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Live black soldier fly larvae dispenser.

Live black soldier fly larvae dispenser.

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Article
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Feather pecking is a key welfare challenge in laying hen husbandry. Feeding of live Hermetia illucens larvae could provide a possible solution to reduce feather pecking in hens. This research investigates effects of dispensing live H. illucens larvae to non-beak trimmed older laying hens on production performance, behavior and welfare. Control trea...

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Context 1
... larvae dispenser used during the study was also supplied by Protix B.V. (Dongen, the Netherlands). Design of the dispenser is indicated in Figure 1. The larvae dispenser was designed such that approximately 275 g of live larvae could be dispensed from the four exits of the dispenser (equally and randomly) during a 6 h period. ...
Context 2
... the top of soy-free diet, Group B hens were also provided with 12 g live larvae per hen per day (10% of daily feed intake) using larvae dispenser described in Section 2.2. Larvae were provided at 11.30 am each day, and the dispenser (Figure 1) self-emptied at approximately 5.30 pm. ...

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Beak trimming in laying hens limits the negative consequences of injurious pecking, but could be prohibited by future regulations. This study assessed a combination of management strategies during the rearing period (objects, perches, music, human presence) and laying period (scratching mats, objects, feed fiber supplementation) to raise non-beak-t...

Citations

... The use of insects in chicken diets could be a valid tool, because of their characteristics, to support and promote bird welfare. Indeed, live insects can be considered as an environmental enrichment, as they are able to stimulate the curiosity of poultry as a result of their motility (6). Moreover, it is known that the quality of the substrate in terms of visual, tactile and gustatory appreciation, affects the interest of birds. ...
... Moreover, it is known that the quality of the substrate in terms of visual, tactile and gustatory appreciation, affects the interest of birds. Hence, the larvae's abundance in moisture and fat could be an interesting feed source for poultry, useful to balance their nutrient intake (6,7). Biasato et al. (8) have recently reported an improvement in the welfare of broilers fed diets supplemented with 5% yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) or 5% live black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) (BSFL), as well as an increase in physical activity. ...
... Biasato et al. (8) have recently reported an improvement in the welfare of broilers fed diets supplemented with 5% yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) or 5% live black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) (BSFL), as well as an increase in physical activity. Furthermore, insects are a natural feed source for poultry, and are capable of promoting their foraging behavior, as they capture their attention and reduce the poultry aggressiveness toward conspecifics (6,9). Finally, insects can minimize and valorize food waste, which is a promising substrate for insect feeding (6,(10)(11)(12). ...
Article
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Introduction This research has been aimed at evaluating the effects of live black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) ( Hermetia illucens ) on the growth, slaughtering performance, and blood parameters of medium-growing chickens. Methods A total of 240, 28-day-old, Label Rouge Naked Neck chickens were allotted to four experimental groups, according to the gender (males-females) and to the absence (control group, C) or presence (larvae group, L) of a dietary supplementation with 10% live BSFL, on the basis of the expected average daily feed intake (ADFI) (6 replicates/diet, 10 chickens/replicate). The birds were weighed weekly, and the feed consumption was recorded to calculate the average live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), average daily gain (ADG), and the ADFI. At 82 days of age, 2 birds/replicate (12 birds/diet) were selected and slaughtered. The blood samples were collected, and the carcass traits (carcass, breast, thigh, and organ weights and yields) were assessed. Results and discussions Overall, the administered live BSFL did not impair the growth and slaughtering performance, or the blood traits, while the C females showed a better FCR than the treated ones ( P < 0.05). The live BSFL consumption time was longer for the females than for the males ( P < 0.001). The weight of the immune organs (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) increased as the live BSFL supplementation increased ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, the provision of live BSFL reduced the gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, U/l) activity content in the blood ( P < 0.05). Finally, both the leukocytes (%) and the monocytes (%) were more abundant in the C groups than in the larvae ones ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In short, the supplementation of live BSFL can be used successfully as an environmental enrichment, without affecting the growth performance of male birds. Furthermore, the immune organ activity could be enhanced by the provision of live BSFL.
... This may be particularly important for low-input poultry farming systems particularly in developing countries. There are few reports on the successful inclusion of whole BSFL in poultry diets supporting growth performance (Ipema et al., 2020a,b;Star et al., 2020;Tahamtani et al., 2021) and meat quality including FA profile and protein content in meat (Moula et al., 2018). ...
Article
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A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of feeding defrosted whole black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) to broilers in increasing levels in the ration on blood metabolites, carcass characteristics (CC) and on changes in fatty acid (FA) composition in plasma, muscle and abdominal fat. Day-old chicks (Ross-308; n=252) were assigned to one of four groups each with 6 replicate pens (10-11 birds/pen). The birds were fed either a demand-oriented age-specific control (CON) diet and had no access to BSFL, or fed CON plus BSFL at 10% (L10), 20% (L20) or 30% (L30) of CON feed intake. At weeks (wk) 4 and 6, birds (2 per pen) were slaughtered to collect blood, breast muscle, and abdominal fat samples and to determine CC. Plasma triglyceride concentrations increased in a dose dependent manner with increasing levels of whole BSFL compared with CON (P<0.05). The L30 and L20 had higher plasma non-esterified FA concentrations than CON (P<0.05). There were no differences in slaughter weight and CC between groups (P>0.05). Broilers fed 30% BSFL had the highest saturated FA proportion in plasma, muscle and abdominal fat and the lowest monounsaturated FA proportion in abdominal fat tissue (P<0.05). The levels of total polyunsaturated FA in plasma and abdominal fat were lower in L30 than in CON (P<0.05). In plasma, muscle and abdominal fat, the proportion of conjugated linoleic acid (isomer C18:2cis-9, trans-11) was highest in L30 followed by L20 and L10 compared with CON (P<0.05). Overall, whole BSFL could be included in broiler diets up to 20% to promote sustainability in broiler farming without adverse effects on slaughter weight, meat quality and FA compositions, whereas, the highest inclusion level (i.e. 30%) of whole BSFL in the daily ration was associated with altered FA composition in plasma, fat and meat.
... When feeding insect meal to laying hens, there were minor negative effects, such as a reduction in egg size or an increase in liver size (Brah et al., 2017;Mwaniki et al., 2020). Also, whole BSFL are applicable as poultry feed both in live and dried form (Balolong et al., 2020;Colombino et al., 2021;Irawan et al., 2019) and can additionally improve bird´s welfare (Bellezza Oddon et al., 2021;Ipema et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020). ...
... Previous LCA studies assessed the sustainability of different poultry husbandry conditions and compared the use of different protein sources in feed (Bengtsson and Seddon, 2013;Costantini et al., 2021;Pelletier, 2008), as well as estimated protein conversion of laying hens and broiler chicken (Alexander et al., 2016). There are quite a few studies (Biasato et al., 2016;Dörper et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020) integrating insects in poultry feed to define the efficiency of feed transformation and influence of insects on animal wellbeing and product quality. Since insects have proven in recent years to be a potential alternative and more sustainable source of protein (Hexeberg Rustad, 2016;Maiolo et al., 2020;Oonincx and de Boer, 2012) than conventional proteins like soy or fishmeal, insect integration is intended to improve environmental impact of poultry production. ...
Article
This study presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparing laying hen to broiler chicken production. Sustainability and protein conversion efficiency are considered. The protein-to-protein conversion was calculated per 1t of feed protein consumed by birds and per 1kg of protein in end products for human consumption. Additionally, a part of the commercial feed was replaced by live black soldier fly larvae, reared on Gainesville diet, and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW). Results of the LCA showed significant differences in integrated impacts between different production systems and different chicken feeds but not between different insect feeds. The most environmentally friendly scenario is insect (FVW) fed broiler. In protein conversion efficiency (PCE) assessment, laying hen production achieved better PCE than broiler chicken when protein quality is considered. Main influencing factors on results were feed production, composition, and protein content. Due to many assumptions made, results should be viewed critically.
... This contradiction would be due to the very high level of larvae meal incorporated and their method of analysis. In a recent study, Star et al. (2020) found no significant effect on the Haugh unit with the inclusion of soldier fly larvae in the hen's diet but found the period of their experiment too short. The same authors supported their results by reporting the age and laying phase of their laying hens. ...
Article
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Although the egg is one of the foods offering nutrients of high biological value, the diet of layer chickens can change these characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a long-term dietary replacement of fish meal with maggot meal of black soldier fly larvae on egg quality of hens. A total of 480 one-day-old Isa brown chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatment groups. The groups were named T0 (8% fish meal), T1 (4% maggot meal and 4% fish meal), T2 (6% maggot meal and 2% fish meal), and T3 (8% maggot meal). Each treatment group had 6 replicates of 20 chicks each. Data were collected on the eggshell quality parameters between 22 and 56 weeks of age. The results indicated that egg weight, shell weight, shape index, shell index, egg surface area, egg volume, density, yolk pH, albumen pH, yolk and albumen moisture content, yolk color, and yolk height were not influenced by the use of larval meals. Although the proportion of the yolk increased with age, there was no interaction between the use of fly larvae and the duration of its use for the collected parameters. However, the proportion of albumen, Haugh’s unit in T1 and T3 treatments were higher than those of T0 and T2. The proportion of egg yolk, the yolk to albumen ratio, and the count of cracked eggs of T0 and T2 varied significantly compared to T1 and T3. Total egg fat decreased significantly as a result of the use of maggot meal. Total cholesterol, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and LDL/HDL ratio were lower in groups fed larvae meal, compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of black soldier fly larvae meal during the entire rearing cycle and period of layers did not adversely affect the eggshell quality and nutritional content of the eggs.
... In contrast to the meal form, less is known about the inclusion of unprocessed whole BSFL in poultry rations on acceptance, nutrient intake and utilization, performance and health of the birds. Chickens are excellent foragers of insects as these are among their natural feed sources (Star et al., 2020). Feeding experiments indicated that diets containing insects are highly interesting for poultry species (Moula et al., 2018;Nascimento Filho et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020;Tahamtani et al., 2021). ...
... Chickens are excellent foragers of insects as these are among their natural feed sources (Star et al., 2020). Feeding experiments indicated that diets containing insects are highly interesting for poultry species (Moula et al., 2018;Nascimento Filho et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020;Tahamtani et al., 2021). The use of whole BSFL as feed for poultry may be particularly important in organic farming and low-input systems (e.g., local farming with less feed processing and transportation), and where insect production could be integrated into production cycles (e.g., insects farming with locally available organic residues as feed substrate) (Nyakeri et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Whole BSFL can be fed to broilers not only for decreasing soybean-protein in diets but also to improve animal welfare. How much whole BSFL could be fed to broilers is however unknown. We assessed apparent interest of broilers in eating BSFL when offered with either 10% (L10), 20% (L20) or 30% (L30) of voluntary feed intake (FI) of control chickens (CON) that received no BSFL but age-specific diets. Ross 308 chicks (n=252) were allocated to one of either 4 groups (n=6 pens/group). Time spent by birds for eating their daily portion of larvae (TSL, min) was recorded. Larvae eating rate (LER, g/min) and body weight (BW) adjusted LER of the birds (LER_BW, g BSFL / kg BW and min) were calculated. Similarly, a theoretical feed eating rate (FER, g feed / light period of a day in min) with adjustment for BW (FER_BW) was calculated. Lastly, the ratio of LER:FER was calculated as fold change difference (FCD). Overall, TSL did not differ among 3 groups (P=0.982) expect for the first day (P<0.05), on which L30 spent more time (P<0.05) than did L10 and L20. The L10 had a higher LER than did the L20 and L30 bird (P<0.05). LER increased from 0.03 (d1) to 6.8 g/min (d42) by more than 200 folds. In contrast, LER_BW decreased from 8.9 to 2.9 (g/BW and min) from wk1 to wk6 (P<0.001), and did not depend on the amount of BSFL fed to birds (P=0.138). Although both FI and FER increased linearly over time (P<0.001), provision of BSFL reduced FI and FER in both L10 and L20, and did more so in L30 as compared to CON (P<0.05). FER increased from wk 1 to wk 6 by about 25 folds in CON. In contrast, FER_BW decreased linearly in all four groups over time (P<0.05). While CON had a higher FER_BW than did L30 at wk 1, 3 and 4 (P<0.05), there was no significant difference at wk 5 (P>0.05). The FCD (on average >50) was not influenced by the amount of larvae offered to the birds (P=0.195), but decreased slightly from wk 1 and wk 6 (P.018). We conclude that chickens can consume up to 30% of their voluntary FI as BSFL in just a few minutes. Apparent interest of chickens in BSFL as compared to regular feed is at least 50 times higher, implying the potential of BSFL to be used as an edible environmental enrichment tool.
... In contrast to the meal form, less is known about the inclusion of unprocessed whole BSFL in poultry rations on acceptance, nutrient intake and utilization, performance and health of the birds. Chickens are excellent foragers of insects as these are among their natural feed sources (Star et al., 2020). Feeding experiments indicated that diets containing insects are highly interesting for poultry species (Moula et al., 2018;Nascimento Filho et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020;Tahamtani et al., 2021). ...
... Chickens are excellent foragers of insects as these are among their natural feed sources (Star et al., 2020). Feeding experiments indicated that diets containing insects are highly interesting for poultry species (Moula et al., 2018;Nascimento Filho et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020;Tahamtani et al., 2021). The use of whole BSFL as feed for poultry may be particularly important in organic farming and low-input systems (e.g., local farming with less feed processing and transportation), and where insect production could be integrated into production cycles (e.g., insects farming with locally available organic residues as feed substrate) (Nyakeri et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Meal of Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL), which requires extraction of protein and fat, is a novel protein source for poultry, while unprocessed whole BSFL could even directly be fed to chickens. Newly hatched Ross-308 chicks (n = 252) received whole BSFL at 10% (L10), 20% (L20) or 30% (L30) of voluntary feed intake (FI) of control chickens (CON) that received no BSFL but only age-specific diets (n = 63 birds / group) for 42 days (d). Acceptance and nutrient and energy intake of birds by BSFL and FI were calculated. Plasma metabolites were measured using an automatic enzymatic analyzer, and immunoglobulins with ELISA. Depending on the variable, data were analyzed using ANOVA or repeated measures ANOVA to address treatment, time and interaction effects. Birds consumed all offered larvae. With the exception of d1, time spent by birds eating their daily portion of larvae (TSL, min/pen) did not differ among the larvae supply groups (P = 0.982). The L10 had a higher larvae eating rate (LER) i.e., speed of larvae intake than did L20 and L30 (P < 0.05), implying increased competition for less available BSFL. The ratio of LER to feed eating rate (FER) was greater than 50 fold change difference (FCD), indicating a strong interest of chickens in BSFL over regular feed. Whole BSFL intake up to 30% of voluntary FI did not adversely affect broiler growth (P > 0.05). The L30 had lower total dry matter and metabolizable energy intakes (P < 0.05), although total fat intake was higher in L30 than in CON (P < 0.05). Compared with CON, 30% whole BSFL increased dietary protein-to-energy ratios, plasma uric acid and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations (P < 0.05). We conclude that whole BSFL can be included in broiler rations up to 20% without negatively affecting growth performance and nutrient conversion efficiency, whereas a higher proportion is associated with lower protein utilization efficiency, possibly due to lower total energy intake.
... Among them, black fly soldier (BFS), H. illucens, larvae gained a special status in the last years due to its potential to convert organic waste and manure into high quality and nutritional protein (Sheppard et al., 1994;Van Huis, 2020). For this reason, BFS meal has been used in poultry (Star et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021), pig (Parodi et al., 2021;Tan et al., 2020) and aquaculture (Mohan et al., 2022) industries as feed or manure management. In addition, the high lipid content in BFS larvae has allowed its use in biodiesel production (Elsayed et al., 2020;Jung et al., 2022). ...
Article
The production of alternative proteins to meet the demand of a growing population has accelerated the growth of the market for edible insects. Black fly soldier (BFS) larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) have been widely studied globally due to their high content of fat, protein, and minerals, being mainly used for animal feed. Chemical analysis for determination of its composition is time consuming and laborious. In this work, we have developed predictive models based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI), Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMR) to estimate the total protein content in single and intact BFS larvae. A variable selection step by interval PLS (iPLS) and genetic algorithms (GA) was implemented to improve regression model performance. In addition, BFS larvae hyperspectral images were explored using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), whose results showed the distribution of the different chemical compounds in the larvae. The PLSR and SVMR models reached RMSEP values of 1.57–1.66% and RPD values of 2.0–2.5, indicating a good approximate prediction capacity (% protein range 25.5–43.5%). Variables selected by iPLS obtained better regression models than variables selected by GA, based on the lower absolute error. Chemical maps displayed the heterogeneous protein distribution in single larvae and a batch of larvae. This manuscript demonstrates that NIR-HSI and chemometrics can be implemented as a fast screening method to estimate protein content in single BFS larvae.
... There is potential for insect-derived PAPs to replace soymeal and fishmeal as a more sustainable source of protein in animal feed (Smetana et al., 2019;Gasco et al., 2020). In addition, they are reported to benefit animal health and welfare (Ipema A. F. et al., 2020;Ipema AF. et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020;Mouithys-Mickalad et al., 2021). At present, the demand for insect-derived PAPs is higher than the supply, and the demand is expected to grow 50 times by 2030, globally (Rabobank, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) farming has exponentially increased in recent years due to the ability of its larvae to efficiently convert low-grade organic materials into high-value food, feed, and technical products. There is a need to further improve the efficiency of production, to meet the rising demands for proteins in the feed and food industries under limited resources. One means of improvement is artificial selection, which has been widely applied in plants and in other livestock species. In 2019, a genetic improvement program was started with the aim to increase larval body weight in black soldier fly larvae. In this paper, we present the outcomes of this breeding program after 10, 13, and 16 generations of selection. The performance of the selected body weight line was compared to the base population line over six experimental rounds under different environmental conditions. Under automated production settings, an average increase of +39% in larval weight, +34% in wet crate yield, +26% in dry matter crate yield, +32% in crude protein per crate, and +21% crude fat per crate was achieved in the selected line compared to the base population line. This research demonstrates the potential contribution of artificial selection to improve efficiency when farming black soldier flies in industrial settings. Further research is needed to fully unlock that potential.
... Which ranges between 6-8% of crude protein (Makkar et al., 2014). These findings are in agreement with the findings (Maurer et al., 2016;Ruhnke et al., 2018;Mwaniki et al., 2018;Kawasaki et al., 2019;Dalle Zotte et al., 2019;Mwaniki et al., 2020;Star et al., 2020;Heuel et al., 2021). They noticed that the replacement of powder for dried BSF larvae, whether they were given dried and full fat or partially or completely skimmed or served live to replace soybean meal partially or completely in the diets of laying hens or Japanese quail, that there were no significant differences between the experimental treatments in the percentage of egg production. ...
Article
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of Replacing Black Soldier Fly Larvae Powder With Soybean Meal in the Ration on the Productive Traits of Laying Hens during the period 29-9-2020 to 18-1-2021. Sixty laying hens, 55 weeks old were used randomly divided into 5 treatments, four replicates for each treatments (3 birds per replicates). Experimental treatments were: (T1): control, (T2): BSF larval meal was partially replaced by 25% in the place of Soybean meal, T3: BSF larval meal was partially replaced by 50% in the place of Soybean meal, T4: Partially replace 75% BSF larval powder in soybean meal, T5: completely replace 100% BSF larvae powder. Results showed during the total period of the experiment (56-71) weeks that there were no significant differences between the experiment treatments in the characteristic of egg production percentage (H.D.%), egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio.
... The author concluded that BSF pre-pupae meal may be used as an alternative protein source in layer hen diets with no significant effects on the egg quality, shelf life and production parameters. Mwaniki et al. (2018) also reported that, in laying hens, inclusion of 7.5% defatted BSF larvae meal into their diet from weeks 19 to 27 of age showed significantly higher body weight than other groups.Provision of BSF larvae also had a positive effect on the feather condition of laying hens with intact beaks (Star et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, poultry producers in developing countries are facing problems of high cost and poor quality of poultry feed. Insects are one of the potential protein sources for poultry feed. The use of insects as poultry feed is not in direct competition with human for food consumption. The objective of this paper is to review the current work related to the use of Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae meal as an alternative protein source in poultry feeding. Black soldier fly is a harmless insect serving as an alternative protein source in animal feeding and in the disposal of organic wastes, by-products, and side streams. The results of numerous studies showed that BSF larvae meal could safely and economically be used as protein concentrate in poultry ration. BSF larva contains high calcium and phosphorus and contains about 35-42% crude protein with biological value and comparable amino acid profile to that of soybean meal (SBM). The lysine and methionine contents of BSF larva are comparable to that of meat meal. Recent evidence suggests that the nutritional value of BSF larva is comparable to that of fish meal. Many authors suggested that BSF larvae meal could replace a fish meal or upgrade the nutritive value of SBM in broiler diets without any adverse effect on the production performance. The use of BSF larvae in layers diet resulted in enhanced laying performance and egg qualities. Generally, all the available literature confirms the feasibility of total or partial replacement of fish meal and SBM with BSF larvae Black Soldier Fly Larvae as a Sustainable Source of Protein in Poultry Feeding [90] meal. No negative effects were reported from growing chicks fed on BSF larvae meal. Most of the publications reviewed indicated that the growth of chicks fed with BSF larvae meal was either equivalent or superior to SBM in nutritive value as measured by the production performance of growing and laying birds. Therefore, the inclusion of BSF larvae meal into the poultry feeding system has both economic and environmental benefits.