Location map showing the geographic location and tectonic setting of the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau (SR–PP) within the Himalayan orogenic belt in northern India and Pakistan. National boundaries: short-dashed lines. Principal structural boundaries: HKS = Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, ISZ = Indus Suture Zone, MBT = Main Boundary Thrust, MFT = Main Frontal Thrust, MKT = Main Karakoram Thrust. Box shows area of Fig. 2. (Map after Baker et al., 1988.)

Location map showing the geographic location and tectonic setting of the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau (SR–PP) within the Himalayan orogenic belt in northern India and Pakistan. National boundaries: short-dashed lines. Principal structural boundaries: HKS = Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, ISZ = Indus Suture Zone, MBT = Main Boundary Thrust, MFT = Main Frontal Thrust, MKT = Main Karakoram Thrust. Box shows area of Fig. 2. (Map after Baker et al., 1988.)

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We use scaled physical analog (centrifuge) modeling to investigate along- and across-strike structural variations in the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau of the Himalayan foreland fold-thrust belt of Pakistan. The models, composed of interlayered plasticine and silicone putty laminae, comprise four mechanical units representing the Neoproterozoic Salt...

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... Hills are steeper at higher elevations which results in more drought conditions as little water is available to plants (Ashraf et al., 2017). Salinity is severe at foothills, where runoff water carries salts from exposed surfaces of salt mines (Faisal and Dixon, 2015). As a result, overall growth and development of plants is significantly affected along with increase in elevation (Edwards and Still, 2008;Ahmad et al., 2016b). ...
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The adaptability potential of plants enables them to colonize diverse habitats along elevation gradients. Studying these adaptive traits and linking them to environmental attributes provide useful information to understand limitations imposed by elevation gradients on distribution of plant species. To meet these objectives, six most dominant perennial grass species with broad distributional ranges along an elevation gradient from 300-1400 m a.s.l in northern Punjab (Pakistan) were selected for the present study. Dominance of different grass species were linked to proportion of parenchyma, sclerification of aerial plant parts, size of vascular tissue, leaf thickness, and size and density of trichomes. Chrysopogon serrulatus dominated all elevations except the highest one, which was directly linked to increased root area and high proportion of storage parenchyma, vascular region, large metaxylem vessels, increased sclerification in aerial parts, and size and density of trichomes. Cymbopogon jwarancusa dominated lower and middle elevations (300-1000 m) and exhibited increased sclerification in stem and leaves, higher vascular bundle area, and, increased leaf sheath thickness. Lognormal distribution exhibited a non-linear response for eco-morphological and physiological characteristics with decreasing pattern along increase in elevation. Physiological traits responded negatively in response to climatic variables. Root anatomical traits exhibited nonlinear response at lower elevation, while stem traits responded positively at medium ele-vational gradients (700-1000 m). Leaf sheath showed positive response with elevation and temperature. In conclusion, morpho-physiological and anatomical modifications were specific to grasses studied, which contributed differently towards growth and survival along elevation gradient.
... Salt-bearing fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs), such as the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, the South Pyrenean FTB, the Zagros FTB and the Kuqa FTB, are widely developed in foreland basins worldwide, which are always characterized by low wedge taper, long deformation zone, and symmetrical structures (Davis and Engelder, 1985;Baker et al., 1988;Vergés et al., 1992;Mouthereau et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2011;Frehner et al., 2012;Reif et al., 2012;Ghani et al., 2018;Izquierdo-Llavall et al., 2018;Muñoz et al., 2018;Riaz et al., 2019). Previous studies suggest that the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of salt tectonics in FTBs are mainly controlled by salt distribution, salt thickness, syntectonic sedimentation and basement structures (e.g., basement fault, ramp and paleo-uplift) (Stewart, 1996;Cotton and Koyi, 2000;Costa and Vendeville, 2002;Bahroudi and Koyi, 2003;Konstantinosvskaya et al., 2009;Vidal-Royo et al., 2009;Ter Borgh et al., 2011;Farzipour-Saein et al., 2013;Fillon et al., 2013;Farzipour-Saein and Koyi, 2014;Wu et al., 2014;Faisal and Dixon, 2015;Farzipour-Saein, 2017;Rosas et al., 2017;Borderie et al., 2018;Pla et al., 2019). The basement structures include base-salt relief that developed due to folding and faulting that is also named as paleo-uplift . ...
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Paleo-uplift is one of the main controlling factors that influence the style of deformation in salt-bearing fold-and-thrust belt (FTB). Whereas, how paleo-uplift amplitude influences salt-related deformations in FTB remains unclear. Here we designed four series of experimental models that contain a basal brittle décollement and a shallow ductile décollement. Our studies show that the presence of paleo-uplift in the ductile décollement has a profound impact on deformation propagation in the supra-salt overburden during the contraction, which localizes shortening strain in the proximal and central parts of the models and deters rapid deformation propagation towards the distal part. As the amplitude of the paleo-uplift increases, its influence on deformation propagation becomes stronger, resulting in out-of-sequence deformation towards the hinterland. The increase of paleo-uplift amplitude also controls the distribution and migration of rock salt during the contraction. Particularly, when the paleo-uplift height equals or exceeds the thickness of salt layer, the position of salt pinch-out or welding point localizes shortening strain and thereby initiates folding and thrusting deformation over the salt-base high. This process leads to salt fed into the fold and fault belt over the paleo-high and the uplift of the supra-salt layers. Our modeling results are highly comparable with natural examples of Kuqa FTB and provide insights to the salt-influenced deformations in the Qiulitage structural belt.
... The study area, Islamabad is located between Longitude [14] II. METHODOLOGY ...
... The study area, Islamabad is located between Longitude [14] II. METHODOLOGY ...
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- The location of Pakistan is in a collision zone among the Eurasian and Indian plate boundaries. The geological framework of the Northwest Himalaya makes Northern Pakistan susceptible to frequent moderate to major earthquakes. The devastating earthquake of October 8, 2005 caused 87,000 deaths, 2.8 million displacements and financial loss of 200 Billion USD equivalent to 6% GDP of Pakistan. Islamabad is in seismically active region, the studies conducted for this region addresses the poor soil conditions, nonengineering construction practices and high level of seismic shaking. However, none of these studies provided readily available ground maps (top 30m time average shear wave velocity Vs30, average soil shear wave velocity Vsz & depth to bed rock Dbed rock) based on site specific geotechnical database. Vs30, Vsz & Dbed rock are important parameters for the evaluation of dynamic site characteristics of shallow bed rock sites. In Pakistan, Uniform Building Code (UBC-1997) is currently practiced, and the site classification are defined using site specific Vs30. In this study, geotechnical borehole database of 57 sites of Islamabad was collected to develop GIS based Vs30, Vsz & Dbed rock maps using Standard Penetration Test value (SPT-N). The borehole database includes, SPT-N, soil description and unit weight of soil for the Islamabad sites. In order to develop shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles, the available Vs-SPT empirical correlations were evaluated where both SPT-N & Vs measured data is available. The average of selected bounding correlations was applied to SPT-N database to develop representative Vs profiles. Using these Vs profiles, Vs30, Vsz & Dbed rock GIS based maps were developed by applying Kriging interpolation in open source QGIS software. The proposed GIS maps can be used in preliminary earthquake design for seismic resilient earthquake design in Islamabad, Pakistan.
... The study area, Islamabad is located between Longitude [14] II. METHODOLOGY ...
Article
Full-text available
The location of Pakistan is in a collision zone among the Eurasian and Indian plate boundaries. The geological framework of the Northwest Himalaya makes Northern Pakistan susceptible to frequent moderate to major earthquakes. The devastating earthquake of October 8, 2005 caused 87,000 deaths, 2.8 million displacements and financial loss of 200 Billion USD equivalent to 6% GDP of Pakistan. Islamabad is in seismically active region, the studies conducted for this region addresses the poor soil conditions, non-engineering construction practices and high level of seismic shaking. However, none of these studies provided readily available ground maps (top 30m time average shear wave velocity Vs30, average soil shear wave velocity Vsz & depth to bed rock Dbed rock) based on site specific geotechnical database. Vs30, Vsz & Dbed rock are important parameters for the evaluation of dynamic site characteristics of shallow bed rock sites. In Pakistan, Uniform Building Code (UBC-1997) is currently practiced, and the site classification are defined using site specific Vs30. In this study, geotechnical borehole database of 57 sites of Islamabad was collected to develop GIS based Vs30, Vsz & Dbed rock maps using Standard Penetration Test value (SPT-N). The borehole database includes, SPT-N, soil description and unit weight of soil for the Islamabad sites. In order to develop shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles, the available Vs-SPT empirical correlations were evaluated where both SPT-N & Vs measured data is available. The average of selected bounding correlations was applied to SPT-N database to develop representative Vs profiles. Using these Vs profiles, Vs30, Vsz & Dbed rock GIS based maps were developed by applying Kriging interpolation in open source QGIS software. The proposed GIS maps can be used in preliminary earthquake design for seismic resilient earthquake design in Islamabad, Pakistan.
... The inset map shows location of the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau (SR-PP) within the Himalayan orogenic belt. ISZ = Indus Suture Zone, MKT = Main Karakoram Thrust, HKS = Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, MBT = Main Boundary Thrust, MFT = Main Frontal Thrust (modified after[34][35][36]). ...
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The Salt Range, in Pakistan, preserves an insightful sedimentary record of passive margin dynamics along the NW margin of the Indian Plate during the Mesozoic. This study develops provenance analyses of the Upper Triassic (Kingriali Formation) to Lower Jurassic (Datta Formation) siliciclastics from the Salt and Trans Indus ranges based on outcrop analysis, petrography, bulk sediment elemental geochemistry, and heavy-mineral data. The sandstones are texturally and compositionally mature quartz arenites and the conglomerates are quartz rich oligomictic conglomerates. Geochemical proxies support sediment derivation from acidic sources and deposition under a passive margin setting. The transparent heavy mineral suite consists of zircon, tourmaline, and rutile (ZTR) with minor staurolite in the Triassic strata that diminishes in the Jurassic strata. Together, these data indicate that the sediments were supplied by erosion of the older siliciclastics of the eastern Salt Range and adjoining areas of the Indian Plate. The proportion of recycled component exceeds the previous literature estimates for direct sediment derivation from the Indian Shield. A possible increase in detritus supply from the Salt Range itself indicates notably different conditions of sediment generation, during the Triassic–Jurassic transition. The present results suggest that, during the Triassic–Jurassic transition in the Salt Range, direct sediment supply from the Indian Shield was probably reduced and the Triassic and older siliciclastics were exhumed on an elevated passive margin and reworked by a locally established fluvio-deltaic system. The sediment transport had a north-northwestward trend parallel to the northwestern Tethyan margin of the Indian Plate and normal to its opening axis. During the Late Triassic, hot and arid hot-house palaeoclimate prevailed in the area that gave way to a hot and humid greenhouse palaeoclimate across the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary. Sedimentological similarity between the Salt Range succession and the Neo-Tethyan succession exposed to the east on the northern Indian passive Neo-Tethyan margin suggests a possible westward extension of this margin.
... This may (partially) explain the significant differences of deformation between folded Lower Devonian to lowermost Upper Devonian of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup (Vogt, 1938;Piepjohn et al., 1997;Michaelsen et al., 1997;Michaelsen, 1998;, strongly sheared uppermost Devonian-Mississippian strata of the Billefjorden Group (Fig. 4b), and poorly deformed to gently tilted uppermost Devonian-Permian strata of the Billefjorden and Gipsdalen groups in central Spitsbergen (e.g., Braathen et al., 2011) without a short-lived episode of Ellesmerian contraction in the Late Devonian. The lack of uppermost Devonian-Mississippian coals and coaly shales of the Billefjorden Group directly on top of folded Lower (-lowermost Upper?) Devonian sedimentary rocks above the mine entrance in Pyramiden may suggest that uppermost Devonian-Mississippian coals-coaly shales were too thin or too localized (syn-rift?) to allow décollements to ramp all the way up to the mine entrance or that early Cenozoic Eurekan contraction-transpression was too mild to form a complete ramp-anticline (assuming that the Balliolbreen Fault is present in Pyramiden) with roof décollement over Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks (e.g., Faisal and Dixon, 2015). ...
... Based on field data, backward-dipping duplexes and bedding-parallel décollements in uppermost Devonian-Mississippian coals and coaly shales of the Billefjorden Group in Pyramiden are believed to have formed through a combination of at least two or more mechanisms, including Devonian rocks of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup acting as a relatively rigid buttress to the west (e.g., Fig. 5g), fault-propagation folding of a preexisting fault (or faults) like the Balliolbreen Fault and/or Odellfjellet Fault (although not very likely), shortcut faulting propagating upwards and westwards from the Billefjorden Fault Zone (e.g., Buiter and Pfiffner, 2003), ramp or fault-bend hanging wall anticline with roof décollement (e.g., Faisal and Dixon, 2015), and imbricate fan with basal décollement in the Billefjorden Trough (e.g., Ringset and Andresen, 1988;Tormod Henningsen et al., personal communication, 2019). ...
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The present study of field, petrological, exploration well, and seismic data describes backward-dipping duplexes comprised of phyllitic coal and bedding-parallel décollements and thrusts localized along lithological transitions in tectonically thickened Lower Devonian to lowermost Upper Devonian; uppermost Devonian–Mississippian; and uppermost Pennsylvanian–lowermost Permian sedimentary strata of the Wood Bay and/or Wijde Bay and/or Grey Hoek formations; of the Billefjorden Group; and of the Wordiekammen Formation, respectively. The study shows that these structures partially decoupled uppermost Devonian–Permian sedimentary rocks of the Billefjorden and Gipsdalen groups from Lower Devonian to lowermost Upper Devonian rocks of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup during early Cenozoic Eurekan deformation in central Spitsbergen. Eurekan strain decoupling along these structures explains differential deformation between Lower Devonian to lowermost Upper Devonian rocks of the Andrée Land Group and/or Mimerdalen Subgroup and overlying uppermost Devonian–Permian sedimentary strata of the Billefjorden and Gipsdalen groups in central–northern Spitsbergen without requiring an episode of (Ellesmerian) contraction in the Late Devonian. Potential formation mechanisms for bedding-parallel décollements and thrusts include shortcut faulting and/or formation as a roof décollement in a fault-bend hanging wall (or ramp) anticline, as an imbricate fan, as an antiformal thrust stack, and/or as fault-propagation folds over reactivated or overprinted basement-seated faults. The interpretation of seismic data in Reindalspasset indicates that Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup might be preserved east of the Billefjorden Fault Zone, suggesting that the Billefjorden Fault Zone did not accommodate reverse movement in the Late Devonian. Hence, the thrusting of Proterozoic basement rocks over Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks along the Balliolbreen Fault and fold structures within strata of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup in central Spitsbergen may be explained by a combination of down-east Carboniferous normal faulting with associated footwall rotation and exhumation, and subsequent top-west early Cenozoic Eurekan thrusting along the Billefjorden Fault Zone. Finally, the study shows that major east-dipping faults, like the Billefjorden Fault Zone, may consist of several discrete, unconnected (soft-linked and/or stepping) or, most probably, offset fault segments that were reactivated or overprinted to varying degrees during Eurekan deformation due to strain partitioning and/or decoupling along sub-orthogonal NNE-dipping reverse faults.
... Taken together, these ranges are known as the Trans Indus . In contrast to the Kohat FTB, the Potwar FTB has a lower degree of internal deformation in the southern part, characterized by a single thrust sheet that has translated above the Salt Range thrust (SRT) ramp, forming a topographically-pronounced range front known as the Salt Range (Baker et al., 1988;Qayyum et al., 2015;Faisal and Dixon, 2015;Ghani et al., 2018). The strike-slip Kalabagh Fault Zone (KFZ) bounds the Surghar and Salt Ranges (Figs. 1-2) (McDougall and Khan, 1990;Ghani et al., 2018). ...
Article
The Kohat fold and thrust belt in Pakistan shows a significantly different structural style due to the structural evolution of the double décollement compared to the rest of the Subhimalaya. In order to better understand the spatio-temporal structural evolution of the Kohat fold and thrust belt, we combine balanced cross sections with apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) dating. The AHe and AFT ages appear to be totally reset, allowing us to date exhumation above structural ramps. The results suggest that deformation began on the frontal Surghar thrust at ∼15 Ma, predating or coeval with the development of the Main Boundary thrust at ∼12 Ma. Deformation propagated southward from the Main Boundary thrust on double décollements between 10 Ma and 2 Ma, resulting in a disharmonic structural style inside the Kohat fold and thrust belt. Thermal modeling of the thermochronologic data suggest that samples inside Kohat fold and thrust belt experienced cooling due to formation of the duplexes; this deformation facilitated tectonic thickening of the wedge and erosion of the Miocene to Pliocene foreland strata. The spatial distribution of AHe and AFT ages in combination with the structural forward model suggest that, in the Kohat fold and thrust belt, the wedge deformed in-sequence as a supercritical wedge (∼15-12 Ma), then readjusted by out-sequence deformation (∼12-0 Ma) within the Kohat fold and thrust belt into a sub-critical wedge.
... Through this process, the length of the roof sequence (uppermost Devonian-Permian sedimentary strata) remains essentially the same, whereas the length of the floor sequence (Lowerlowermost Upper Devonian rocks of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup) decreases 670 through intense folding (Bonini, 2001). This may (partially) explain the significant differences of deformation between folded Lower-lowermost Upper Devonian of the Andrée Land Group/Mimerdalen Subgroup (Vogt, 1938;Piepjohn et al., 1997;Michaelsen et al., 1997;Michaelsen, 1998;Piepjohn, 2000), strongly sheared uppermost Devonian-Mississippian strata of the Billefjorden Group (Figure 3b), and poorly deformed to gently tilted Mississippian coals-coaly shales were too thin or too localized (syn-rift?) to allow décollements to ramp all the way up to the mine entrance or that early Cenozoic Eurekan contraction-transpression was too mild to form a complete ramp-anticline (assuming that the Balliolbreen Fault is present in Pyramiden) with roof décollement over Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks (e.g., Faisal and Dixon, 2015). Buiter and Pfiffner, 2003), ramp/fault-bend hanging wall anticline with roof décollement (e.g., Faisal and Dixon, 2015), and 705 imbricate fan with basal décollement in the Billefjorden Trough (e.g., Ringset and Andresen, 1988;Henningsen et al., pers. ...
... This may (partially) explain the significant differences of deformation between folded Lower-lowermost Upper Devonian of the Andrée Land Group/Mimerdalen Subgroup (Vogt, 1938;Piepjohn et al., 1997;Michaelsen et al., 1997;Michaelsen, 1998;Piepjohn, 2000), strongly sheared uppermost Devonian-Mississippian strata of the Billefjorden Group (Figure 3b), and poorly deformed to gently tilted Mississippian coals-coaly shales were too thin or too localized (syn-rift?) to allow décollements to ramp all the way up to the mine entrance or that early Cenozoic Eurekan contraction-transpression was too mild to form a complete ramp-anticline (assuming that the Balliolbreen Fault is present in Pyramiden) with roof décollement over Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks (e.g., Faisal and Dixon, 2015). Buiter and Pfiffner, 2003), ramp/fault-bend hanging wall anticline with roof décollement (e.g., Faisal and Dixon, 2015), and 705 imbricate fan with basal décollement in the Billefjorden Trough (e.g., Ringset and Andresen, 1988;Henningsen et al., pers. comm. ...
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The present study of field, petrological, exploration well and seismic data shows that backward-dipping duplexes comprised of phyllitic coal and bedding-parallel décollements and thrusts, which 15 localized along lithological transitions in tectonically thickened Lower-lowermost Upper Devonian, uppermost Devonian-Mississippian and uppermost Pennsylvanian-lowermost Permian sedimentary strata of the Wood Bay and/or Widje Bay and/or Grey Hoek formations, of the Billefjorden Group and of the Wordiekammen Formation respectively, partially decoupled uppermost Devonian-Permian sedimentary rocks of the Billefjorden and Gipsdalen groups from 20 Lower-lowermost Upper Devonian rocks of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen Subgroup during early Cenozoic Eurekan deformation in central Spitsbergen. Eurekan strain decoupling along these structures explains differential deformation between Lower-lowermost Upper Devonian rocks of the Andrée Land Group/Mimerdalen Subgroup and overlying uppermost Devonian-Permian sedimentary strata of the Billefjorden and Gipsdalen groups in central-northern 25 Spitsbergen without requiring an episode of (Ellesmerian) contraction in the Late Devonian. Potential formation mechanisms for bedding-parallel décollements and thrusts include shortcut faulting, and/or formation as a roof décollement in a fault-bend hanging wall (or ramp) anticline, as an imbricate fan, as an antiformal thrust stack, and/or as fault-propagation folds over reactivated/overprinted basement-seated faults. The interpretation of seismic data in 30 Reindalspasset indicates that Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Andrée Land Group and https://doi.org/10.5194/se-2020-165 This is just a preview and not the published preprint. c Author(s) 2020. CC-BY 4.0 License. 2 Mimerdalen Subgroup might be preserved east of the Billefjorden Fault Zone, suggesting that the Billefjorden Fault Zone did not accommodate reverse movement in the Late Devonian. Hence, the thrusting of Proterozoic basement rocks over Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks along the Balliolbreen Fault and fold structures within strata of the Andrée Land Group and Mimerdalen 35 Subgroup in central Spitsbergen may be explained by a combination of down-east Carboniferous normal faulting with associated footwall rotation and exhumation, and subsequent top-west early Cenozoic Eurekan thrusting along the Billefjorden Fault Zone. Finally, the study shows that major east-dipping faults, like the Billefjorden Fault Zone, may consists of several, discrete, unconnected (soft-linked and/or stepping) or, most probably, offset fault segments that were 40 reactivated/overprinted with varying degree during Eurekan deformation due to strain partitioning and/or decoupling along sub-orthogonal NNE-dipping reverse faults.
... We can thus propose that the abrupt change of coupling induces a local increase of deviation stress associated with this seismicity swarm. (Faisal & Dixon, 2015) and interpretation of the present-day deformation according to the existence or lack of massive salt layers. ...
Article
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We used episodic GNSS measurements to quantify the present‐day velocity field in the northwestern Himalaya from the Himalayan foreland to the Karakoram Range. We report a progressive N‐S compressional velocity gradient with two noticeable exceptions: in the Salt Range, where important southward velocities are recorded, and in Nanga Parbat, where an asymmetrical E‐W velocity gradient is recorded. A review of Quaternary slip along active thrusts both in and out of sequence allows us to propose a 14 mm/yr shortening rate. This constraint, together with a geometrical model of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), allows us to propose estimations of the slip distributions along the active faults. The lower flat of the MHT is characterized by ductile slip, whereas the coupling increases along the crustal ramp and along the upper flat of the MHT. The basal thrust of the Potwar Plateau and Salt Range presents weak coupling, which is interpreted as the existence of a massive salt layer forming an excellent décollement. In the central part of the frontal Salt Range, the velocities suggest the existence of a southward horizontal flux in the massive salt layer. The simulations also suggest that the velocities recorded in Nanga Parbat can be explained by active westward thrusting along the fault that borders the massif to the west. Simulations suggest that the slip along this fault evolves with depth from 5 mm/yr ductile slip near the MHT to no slip along the upper part of the fault.