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Louvain Community Detection algorithm applied to each of the language networks. This tool groups nodes through modularity, or the probability that a node belongs to a community minus such probability if the edges were distributed at random. Two communities (C1, C2) are detected for the dominant language, and three communities (C1, C2, C3) are detected for the non-dominant language.

Louvain Community Detection algorithm applied to each of the language networks. This tool groups nodes through modularity, or the probability that a node belongs to a community minus such probability if the edges were distributed at random. Two communities (C1, C2) are detected for the dominant language, and three communities (C1, C2, C3) are detected for the non-dominant language.

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Recent work within the language sciences, particularly bilingualism, has sought new methods to evaluate and characterize how people differentially use language across different communicative contexts. These differences have thus far been linked to changes in cognitive control strategy, reading behavior, and brain organization. Here, we approach thi...

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... However, most research to date has conceptualized bilingualism from an all-or-none perspective, that is, dividing participants into bilinguals or monolinguals with little room for variability [1]. More recently, neurobehavioral models of bilingual language use have begun to consider bilingualism as a dynamic trait that varies along a continuum of how bilinguals utilize their languages in a more fine-grained fashion [2], including variation in factors like sociolinguistic diversity background and culture [3][4][5][6][7]. In other words, researchers are increasingly recognizing the role of individual differences in bilingualism and are taking that variability into consideration. ...
... Instead, until recently, the field of bilingualism has largely focused on how speaking more than one language affects various neural and cognitive outcomes, discarding individual variability in language experience as noise. However, in recent years, researchers have begun to describe bilingualism as a more fine-grained construct, increasingly focusing on the degree of variability across language experiences and how that variability influences other linguistic, social, and cognitive abilities [3,4,7,10]. A key example of this effort is represented by the Adaptive Control Hypothesis (ACH) [2]. ...
... Social network research is largely used in areas of sociology and linguistics, although other types of social network, such as psychometric network modeling, are also increasingly being used in the field of clinical and cognitive psychology, and psychometrics. Social networks have been studied to understand such various topics as collaborative relationships in the workplace [82], migration flows between countries [83], and, more recently, to explore communication patterns among bilingual speakers in Canada [7]. ...
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... Inspired by these works, our group has begun to use social network analysis in a manner that guided development of the Systems Framework of Bilingualism. Specifically, we conducted social network analysis of English and French bilinguals in Montréal who completed an in-person social network survey of their real-world contacts Tiv, Gullifer, Feng & Titone, 2020). Respondents reported the language(s) that they used to converse with each alter, and from these responses the authors constructed three language-tagged subnetworks: English, French, and English-French Bilingual. ...
... In related work that builds upon Grosjean's earlier explorations of what bilinguals talk about (Grosjean, 1982(Grosjean, , 2010(Grosjean, , 2015, our group applied network analysis to represent conversational topics among bilinguals living in Montréal (where nodes represented an aspect of language, as opposed to a person) (Tiv et al., 2020). We tested 115 English and French bilingual adults with a questionnaire that probed what languages they used to speak about twenty-one conversational topics (e.g., politics, gossip) across five communicative contexts (e.g., home, school, social). ...
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... Lev-Ari (2018) revealed that having a larger social network could increase differing phonological and semantic abilities (Lev-Ari 2016), facilitate lexical prediction (Lev-Ari & Shao 2017), and decrease malleable linguistic representation in production (Lev-Ari 2017). Importantly, work led by Tiv and colleagues provided evidence on how social networks are crucial particularly in the context of multilingual spaces (Tiv et al. 2020). The social network approach can identify relationships among language users and what language(s) are used among those users (Tiv et al., under review). ...
... The social network approach can identify relationships among language users and what language(s) are used among those users (Tiv et al., under review). The methodology of using social network is therefore crucial in understanding how attitudes towards different varieties are shaped, particularly in multilingual contexts (Tiv et al. 2020). ...
... Here, we went beyond speaker-dependent factors and further investigated listeners' background through an extensive language history background questionnaire as well as a social network questionnaire. Recently, it has been shown that social networks can identify linguistic preferences in multilingual places (Tiv et al. 2020). We argue that social network questionnaire is an important tool moving forward in understanding how language dynamics are shaped and how speaker-listener relationships emerge in varying networks. ...
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Standard varieties are often perceived as morally superior compared with nonstandard varieties (Hill 2008). Consequently, these differences lead to ideologies that racialize nonstandard varieties (Rosa 2016), and increase the negative stereotypes towards nonstandard varieties (Giles and Watson 2013). One outlet of such stereotypes can be observed with speech intelligibility and accentedness judgements. This study examines whether seeing a White or a South Asian face impacts listeners’ perception of American, British, and Indian English and to what extent listeners’ social network diversity plays a role in predicting their perception of speech. Results indicated that intelligibility scores decreased and accentedness judgements increased for all varieties when speech was paired with South Asian faces. However, listeners with less racially diverse social networks had the highest accentedness judgements. Understanding how to account for the emergence and behavioral implications of different English varieties is a pressing question, and these results shed light on how English varieties are perceived. The implications will be discussed in light of language teaching, linguistic practices, and language research.
... Beatty-Martínez et al., 2020;Chung-Fat-Yim, Sorge, & Bialystok, 2020;Hartanto & Yang, 2016), behavior(Beatty-Martínez & Dussias, 2017;Tiv, Gullifer, Feng, & Titone, 2020), and the brain (DeLuca, Rothman,Bialystok, & Pliatsikas, 2019;Gullifer et al., 2018;Pliatsikas, DeLuca, Moschopoulou, & Saddy, 2017;Sulpizio, Del Maschio, Del Mauro, Fedeli, & Abutalebi, 2019). ...
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... Moreover, bilingualism is pervasive throughout the world, but its manifestation can vary widely among different places, communicative contexts, and individuals (Grosjean 1982(Grosjean , 2013. Bilingual speakers differentially distribute their languages with different people and topics and across everyday settings, such as the classroom/workplace or the home environment (Shiron et al. 2021;Tiv et al. 2020). Some bilinguals typically keep their languages separate; others codeswitch and make use of more than one language opportunistically. ...
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... Variability in language experience modulates the neural adaptation at play in bilingual brains (Dash, Berroir, Joanette, & Ansaldo, 2019;DeLuca et al., 2019a;Pliatsikas, 2020). Furthermore, measures of social diversity, language use, and language entropy have been shown to shape brain connectivity at rest (Gullifer et al., 2018;Sulpizio et al., 2020;Tiv et al., 2020). As a result, studies in the field must incorporate a more dynamic view of bi-multilingual language use and its consequences for the mind and the brain. ...
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This study uses resting state EEG data from 103 bilinguals to understand how determinants of bilingualism may reshape the mind/brain. Participants completed the LSBQ, which quantifies language use and crucially the division of labor of dual-language use in diverse activities and settings over the lifespan. We hypothesized correlations between the degree of active bilingualism with power of neural oscillations in specific frequency bands. Moreover, we anticipated levels of mean coherence (connectivity between brain regions) to vary by degree of bilingual language experience. Results demonstrated effects of Age of L2/2L1 onset on high beta and gamma powers. Higher usage of the non-societal language at home and society modulated indices of functional connectivity in theta, alpha and gamma frequencies. Results add to the emerging literature on the neuromodulatory effects of bilingualism for rs-EEG, and are in line with claims that bilingualism effects are modulated by degree of engagement with dual-language experiential factors.
... For instance, with respect to determining how bilinguals' languages are habitually used, self-reported data can be informative (e.g., Gullifer & Titone, 2020b) but likely insufficient in the absence of conversational data that correspond to the vernacular of the speech community (Labov, 1984) or that reflect engagement of different attentional/control states when bilinguals shift between different modes of communication (Green, 2019). 14 The application of Network Science (Tiv, Gullifer, Feng, & Titone, 2020) and Information Theory (Gullifer & Titone, 2020b;Feldman, Srinivasan, Fernandes, & Shaikh, 2021) practices can also be of high value regarding 13 Historically, Leibniz (1690/1951, cited in Gigerenzer, 1991) likened scientific enquiry to "an ocean, continuous everywhere and without a break or division". Divided later by Reichenbach (1938) into two seas (the contexts of justification -hypothesis-testing-and the contexts of discovery -the generation of novel ideas): some have argued in favor of a sharp distinction between hypothesis-testing and exploration (Mertzen, Lago, & Vasishth, 2020), while others have argued that the only legitimate scientific practice is hypothesisdriven (Kullmann, 2020). ...
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An important aim of research on bilingualism is to understand how the brain adapts to the demands of using more than one language. In this paper, we argue that pursuing such an aim entails valuing our research as a discovery process that acts on variety. Prescriptions about sample size and methodology, rightly aimed at establishing a sound basis for generalization, should be understood as being in the service of science as a discovery process. We propose and illustrate by drawing from previous and contemporary examples within brain and cognitive sciences, that this necessitates exploring the neural bases of bilingual phenotypes: the adaptive variety induced through the interplay of biology and culture. We identify the conceptual and methodological prerequisites for such exploration and briefly allude to the publication practices that afford it as a community practice and to the risk of allowing methodological prescriptions, rather than discovery, to dominate the research endeavor. "We have to remember that what we observe is not nature in itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning." Werner Heisenberg (1958)
... Effects of topic were observed only in the L2 but not in the L1. These findings are in line with recent research showing greater topic specificity in the non-dominant language (Tiv et al. 2020). It also suggests that the L1 is less susceptible to topic-language associations, in line with studies showing larger frequency effects in the L2 than L1 (e.g., Van Wijnendaele and Brysbaert 2002). ...
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Research has assessed how language use differences between bilinguals (e.g., whether two languages are used approximately equally often or not) influence language processing. However, first (L1) and second (L2) language use might also differ within bilinguals, depending on the topic of conversation. For example, a Mandarin–English bilingual studying in North America or the UK might talk about exams in English but about their childhood in Mandarin. In this study, we therefore examined how topics associated with either the L1 or L2 can influence language processing. Twenty-nine Mandarin–English students in North America/the UK completed a lexical decision task in single-language contexts (all words/pseudowords in one language) and in dual-language contexts (alternating between Mandarin and English). Half of the words referred to L1-associated topics (childhood and family life) and half were L2-associated (studying and life at university). Topic influenced L2 processing, with L2-associated topics being processed faster than topics associated with the L1 in single- and dual-language contexts. In contrast, topic did not influence L1 processing. This suggests that L2 processing might not only be influenced by differences between bilinguals but also by differences within bilinguals. In contrast, L1 processing might be less susceptible to influences of topic-specific language use.
... As bilingualism researchers, we have the responsibility to reexamine the way we frame our research to make sure we account for the true complexity of bilingual lived experiences (for more discussion, see López, 2020;Ortega, 2019b;Ramírez-Esparza et al., 2020;Tiv et al., 2020). Acknowledging the field's complicity with monolingual hegemony is one way of re-examining bilingualism. ...
... Interactional bilingual contexts also have long-term effects on the mental representation of language and neuroplasticity (Abutalebi & Green, 2016;Bialystok, 2017). Gullifer and Titone (2019) and Tiv et al. (2020) have examined how bilinguals' interactional contexts (e.g., family, friends, neighborhood) predict L2 abilities and language use. Others suggest that bi/multilingualism experiences have effects on personality traits, leading to greater tolerance for ambiguity, open-mindedness, and cognitive and social flexibility (Dewaele & Wei, 2013;Ikizer & Ramírez-Esparza, 2018). ...
... While no historical context of language acquisition is included, entropy measures are nonetheless beneficial used in conjunction with other language measures, as they provide more detail about language experiences. Recently, Tiv et al. (2020) utilized network science to examine how bilinguals use languages across communicative contexts, revealing that bilinguals use languages in specific and divergent ways. Kremin and Byers-Heinlein (2020) have proposed the use of categorical and continuous measures (e.g., factor mixture and grade-of-membership). ...
Objective: Bilingual experiences are diverse, vibrant, and multidimensional. Yet, prior research has often homogenized bilingualism and based outcomes upon monolingual norms. Framing monolinguals as the norm distorts the reality of bilingual experiences. To promote a more diverse and inclusive study of bilingualism, we propose a theoretical and methodological paradigm shift. Bilinguals exist in different networks, cultural contexts, and individual and societal settings, all of which may lead to differential cognitive and linguistic outcomes that will be lost if left unexamined. Bilingual interactional contexts occur within extensive environmental and ecological systems, and may lead to different outcomes based on experiences within these systems. We seek to recognize these interactional contexts and how, as researchers, we can strive to better understand the complexities of bilingual populations. Method: We propose incorporating more diverse theoretical frameworks-including raciolinguistics, an intersectional resiliency perspective, and an ecological approach-so that researchers can begin to think about how bilingual experiences are shaped before study participants enter the lab. Included also are methodological considerations that will improve our understanding of bilinguals' intersectional experiences. We offer suggestions for becoming more diverse and inclusive in our research. Conclusion: We encourage scientists to take a more holistic and nuanced approach to understanding how individual and contextual factors affect our study populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Recently, network science has become an important domain of study across interdisciplinary research in psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience (e.g., Chan and Vitevitch, 2010;Bassett and Sporns, 2017;Karuza et al., 2017Karuza et al., , 2019Sizemore et al., 2018;Tiv et al., 2020) and has also been increasingly applied to understanding language representation and processing (Steyvers and Tenenbaum, 2005;Vitevitch, 2009, 2010;Hills et al., 2009;Sizemore et al., 2018). The methodology is powerful in capturing not only the global architecture of a complex system as a whole, but also the detailed interaction patterns between different pieces of information. ...
... Community is considered an important structural property in network science as it helps discover the internal relationships between nodes at a global level (Yang et al., 2016;Tiv et al., 2020). Studies have shown that participants are sensitive to community structures (Karuza et al., 2017(Karuza et al., , 2019. ...
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The study of code-switching (CS) speech has produced a wealth of knowledge in the understanding of bilingual language processing and representation. Here, we approach this issue by using a novel network science approach to map bilingual spontaneous CS speech. In Study 1, we constructed semantic networks on CS speech corpora and conducted community detections to depict the semantic organizations of the bilingual lexicon. The results suggest that the semantic organizations of the two lexicons in CS speech are largely distinct, with a small portion of overlap such that the semantic network community dominated by each language still contains words from the other language. In Study 2, we explored the effect of clustering coefficients on language choice during CS speech, by comparing clustering coefficients of words that were code-switched with their translation equivalents (TEs) in the other language. The results indicate that words where the language is switched have lower clustering coefficients than their TEs in the other language. Taken together, we show that network science is a valuable tool for understanding the overall map of bilingual lexicons as well as the detailed interconnections and organizations between the two languages.