organizational change such as overcoming disciplinary boundaries, developing a common vision and working from the bottom-up enabled the creation of institutional sustainability competencies, but the same processes were not enough to drive deeper implementation of the competencies. Originality/value This paper not only identifies the context-specific drivers of the development of institutional sustainability competencies, but also identifies universal themes that can be applied to other institutions embarking on a similar process. Additionally, this paper serves as a foundation for future research exploring how the process of creating institutional sustainability competencies may be linked to how effective they are in shaping subsequent sustainability education.
... Universities play a key role in equipping students with such interpersonal attitudes, knowledge and skills (Gulikers and Oonk, 2019;Hernández-Barco et al., 2020;Thomas, 2009;Wiek et al., 2011). Project-based learning approaches have been demonstrated to develop students' key competencies in sustainability in general (Azeiteiro et al., 2015;Barth, 2015;Wiek et al., 2014) and interpersonal competence in particular (Birdman et al., 2020;Blumenfeld et al., 1991;Brundiers et al., 2010;Brundiers and Wiek, 2013), in both, graduate (Konrad et al., 2020;Molderez and Fonseca, 2018;Oxenswärdh and Persson-Fischier, 2020;Soini et al., 2019) and undergraduate courses (Caniglia et al., 2016;Skinner et al., 2016). Despite these findings, project-based learning for interpersonal competence development is still in need of further exploration (Earl et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Purpose For professional sustainability work, graduates need to be able to work in teams and collaborate with stakeholders; in other words, they need to have developed interpersonal competence. There is growing evidence that project-based sustainability courses facilitate interpersonal competence development. However, research so far has focused on single case studies and on assessing learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of how graduate students learn interpersonal competence in project-based sustainability courses. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts a multi-case study approach triangulating observations, semi-structured interviews and focus groups supported by Photovoice method. A comparison of three project-based sustainability courses in graduate programs at universities in the USA, Germany, Switzerland and Spain is conducted to gain generalizable insights on how interpersonal competence can be developed through project-based sustainability courses. Findings Receiving inputs, experiencing, reflecting and experimenting are four learning processes supportive of interpersonal competence development. Interpersonal attitudes seem to be mostly learned through a combination of experiencing and reflecting, followed by experimenting; not surprisingly, interpersonal knowledge is mostly developed through a combination of receiving inputs, experiencing and (collective) reflection; and interpersonal skills seem to be mostly learned through a combination of receiving inputs and experimenting, or, more directly, experiencing and experimenting. Practical implications These findings support the unique learning opportunities offered through project-based sustainability courses and can help instructors to better facilitate students’ development of interpersonal competence. Originality/value The value of this study is three-fold: (i) it provides a comprehensive picture of interpersonal competence, including attitudes, knowledge, and skills; (ii) it spells out specific teaching and learning processes; and (iii) it links these to specific interpersonal competence facets and components.