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Locations of the Killeröd, Hällekis and Thorsberg quarries. 

Locations of the Killeröd, Hällekis and Thorsberg quarries. 

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Sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite grains (63–355 µm) have been recovered in a section across the Arenig-Llanvirn transition in the Killeröd quarry in southeastern Scania. Previous studies of the same stratigraphic interval in the Orthoceratite Limestone at Kinnekulle, ca. 350 km to the north in Västergötland, have shown a two orders of m...

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... object of study is an abandoned, partly water- filled quarry at Killeröd (55°34′ N, 14°08′E) located 13 km west of the town Simrishamn in Scania, south- ern Sweden (Figs 2-3). Nielsen (1995Nielsen ( , 2004a) estab- lished a very detailed trilobite stratigraphy for the limestone in and around the quarry, making correla- tion with the Orthoceratite Limestone in other parts of southern and central Sweden possible with a high degree of confidence and resolution. ...

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Citations

... There is a consistently strong and statistically significant correlation (r = 0.70 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) between different heavy mineral grain types, likely due to hydrodynamic concentration and sorting processes acting at the ancient seafloor ( Fig. 4; ibid.). Similar covariance between extraterrestrial chromite and terrestrial heavy minerals is suggested in correlative strata at other localities (e.g., Schmitz & Häggström 2006;Häggström & Schmitz 2007), although this remains to be properly studied from sedimentologic perspectives (but see Alexeev 2014 Stouge et al. 2019) and brought with it a more stable marine environ ment. The 'White bed' at the top of the succession at the Lynna River is somewhat enigmatic, as it contains a peculiar mixture of both deeper and shallowerwater indicators (possibly due to condensation; see Föllmi 2016). ...
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... The results for the Ordovician sample are consistent with previous work from Killer€ od (H€ aggstr€ om and Schmitz 2007) where the studied interval yielded 4.5 EC grains kg À1 in the >63 lm. For comparison, coeval post-LCPB Orthoceratite Limestone yields in the same size fraction 5-10 EC grains kg À1 in the Lynna River section, Russia, and 1-3 EC grains kg À1 in the H€ allekis quarry ( Schmitz and H€ aggstrom 2006;Lindskog et al. 2012). ...
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... Identification of the LDNICE in the Fågelsång-3 drill core is problematic because the isotope curve around the expected level at ~50-m drill core depth based on conodont biostratigraphy does not show any conspicuous negative trend. There is a significant stratigraphic gap at the top of the Komstad Limestone in eastern Scania (e.g., Nielsen 1995, Stouge & Nielsen 2003Häggström & Schmitz 2007) and if there is a disconformity at that level also in the Fågelsång area, the LDNICE interval might be missing. A possible indication of a stratigraphic gap between the H. lentus and L. austrodentatus zones is the apparent absence of the Undulograptus dentatus Zone that has not been recorded in Scania (cf. ...
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... The succession at Killeröd spans the Megistaspis simon, M. limbata, Asaphus expansus and A. raniceps zones. The boundary between the A. expansus and A. rani ceps zones is c. 1.2 m below the top of the composite section (Nielsen 1995, Häggström & Schmitz 2007. In terms of the regional British chrono stratigraphy, the succession spans the upper Arenig and lowermost Llanvirn. ...
... Sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite (EC) grains recovered from the Darriwilian have been studied and analyzed by Häggström & Schmitz (2007), who showed that their distribution trends across the lower to middle Kundan beds are essentially identical to the trends recorded from Kinnekulle, 350 km to the north (Häggström & Schmitz 2007). EC grains are extremely rare in the lower to middle part of the Komstad Limestone but abundant in the upper part of the formation (upper A. expansus and A. raniceps zones, Häggström & Schmitz 2007). ...
... Sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite (EC) grains recovered from the Darriwilian have been studied and analyzed by Häggström & Schmitz (2007), who showed that their distribution trends across the lower to middle Kundan beds are essentially identical to the trends recorded from Kinnekulle, 350 km to the north (Häggström & Schmitz 2007). EC grains are extremely rare in the lower to middle part of the Komstad Limestone but abundant in the upper part of the formation (upper A. expansus and A. raniceps zones, Häggström & Schmitz 2007). ...
... A pilot search for SEC grains in this section was done by Korochantsev et al. (2009), who found 0.6 to 2.9 SEC grains per kg of limestone. Lindskog et al. (2012) extended this study to include much more material sampled over a larger stratigraphic range, and found up to 10 SEC grains per kg in some samples -around a factor of three more than typical concentrations in coeval rocks in Sweden (Schmitz et al., 2003;Häggström and Schmitz, 2007) and China (Cronholm and Schmitz, 2010). Furthermore, the grains proved to be better preserved than is typical at other known localities. ...
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We measured the He and Ne concentrations of 50 individual extraterrestrial chromite grains recovered from mid-Ordovician (lower Darriwilian) sediments from the Lynna River section near St. Petersburg, Russia. High concentrations of solar wind-like He and Ne found in most grains indicate that they were delivered to Earth as micrometeoritic dust, while their abundance, stratigraphic position and major element composition indicate an origin related to the L chondrite parent body (LCPB) break-up event, 470 Ma ago. Compared to sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite (SEC) grains extracted from coeval sediments at other localities, the grains from Lynna River are both highly concentrated and well preserved. As in previous work, in most grains from Lynna River, high concentrations of solar wind-derived He and Ne impede a clear quantification of cosmic-ray produced He and Ne. However, we have found several SEC grains poor in solar wind Ne, showing a resolvable contribution of cosmogenic 21Ne. This makes it possible, for the first time, to determine robust cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages in these fossil micrometeorites, on the order of a few hundred-thousand years. These ages are similar to the CRE ages measured in chromite grains from cm-sized fossil meteorites recovered from coeval sediments in Sweden. As the CRE ages are shorter than the orbital decay time of grains of this size by Poynting–Robertson drag, this suggests that the grains were delivered to Earth through direct injection into an orbital resonance. We demonstrate how CRE ages of fossil micrometeorites can be used, in principle, to determine sedimentation rates, and to correlate the sediments at Lynna River with the fossil meteorite-bearing sediment layers in Sweden. In some grains with high concentrations of solar wind Ne, we nevertheless find a well-resolved cosmogenic 21Ne signal. These grains must have been exposed for up to several 10 Ma in the regolith layer of the pre-break-up L chondrite parent body. This confirms an earlier suggestion that such regolith grains should be abundant in sediments deposited shortly after the break-up of the LCPB asteroid.
... In this part of Sweden the paleobasin was deeper, and conditions were anoxic on the sea floor, resulting in the formation of black, organic-rich Orthoceratite Limestone. Here the concentrations of EC change from 2 grains per 125 kg of rock sampled over ∼8 m of section to 2-6 grains per kg in the overlying 2 m (Häggström and Schmitz, 2007). Within the uncertainty of about 1-2 m in the biostratigraphic correlations, one can say that the change in EC abundance at Fågelsång-Komstad takes place at the same stratigraphic level as in the Hällekis-Thorsberg section. ...
... Instead a relatively stable trend is observed with EC grain concentrations typically close to 2 grains per kg rock through most of the middle and upper EC-rich part (Schmitz and Häggström, 2006). The lower EC concentrations, ∼0.3 grains per kg rock in the first meter of strata showing EC grains at Hällekis-Thorsberg, however, could very well be related to a weaker dust flux before the main dust pulse reached Earth after the L chondrite breakup (Häggström and Schmitz, 2007). The most EC-rich limestone beds are found at the Lynna River site in Russia, with concentrations up to 10 grains per kg rock . ...
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Relict spinel grains (~25–250 μm in diameter) from decomposed extraterrestrial material in Archean to Recent sediments can be used to reconstruct variations in the flux of different types of meteorites to Earth through the ages. Meteorite falls are rare and meteorites weather and decay rapidly on the Earth surface, making it a challenge to reconstruct ancient fluxes. Almost all meteorite types, however, contain a small fraction of spinel minerals that survive weathering and can be recovered by acid-dissolution of large samples (100–1000 kg) of slowly deposited sediments of any age. The spinel grains originate from either micrometeorites, meteorites or asteroids, and can give detailed information on the types of extraterrestrial matter that fell on Earth at specific times in the geological past. Inside the spinels, synchrotron-light X-ray tomography can identify 1–30 μm inclusions of most of the other minerals that made up the original meteorite. With advanced microanalyses of the spinels, such as Ne isotopes (from solar wind, and produced by cosmic rays), oxygen isotopes (meteorite class and group) and cosmic ray tracks, it may be possible to unravel from the geological record fundamental new information about the solar system at specific times through the past ~3.5 Gyr. Variations in flux and types of meteorites may reflect large-scale perturbations of the orbits of planets and other bodies in the solar system, as well as the sequence of disruptions of the parent bodies for the meteorite types known and not yet known. Orbital perturbations may be triggered by near-by passing stars, giant molecular clouds, the galactic gravitational field, supernova shock waves or unusual planetary alignments.
... Given the arduousness of finding fossil meteorites, extraction and analysis of sediment-dispersed chromite have thus become an alternative, and relatively easy, method to enable evaluation of the ordinary chondritic component in condensed sedimentary rocks (e.g., Schmitz et al. 2003). In the previously studied Middle Ordovician rock sections, EC abundance in the sediments increases from 1-2 EC grains per 100 kg rock to several grains per kilogram of rock; e.g., approximately 3 and 6 grains kg )1 , respectively, in the Ha¨llekis and Komstad sections, about 300 km apart in southern Sweden (Schmitz and Ha¨ggstro¨m 2006;Ha¨ggstro¨m and Schmitz 2007), and up to 4 grains kg )1 at Puxi River in China (Cronholm and Schmitz 2010). Pre-L. ...
... Data from chemical analyses of EC grains are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 8 (full data set in online supplement), and a comparison with grain data from various preceding chromite studies is presented in Table 3 and Fig. 9 (cf. Schmitz and Ha¨ggstro¨m 2006;Ha¨ggstro¨m and Schmitz 2007;Cronholm and Schmitz 2010). Overall, EC chemical composition is homogeneous, with little variation within or between grains, nor between samples. ...
... These grains may be diagenetically altered EC grains, or, simply, other extraterrestrial chromium-bearing spinel grains (cf. Wlotzka 2005;Ha¨ggstro¨m and Schmitz 2007;Cronholm and Schmitz 2010). Regardless, as very few OC grains were found in this study, small changes in OC numbers have little effect on overall statistics. ...
Article
Numerous fossil meteorites and high concentrations of sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite (EC) grains with ordinary chondritic composition have previously been documented from 467 ± 1.6 Ma Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) strata. These finds probably reflect a temporarily enhanced influx of L-chondritic matter, following the disruption of the L-chondrite parent body in the asteroid belt 470 ± 6 Ma. In this study, a Volkhovian-Kundan limestone/marl succession at Lynna River, northwestern Russia, has been searched for EC grains (>63 μm). Eight samples, forming two separate sample sets, were collected. Five samples from strata around the Asaphus expansus-A. raniceps trilobite Zone boundary, in the lower-middle Kundan, yielded a total of 496 EC grains in 65.5 kg of rock (average 7.6 EC grains kg-1, but up to 10.2 grains kg-1). These are extremely high concentrations, three orders of magnitude higher than "background" levels in similar condensed sediment from other periods. EC grains are typically about 50 times more abundant than terrestrial chrome spinel in the samples and about as common as terrestrial ilmenite. Three stratigraphically lower lying samples, close to the A. lepidurus-A. expansus trilobite Zone boundary, at the Volkhov-Kunda boundary, yielded only two EC grains in 38.2 kg of rock (0.05 grains kg-1). The lack of commonly occurring EC grains in the lower interval probably reflects that these strata formed before the disruption of the L-chondrite parent body. The great similarity in EC chemical composition between this and other comparable studies indicates that all or most EC grains in these Russian mid-Ordovician strata share a common source--the L-chondrite parent body.
... N EC /M and N ОC /M are concentration of extraterrestrial and terrestrial grains in limestone correspondingly. [Schmitz, Häggström, 2006;Häggström, Schmitz, 2007;Cronholm, Schmitz, 2010].) ...
... However, high concentration of the OC grains (К ОС = 23 ± 7) in the beds with high concentration of the EC grains can testify about processes of enrichment at the bottom of the sea because of hydrodynamical sorting that especially effectively could be occurred at formation of limestone beds in Sweden [Cronholm, Schmitz, 2010]. Notes: 1) According to [Schmitz, Häggström, 2006;Häggström, Schmitz, 2007;Cronholm, Schmitz, 2010]; 2) FM и NFM -beds with and without fossil meteorites accordingly; Taking into consideration these data, it is apparently possible to say about increase in a stream of micrometeorites on all Earth after destruction of parental body L-хондритов no more than several times but not on two orders of magnitude above than now. But for all that, the high concentration of fossil meteorites in the south of Sweden is most probably caused by fall of single meteorite shower nearby the Thorsberg quarry about 470 Ma [Alexeev, 2010]. ...
... The meteorites represent a range of petrographic types, 3/4 to 6, and are definitely not just one fall that has been reworked in some way ). Additional support comes from sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial (ordinary chondritic) chromite (EC) grains (>63 µm) from decomposed micrometeorites and meteorites in condensed (i.e., very slowly deposited) limestone in southern Sweden and central China (Schmitz et al. 2003;Schmitz and Häggström 2006;Häggström and Schmitz 2007;Heck et al. 2008;Schmitz et al. 2008). Condensed limestone of mid-to late Arenigian age contains only rare EC grains, on the order 0.01-0.02 ...
Article
Abstract— The Brunflo fossil meteorite was found in the 1950s in mid-Ordovician marine limestone in the Gärde quarry in Jämtland. It originates from strata that are about 5 million years younger than similar limestone that more recently has yielded >50 fossil meteorites in the Thorsberg quarry at Kinnekulle, 600 km to the south. Based primarily on the low TiO2 content (about 1.8 wt%) of its relict chromite the Brunflo meteorite had been tentatively classified as an H chondrite. The meteorite hence appears to be an anomaly in relation to the Kinnekulle meteorites, in which chromite composition, chondrule mean diameter and oxygen isotopic composition all indicate an L-chondritic origin, reflecting an enhanced flux of meteorites to Earth following the disruption of the L chondrite parent body 470 Ma. New chondrule-size measurements for the Brunflo meteorite indicate that it too is an L chondrite, related to the same parent-body breakup. Chromite maximum diameters and well-defined chondrule structures further show that Brunflo belongs to the L4 or L5 type. Chromites in recently fallen L4 chondrites commonly have low TiO2 contents similar to the Brunflo chromites, adding support for Brunflo being an L4 chondrite. The limestone in the Gärde quarry is relatively rich (about 0.45 grain kg−1) in sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite grains (>63 μm) with chemical composition similar to those in L chondrites and the limestone (1–3 grains kg−1) at Kinnekulle, suggesting that the enhanced flux of L chondrites prevailed, although somewhat diminished, at the time when the Brunflo meteorite fell.
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The following is a list of literature pertaining (broadly) to the ‘orthoceratite limestone’ of Sweden and coeval strata of the surrounding geographic region. This list forms a ‘living document’ that will be continually updated, and is by no means claimed to be complete. Many of the older publications can be found for free at PaleoArchive (www.paleoarchive.com).