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Local darkness (LD 0 ) averaged across participants versus pupil diameter change PC 1 averaged across participants for the images of five themes in Experiment 1.

Local darkness (LD 0 ) averaged across participants versus pupil diameter change PC 1 averaged across participants for the images of five themes in Experiment 1.

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Several papers by Eckhard Hess from the 1960s and 1970s report that the pupils dilate or constrict according to the interest value, arousing content, or mental demands of visual stimuli. However, Hess mostly used small sample sizes and undocumented luminance control. In a first experiment (N = 182) and a second preregistered experiment (N = 147), w...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... example, the two 'Male' images yielded low LD 0 , because participants initially looked at the body of the male, which was bright, and not at the dark background. Figure 5 shows a scatter plot of LD 0 averaged across participants versus PC 1 averaged across participants. The strong correlation (Pearson's r = .89, ...
Context 2
... Video and sound of a continuous sequence of 24 slide changes were recorded at 50 Hz with the camera positioned in front of the viewing aperture of the box and pointing towards the projection screen (see Figure D5 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, middle for the corresponding camera view). 3) The luminance of the projection screen (defined as the amount of light reflected from a surface) was measured during a sequence of 24 slide changes using a luminance meter (Konica Minolta LS-150) positioned in front of the viewing aperture and pointing towards the middle of the projection screen (see Figure D6 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, middle for the corresponding view from the location of the luminance meter -that is, the same as in Measurement series 2). ...
Context 3
... The luminance of the projection screen (defined as the amount of light reflected from a surface) was measured during a sequence of 24 slide changes using a luminance meter (Konica Minolta LS-150) positioned in front of the viewing aperture and pointing towards the middle of the projection screen (see Figure D6 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, middle for the corresponding view from the location of the luminance meter -that is, the same as in Measurement series 2). (4) Videos of 24 pushbutton presses were recorded at 1000 Hz, together with the projection of the slide on the screen, in batches of three slide changes, with the camera positioned in front of the viewing aperture of the box (see Figure 5 for the experimental configuration and Figure 7, bottom for a corresponding camera view). ...
Context 4
... frame from the Western video clip used in Replication of Study 4 (Hess, 1975b) (Experiment 2). Figure J5. Example of a word stimulus used in Replication of Study 5 (Polt & Hess, 1968) (Experiment 2). ...
Context 5
... the four combinations of low and high valence and arousal, we selected two words from Mohammad's list that scored medium in dominance, appeared in the online Dutch dictionary Van Dale (2019), and had the same meaning in English and Dutch. The words were presented in a black outline of 2-pixel thickness, in Mangal font with a height of 253 pixels (4.5 deg) from the top of the ascenders to the bottom of the descenders (151 pixels or 2.7 deg) when excluding ascenders and descenders) and a width between 387 pixels (6.9 deg) and 1288 pixels (22.7 deg) (see Figure J5 for an example). Table 2 shows the twelve words together with their ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance. ...
Context 6
... example, the two 'Male' images yielded low LD 0 because participants initially looked at the male's body, which was bright, and not at the dark background. Figure 5 shows a scatter plot of LD 0 averaged across participants versus PC 1 averaged across participants. The strong correlation (Pearson's r = .89, ...
Context 7
... Video and sound of a continuous sequence of 24 slide changes were recorded at 50 Hz with the camera positioned in front of the viewing aperture of the box and pointing towards the projection screen (see Figure D5 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, top right, for the corresponding camera view). 3) The luminance of the projection screen (defined as the amount of light reflected from a surface) was measured during a sequence of 24 slide changes using a luminance meter (Konica Minolta LS-150) positioned in front of the viewing aperture and pointing towards the middle of the projection screen (see Figure D6 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, top right, for the corresponding view from the location of the luminance meter -that is, the same as in Measurement series 2). ...
Context 8
... The luminance of the projection screen (defined as the amount of light reflected from a surface) was measured during a sequence of 24 slide changes using a luminance meter (Konica Minolta LS-150) positioned in front of the viewing aperture and pointing towards the middle of the projection screen (see Figure D6 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, top right, for the corresponding view from the location of the luminance meter -that is, the same as in Measurement series 2). (4) Videos of 24 pushbutton presses were recorded at 1000 Hz, together with the projection of the slide on the screen, in batches of three slide changes, with the camera positioned in front of the viewing aperture of the box (see Figure D5 for the experimental configuration and Figure D7, bottom, for a corresponding camera view). ...
Context 9
... J4. Video frame from the Western video clip used in Replication of Study 4 (Hess, 1975b) in Experiment 2. Figure J5. Example of a word stimulus used in Replication of Study 5 (Polt & Hess, 1968) in Experiment 2. ...

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