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Location of tensile and impact test specimens on the welded joint assembly.

Location of tensile and impact test specimens on the welded joint assembly.

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Received 5 May 2009, in revised form 6 August 2009 Abstract. A granular flux, which is used in submerged arc welding, plays an important role in deciding the weld metal quality and it may cost up to half of the total welding consumable cost. A significant percentage of the flux gets converted into very fine particles, termed as flux dust, due to tr...

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... of the test specimens perpendicular to the surface of the plates. Five all-weld metal impact test samples were cut from each welded joint of plates according to the AWS standard A5.23-90. These samples were then fine-polished by the surface grinder. The location of the tensile and impact test specimens in the welded joint assembly is shown in Fig. ...

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This study explores the effect of dilution on grain size and mechanical properties of the weld. In this study, the fluxes were designed using RSM and were made by agglomeration technique. This study reveals that the tensile strength of the weld s increases with increasing weld dilution and the impact strength reduces with increase of dilution.

Citations

... Recycling of fused slag has been suggested as a means of reducing cost of welding flux [4]. The desire to reduce cost has intensified research activities in welding flux development using the waste-to-wealth philosophy [5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... A lot of research activities are directed towards the development of recycling technology that allows the use of slag as fresh flux to mitigate the above problems and also reduce the total cost of welding [3,6,7,9]. A lot of dust (between 10 and 15% of the flux) is generated during the handling and transportation of flux [5]. The flux dust was usually dumped as waste in the past but in recent years research efforts are directed at developing technologies of making use of it in new fluxes [8,37]. ...
... Nested Random Model (NRM) was employed by Achebo [90] to develop welding flux that meet the required weld-metal quality. Taguchi robust design is another DoE method that has been found very useful in many industries including other areas of arc welding but its applicability in welding flux was only discovered recently and its use in flux development is gaining popularity [2,5,16,58,60,61,73,91]. The use of Response Surface Method (RSM) also has been explored recently but its use so far is limited to addition of additives and used slag to new welding flux [6,21,23,59,89]. ...
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Welding flux makes significant contribution to weld-metal quality, productivity of welding process and rapid deployment of new materials. Deployment of new materials has been hampered because of lengthy trial-and-test experiments and paucity of methodology for modelling and optimisation in the traditional welding flux development. This paper discussed the contributions made to mitigate the drawbacks of traditional welding flux development in areas of experimentations, prediction modelling and optimisation. Limitations of current efforts were identified and suggested for future research, namely (i) current response models are limited to well-behaved flux systems and do not account for edge and additive effects of flux ingredients (ii) non-incorporation of stakeholder’s preferences concerning the relative importance of quality attributes (iii) lack of prediction and optimisation tools for determining optimal coating factor and flux heights for Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Submerge Arc Welding respectively and (iv) non-continuous response functions and concave regions of the trade-off surface are not considered.
... To increase manganese content in the weld, metal Ferromanganese was added. Titanium powder, Ferro-manganese, and Ferro-silicon were added as deoxidizers [10][11][12][13][14]. The various minerals/oxides used for modification of steel slag as a welding flux and their functions are given below: ...
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The slag generated by the steel plant has been utilized to produce submerged arc welding flux. The flux produced by recycling steel slag has been applied in the submerged arc welding process. The effects of recycled slag on the chemical composition, microhardness, and microstructure of weld metal have been evaluated. For chemical composition, weld pads were prepared and beads on plates for bead geometry were deposited. It has been found that the chemistry of welds deposited using recycled steel slag is acceptable in accordance with ASME specifications. It is further observed that the addition of 10% CaCO3, 20% SiO2, and 6% MnO to the steel slag during recycling provided 0.10% carbon, 0.11% Si, and 0.8% Mn, respectively, in the weld metal. The microstructure of welds produced using recycled steel slag contains acicular ferrite which is desirable for improved tensile and impact strength. The microhardness of weld metal prepared using recycled steel slag is 220.9 VHN, which is more than that of weld metal deposited with fresh flux. Smooth surface appearance and desirable bead profile having deeper penetration were obtained. It is interesting to note that the cost of recycled steel slag is economical by 62% in comparison with equivalent virgin flux available in the market. The developed technology after fine-tuning will be transferred to the industry for practical applications.
... In addition, Dalgobind Mahto and Anjani found that there was a possibility to recycle the waste slag [8]. On the other hand, Vinod developed agglomerated acidic flux with wasted flux dust to reduce the cost and pollution that happened due to transportation and handling [9]. Moreover, Dae-Won Cho et al. (2013) suggested a new way to describe the molten pool flows in single-electrode SAW process by using three-dimensional simulation of heat transfer in the molten slag as heat input [10]. ...
... Arc stability is a common measure of the average voltage variation around the set potential during welding. A stable arc is needed to produce high quality claddings free from defects such as slag entrapment, porosity, blow holes and lack of proper fusion [16,17]. In submerged arc welding, flux is a fundamental ingredient on which the arc stability depends. ...
... However the arc stability of recycled slag was quite good and comparable with that of the fresh flux. It is due to the addition of elements such as potassium silicate and calcium carbonate to the recycled slag which are known for their ability to improve arc stability [17,36]. ...
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... According with Kumanan et al. [2], Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) is one of the oldest automatic welding processes introduced in the decade 30's of the last century to provide high quality of weld. It has become a natural choice in fabrication industries because of its high reliability, smooth finish and high productivity [3]. This process is highly efficient and one of the most widely used fusion welding processes in plate and structural work such as shipbuilding, bridge building, and in the fabrication of pressure vessel, rail tanks, pipes and heat exchangers among the extremely wide range of work-pieces where it can be employed [3][4][5]. ...
... It has become a natural choice in fabrication industries because of its high reliability, smooth finish and high productivity [3]. This process is highly efficient and one of the most widely used fusion welding processes in plate and structural work such as shipbuilding, bridge building, and in the fabrication of pressure vessel, rail tanks, pipes and heat exchangers among the extremely wide range of work-pieces where it can be employed [3][4][5]. In addition, the process is particularly effective for cladding applications, e.g., when surfacing mild carbon steel with stainless steel materials, or when depositing hard materials on a softer substrate [5]. ...
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... On the basis of the above one can predict the reaction in the weld pool and finally the composition of the weld metal. Kumar et al. (2010)Developed acidic fluxes from the dust of various commercial acidic fluxes and compared the chemical composition and mechanical properties of all the weld metal. In this study they discussed the transfer of various elements like C, Mn, Si, Cr, Mo and it was found that the composition of weld metal made by dust were in the same range as that of parent commercial fluxes. ...
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... On the basis of the above one can predict the reaction in the weld pool and finally the composition of the weld metal. Kumar et al. (2010)Developed acidic fluxes from the dust of various commercial acidic fluxes and compared the chemical composition and mechanical properties of all the weld metal. In this study they discussed the transfer of various elements like C, Mn, Si, Cr, Mo and it was found that the composition of weld metal made by dust were in the same range as that of parent commercial fluxes. ...
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Submerged arc welding is widely used in the fabrication of pressure vessels, pipe lines and offshore structures because of its higher metal deposition rate, good strength of the joint and good surface appearance. The properties of the welded joint such as strength, toughness can be improved by controlling the microstructure of the welded joint. The element transfer from the flux has major influence on weld metal composition and weld metal properties. To predict weld metal properties, it is necessary to determine the weld composition, which primarily depends upon wire, flux, parent metal, slag metal reactions, process parameters, dilution and electrochemical reactions. Numerous investigators have attempted to determine, which flux components are of most importance in establishing the final weld chemistry. The weld chemistry is decided by the metallurgical reactions in SAW but to decide the extent of metallurgical reaction in saw is very difficult because of large variations in cycle temperature, reaction time, high heat input. In SAW due to short reaction time during SAW the reaction is not reached to its thermodynamic equilibrium, so the exact prediction of weld metal chemistry is difficult. The purpose of this literature review is to focus on an innovative approach which is needed while deciding weld chemistry. It would be worthwhile if one could develop a frame work to predict the Mn, Si, carbon, oxygen and other elements in the final weld metal, from a given combination of electrode, flux and base metal. The work done so far on Element transfer study is very limited.Much published information is not available about fluxes made by Industry professionals as they do not disclose the composition of the flux for which they claim higher strength and better mechanical properties. This literature review will provide the basis for researchers in the field of SAW.
... For the preparation of fluxes, constituting elements were weighed separately on a digital weighing balance (accuracy 1 mg) according to the weight percentage shown in Table 1 and then mixed thoroughly in a container with sodium silicate binder (20% weight) [24][25][26] for about 30 min to get homogenous semi-solid mass. Sodium silicate is added for better arc stability and binding the individual ingredients together. ...
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Fluxes in submerged arc welding of high-strength low-alloy steels are not readily available, flux compositions are not clear and compositions are patented. This study aims at the design, development and optimization of flux for submerged arc welding of high-strength low-alloy steel. Extreme vertices design suggested by McLean and Anderson is used to formulate twenty-one fluxes to study the effect of flux constituents on tensile strength, percentage elongation, impact strength, diffusible hydrogen content and microstructure of the weld metal. Mathematical models for ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation, impact strength and diffusible hydrogen content for welded specimens versus flux constituents have been developed. From the experiments, it is found that tensile strength and elongation are affected the most with Al2O3 content, whereas CaO and CaF2 contents have significant effect on impact strength. Synergic binary effect of CaO center dot CaF2, CaO center dot MgO and Al2O3 center dot CaF2 mixtures is more than other binary mixtures on the mechanical properties. Developed regression models have been checked for adequacy using t-test for regression coefficients and analysis of variance (F-test) for whole regression equation. Finally, optimum flux composition giving optimum mechanical and microstructural characteristics is suggested.
... For preparation of fluxes, constituting elements were weighed separately on digital weighing balance according to weight percentage as per Table 1 and mixed thoroughly in a container with sodium silicate binder (20% weight) [18,19,20]. ...
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Large joint areas with fewer passes and minimal preparation with high deposition rates is possible in submerged arc welding. Deposition rates approaching 45 kg/h have been reported this compares to 5 kg/h (max) for shielded metal arc welding. In general, one kg of flux is consumed for every kg of weld metal deposited in submerged arc welding. There are two important parameters in submerged arc welding, the flux and the wire, that may be supplied separately. The arc, end of electrode and molten pool remain completely hidden are invisible being submerged under a blanket of flux. A general problem that may occur is the absorption of moisture by the fluxes during storage. The amount of moisture absorbed being dependent upon the atmospheric conditions and time of exposure. Sometimes moisturized flux generated during submerged arc welding is thrown away as a waste. The study revealed to recycle the moisturized flux. Moisturized flux has been processed in such a manner that allows it to be used as a flux. Additionally it is always important and useful to reduce waste and to move towards "ZERO WASTE CONCEPT".