List of species analyzed, their botanical families, and the forest stratum at novel Castilla forests. Taxonomic classification follows [26,30]. 

List of species analyzed, their botanical families, and the forest stratum at novel Castilla forests. Taxonomic classification follows [26,30]. 

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Novel forests are naturally regenerating forests that have established on degraded lands and have a species composition strongly influenced by introduced species. We studied ecophysiological traits of an introduced species (Castilla elastica Sessé) and several native species growing side by side in novel forests dominated by C. elastica in Puerto R...

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... Moreover, the environment under which tropical forests function has dramatically changed over the past 25 years with the advent of the Anthropocene Epoch-the age of significant human impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems. The manuscripts contained in this special issue present advancements in our approach to the development of policies for effective governance and stewardship [5][6][7][8]; long-term focus for the understanding of ecosystem processes and functions [9][10][11][12][13], novelties given attention to cross-boundary collaborative approaches to science [14][15][16][17], and proposed alternative institutional visions [18] considering the Anthropocene Epoch. ...
... Novel dry forests contribute to the conservation of native plant species on highly degraded lands [14]. • Introduced and native trees can have different resource-investment strategies in tropical novel forests [15]. ...
... Do they occupy distinct or overlapping positions in the leaf economic spectrum? [15] • How different are the denitrification rates in karst forests under dry to sub-humid climatic conditions in the Caribbean Basin? [16] • How can scientific and traditional knowledge, incentive programs, global and local markets, and technology be used to convert planning into productive and sustainable farm and forest activities in Puerto Rico? ...
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The United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) celebrates its 75th Anniversary with the publication of this Special Issue of Forests. This Issue is based on presentations delivered in a symposium held in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 2014. It augments a quarter century of scientific knowledge and capitalizes on a unique set of synergies chartered by a strategy based on shared stewardship, innovative transdisciplinary collaborations, and breakthroughs in science and technology. The manuscripts contained here present advancements in our approach to the development of policies for effective governance and stewardship, long-term focus for the understanding of ecosystem processes and functions, novelties given attention to cross-boundary collaborative approaches to science, and proposed alternative institutional visions in the Anthropocene. As the Institute continues to collaboratively explore new frontiers in science, we recognize advances in forestry, atmospheric sciences, modeling, hydrology, plant physiology, and microbial ecology as core to the understanding of tropical forests in the Anthropocene.
... A long-term focus Brown and Lugo [9], González and Lodge [10], Heartsill-Scalley [11] Attention to all lands and all species Gould et al. [12], Jacobs [13] Science at many scales Fonseca da Silva et al. [14], Medina et al. [15] Experimentation as a way of seeking causality ...
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This Special Issue of Forests is based on papers presented at the 75th anniversary of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry as well as other papers relevant to the topic of the Special Issue. The Institute is but one leg of a conservation relay among cultures and institutions that began in Puerto Rico a millennium ago. The Institute began operations in 1939 and celebrated its 75th anniversary on May, 2014. Over its 75 years of operation, the Institute has focused its research on tropical forests, with the scope of the research expanding over the years. An analysis of the lines of research of the Institute showed that over its history about 69 lines of research have been established and that of the original 17 lines of research between 1939 and 1949, all but one remained active in 2014. This history and continuity of the research program has allowed the Institute to observe ecological phenomena over decades, including the evolving forest structure and functioning on degraded land restoration experiments that began before the formal establishment of the Institute and are now over 80 years old.
Thesis
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Natural rubber for a number of properties superior to synthetic rubber, so it remains to this day an indispensable natural raw material. In view of the vulnerability of the main source of rubber Hevea brasiliensis, it is urgent to search for alternative sources of this raw material. By the beginning of the XIX century, apart from H. brasiliensis, several other species of rubber plants were known, among them, for example, Ficus elastica, Castilla elastica and some others. Rubber from these plants on various scales was used both in the nascent rubber industry, and for experiments on improving the commercial qualities of rubber. The first patent for caoutchouc was issued as far back as 1791. And the patents for non-hevea rubber were issued for the first time in the USA in 1873 and concerned the extraction of rubber and its vulcanization from the Asclepias belonging to the Asclepiadaceae family. In the first half of the 20th century, most patents on non-hevea rubber sources were issued in the USA for the guayule Parthenium argentatum. Two patents of that period were devoted to rubber from plants of the Asteraceae family Chrysothamnus and Solidago leavenworthii. At the same time, patents were issued in the United States on the use of rubber Euphorbia pulcherrima from the Euphorbiaceae family, Crypostegia madagascariensis and C. grandiflora from the Apocynaceae family, Taraxacum kok-saghyz from the Asteraceae family. In the USSR, rubber-bearing plants began to be cultivated in the 1920s, and expeditions to search for rubber plants were undertaken in the 1930s. As a result, in the first half of the 20th century, a number of patents and author's certificates were issued in the USSR relating to the production of rubber from alternative sources such as guayule, Asclepias syriaca, Сhondrilla, Apocynum, Scorzonera tau-saghyz, T. kok-saghyz, Taraxacum hybernum and some other plants. In the second half of the XX century, worldwide interest in non-hevea natural rubber decreased, which was reflected, among other things, in the form of a decline in the number of US patents and USSR copyright certificates. In general, the depth of our patent search for non-hevea rubber and alternative rubber plants was almost two centuries. More than 160 patent documents were found in the form of patents, copyright certificates, and the lists of which is given in supplementary materials. Features of patenting in the Russian Empire, in the USSR and modern Russia are briefly considered. For citation: Kuluev B.R., Sagitov A.M., Knyazev A.V., Muldashev A.A., Baymiev An.K., Milyukova O.G., Kinzyabulatov R.R., Fateryga A.V., Fedyaev V.V., Baymiev Al.K., Lebedev Yu.A., Chemeris A.V. Non-hevea rubber and rubber-bearing plants in the patent documents of past centuries. Biomics. 2018. V.10(3). P.220-246. DOI: 10.31301/2221-6197.bmcs.2018-32
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Natural rubber for a number of properties superior to synthetic rubber, so it remains to this day an indispensable natural raw material. In view of the vulnerability of the main source of rubber Hevea brasiliensis, it is urgent to search for alternative sources of this raw material. By the beginning of the XIX century, apart from H. brasiliensis, several other species of rubber plants were known, among them, for example, Ficus elastica, Castilla elastica and some others. Rubber from these plants on various scales was used both in the nascent rubber industry, and for experiments on improving the commercial qualities of rubber. The first patent for caoutchouc was issued as far back as 1791. And the patents for non-hevea rubber were issued for the first time in the USA in 1873 and concerned the extraction of rubber and its vulcanization from the Asclepias belonging to the Asclepiadaceae family. In the first half of the 20th century, most patents on non-hevea rubber sources were issued in the USA for the guayule Parthenium argentatum. Two patents of that period were devoted to rubber from plants of the Asteraceae family Chrysothamnus and Solidago leavenworthii. At the same time, patents were issued in the United States on the use of rubber Euphorbia pulcherrima from the Euphorbiaceae family, Crypostegia madagascariensis and C. grandiflora from the Apocynaceae family, Taraxacum kok-saghyz from the Asteraceae family. In the USSR, rubber-bearing plants began to be cultivated in the 1920s, and expeditions to search for rubber plants were undertaken in the 1930s. As a result, in the first half of the 20th century, a number of patents and author's certificates were issued in the USSR relating to the production of rubber from alternative sources such as guayule, Asclepias syriaca, Сhondrilla, Apocynum, Scorzonera tau-saghyz, T. kok-saghyz, Taraxacum hybernum and some other plants. In the second half of the XX century, worldwide interest in non-hevea natural rubber decreased, which was reflected, among other things, in the form of a decline in the number of US patents and USSR copyright certificates. In general, the depth of our patent search for non-hevea rubber and alternative rubber plants was almost two centuries. More than 160 patent documents were found in the form of patents, copyright certificates, and the lists of which is given in supplementary materials. Features of patenting in the Russian Empire, in the USSR and modern Russia are briefly considered. For citation: Kuluev B.R., Sagitov A.M., Knyazev A.V., Muldashev A.A., Baymiev An.K., Milyukova O.G., Kinzyabulatov R.R., Fateryga A.V., Fedyaev V.V., Baymiev Al.K., Lebedev Yu.A., Chemeris A.V. Non-hevea rubber and rubber-bearing plants in the patent documents of past centuries. Biomics. 2018. V.10(3). P.220-246. DOI: 10.31301/2221-6197.bmcs.2018-32